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# THE COPPERBELT UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

## NAME: KAMPAMBA KASOLO

SIN: 15000421
LECTURER: MR SIMWINGA
COURSE: EA 351
UNIT B1
1.1 STRESSES
1.1.1 Define terminologies:
1.1.1.1. Stress is the internal force per unit area inside a structural part as a result of external
Tension as the outer edge stretches.
Compression as the inner edge squeezes together.
Shear across the structure as the forces try to split it.
1.1.1.3. Beams are the skeleton structures used for building the body of an aircraft. They give
support and shape of the aircraft.
1.1.1.4. Compressive loads are the opposite of tensile loads and tend to shorten structural
members.
1.1.1.5. Fatigue is where a structure experiences continual reversals of loading and will fail at a
1.1.1.6. Hoop or radial stresses are stresses that tend to expand the fuselage cross section area.
1.1.1.7. Shear is a force which tends to slide one face of the material over an adjacent face.
1.1.1.8. Strain is when an external force of sufficient magnitude acts on a structure cause the
structural dimensions to change.
1.1.1.9. Struts are components designed to resist compressive loads.
1.1.1.10. A tension, or tensile load is one which tends to stretch a structural member.
1.1.1.11. Ties are components designed to resist tensile loads.
1.1.1.12. Torsion or twisting forces produce tension at the outer edge, compression in the center
and shear across the structure.
1.1.1.13. A fail safe structure can be described as a structure in which a failure of a particular
part is compensated for by an alternative load path provided by an adjacent part that is able to
carry the loads for a limited time period.
1.1.1.14. Damage tolerant structure is one that eliminates the use of extra structural members

## 1.1.2 Explain the five major stresses

1.1.2.1. Shear
Shear is a force which tends to slide one face of the material over an adjacent face. Riveted joints
are designed to resist shear forces.
1.1.2.2. Bending
Tension as the outer edge stretches.
Compression as the inner edge squeezes together.
Shear across the structure as the forces try to split it.
Aircrafts usually undergo bending on the wings if the forces acting on them are not accounted
for.

1.1.2.3. Tension
A tension, or tensile load is one which tends to stretch a structural member. In aircrafts, the
fuselage is the member that usually is affected by tension. Components designed to resist tensile

1.1.2.4. Torsion
Torsion or twisting forces produce tension at the outer edge, compression in the center and
shear across the structure. The fuselage is usually affected by these loads. They usually occur
between the wings and the fuselage skin.

1.1.2.5. Compression
Compressive loads are the opposite of tensile loads and tend to shorten structural members, for
example the fuselage. Components designed to resist compressive loads are known as struts.

UNIT B2
1.2 Classifications
1.2.1. Explain three aircraft structural types
1.1.2.1. Primary structure
Primary structures are those that bear flight loads and are very critical to flight. These are wings,
load bearing portions of the fuselage, the empennage, control surfaces, crew seats, passenger
seats and doors of pressurized aircrafts. Damage to any of these can result in severe hazards to
the crew and passengers.
1.1.2.2. Secondary structure
These are loads that do not bear flight loads and are not that critical to flight as compared to
primary structures. These include unpressurised doors, arm rests, access panels etc.
1.1.2.3. Tertiary structure
Tertiary structures are not significant to flight and an aircraft can function well without them.

## Explain safety design factors

1.1.2.1. Factor of safety
The factor of safety is the ratio of the ultimate load to the limit load.
1.1.2.2. Fail safe
Large modern aircraft are designed with a Fail-safe or Damage tolerant structure. This can be
described as a structure in which a failure of a particular part is compensated for by an
alternative load-path provided by an adjacent part that is able to carry the loads for a limited time
period. Typically, this is a structure which, after any single failure or crack in any one structural
member can safely carry the normal operating loads until the next periodic inspection. True
dualling of load-paths in common practice could be found in wing attachments and also in
vertical stabilizer and horizontal stabilizer attachment points.

UNIT B3
1.3 CONSTRUCTION
1.3.1 Define fuselage
The fuselage is the main structure or body of the aircraft and carries the aircraft payload i.e. the
passengers and/or freight as well as the flight crew and cabin staff in safe, comfortable
conditions.
1.3.2.1. Monocoque - In a monocoque structure all the loads are taken by the skin with just light
internal frames or formers to give the required shape. Even slight damage to the skin can
seriously weaken the structure. Extra strength needs to be built in around holes in the structure
for windows, doors or undercarriages as these will weaken the structure. This type of
construction is only suitable for smaller aircraft.
1.3.2.2. Semi-monocoque is more widely used on most other aircraft. This type of structure is
now generally referred to as Stressed Skin. As aircraft became larger and the air loads greater the
pure monocoque structure was not strong enough and additional structural members known as
stringers (stiffeners) and longerons were added to run lengthwise along the fuselage joining the
frames together. The light alloy skin is then attached to the frames and stringers by riveting or
adhesive bonding. Stringers stiffen the skin and assist the sheet materials to carry loads along
their length. Good examples of longerons are the seat rails of passenger aircraft.
1.3.2.3. Truss or framework type generally used for light, non-pressurized, aircraft. The
framework consists of light gauge steel tubes welded together to form a space frame of triangular
shape to give the most rigid of geometric forms with each tube carrying a specific load the
magnitude of which depends on whether the aircraft is airborne or on the ground. It is a strong,
easily constructed and relatively trouble free basic structure. The framework is covered by a
lightweight aluminum alloy or fabric skin to give an enclosed, aerodynamically efficient load
carrying compartment.
1.3.3.1. Fuselage station lines are determined by reference to a zero datum line (fuselage station
0.00) at or near the forward portion of the aircraft as defined by the manufacturer. Station
numbers are given in inches forward (negative and given a - sign) or aft (positive and with a +
sign) of the zero datum.

1.3.3.2. Buttock line or butt line (BL) is a vertical reference plane down the center of the aircraft
from which measurements left or right can be made.
1.3.3.3 The water Line (WL) is the vertical position from a ground line or horizontal datum and
it is given as a dimension in inches from the horizontal datum.
1.3.3.4. Aileron station (AS) is measured out board from, and parallel to, the inboard edge of the
aileron, perpendicular to the rear beam of the wing.
1.3.3.5. Flap station (KS) is measured perpendicular to the rear beam of the wing and parallel to,
and outboard from, the in board edge of the flap.
1.3.3.6. Nacelle station (NC or Nac. Sta.) is measured either forward of or behind the front spar
of the wing and perpendicular to a designated water line.

## 1.3.4. Describe the following structural members.

1.3.4.1 Longerons
Longerons are beams in the fuselage that are fitted longitudinally from nose to tail. They are
often placed below the floor and take the main bending loads of the aircraft. There are a number
of methods of construction.
1.3.4.2 Stringers
Stringers stiffen the skin and assist the sheet materials to carry loads along their length.
1.3.4.3 Formers
Formers are light internal frames that support the monocoque structure and give it its required
shape.
1.3.4.4 Frames
Frames are vertical structures that are open in their center. They are designed to take the major
loads and give the aircraft its shape.
1.3.4.5 Gussets
A gusset is a type of connection bracket that adds strength.
The bulkheads are similar to frames but are usually solid but may have access doors. They are
also designed to give the fuselage its shape and take some of the main loads. Two of the major
bulkheads in a transport aircraft are the front and rear bulkheads which separate the pressurized
and unpressurized areas.

UNIT B4.
DESCRIBE WING CONSTRUCTION.
4.1 WING STRUCTURE
1.4.1 Define an aircraft wing
An aircraft wing is a structure that, when moved rapidly through the air, creates lift.
1.4.2 Analyze aircraft wing structure design
factors:
1.4.2.1 Size.
The size of an aircrafts wings will depend on the amount of payload the aircraft is designed for.
The more the pay load, the larger the wings will be.
1.4.2.2 Weight
The weight of the wings depends on the weight of engines attached to them (if any) and the
amount of fuel the can carry.
1.4.2.3 Use
Wings are used for lifting, landing and turning the aircraft. They are also used for storing fuel
and attaching engines for balancing the aircraft.
1.4.2.4 Desired speed.
Faster aircraft wings tend to be drawn back especially in supersonic aircrafts so as to reduce
drag.
1.4.2.5 Desired rate of climb.
For a higher climb rate, wings maybe build to have a winder span.

## 4.2 WING CONSTRUCTION 4.2.1 Describe the wing configuration

4.2.1.1 Low wing
The wing is located at the base (bottom) of the fuselage.
4.2.1.2 High wing
The wing is located at the top of the fuselage.
4.2.1.3 Gull wing
The wings smaller section close to the fuselage is tilted upwards and then gradually slants
downwards. The wing is located at the top of the fuselage.
4.2.1.4 Dihedral wing
The wing is located at the bottom of the fuselage and tends to be tilted upwards.
4.2.1.5 Anhedral wing
The wing is located at the top of the fuselage and tends to be tilted downwards.
4.2.1.6 Mid wing
The wing is located at the center (mid-section) of the fuselage.
4.2.1.7 Inverted Gull
The wings smaller section close to the fuselage is tilted downwards and then gradually slants
upwards. The wing is located at the top of the fuselage.

## 4.2.2 Describe the following main

structural members.
4.2.2.1 Spars
Spars are the principal structural members of the wing. They correspond to the longerons of the
fuselage. They run parallel to the lateral axis of the aircraft, from the fuselage toward the tip of
the wing, and are usually attached to the fuselage by wing fittings, plain beams, or a truss.
4.2.2.2 Stringers
Stringers: are span-wise members giving the wing rigidity by stiffening the skin in compression.
4.2.2.3 Ribs
Ribs: these maintain the aerofoil shape of the wings, support the spars, stringers and skin against
buckling and pass concentrated loads from engines, landing gear and control surfaces into the
skin and spars.
The bulkheads are similar to frames but are usually solid but may have access doors. They are
also designed to give the fuselage its shape and take some of the main loads. Two of the major
bulkheads in a transport aircraft are the front and rear bulkheads which separate the pressurized
and unpressurized areas.
4.2.2.5 Skin
Skin: takes the loads due to differences in air pressures and the mass and inertia of the fuel (if
any) in the wing tanks. It generates direct stresses in a spanwise direction as a response to
bending moments and also reacts against twisting (torsion).

## 4.2.3 Describe the construction of the Aircraft wing.

4.2.3.1 Mono spar
The mono spar wing incorporates only one main span-wise or longitudinal member in its
construction. Ribs or bulkheads supply the necessary contour or shape to the airfoil.
4.2.3.2 Two spar
The two spar wing incorporates two main longitudinal members in its construction. To give the
wing contour, ribs or bulkheads are often included.
4.2.3.3 Multi spar
The multispar wing incorporates more than one main longitudinal member in its
construction. To give the wing contour, ribs or bulkheads are often included.
4.2.3.4 Box beam
The box beam type of wing construction uses two main longitudinal members with
connecting bulkheads to furnish additional strength and to give contour to the wing.

UNIT B5
DESCRIBE EMPENNAGE CONSTRUCTION
5.1 CONSTRUCTION
5.1.1 Define the aircraft empennage.
The empennage or tail provides longitudinal and directional stability.
5.1.2 Identify different types of empennage
5.1.2.1 Conventional
It has the horizontal fin (elevator) in the middle position of the vertical stabilizer.
5.1.2.2 T-Tail
It has the elavators positioned at the top of the vertical stabilizer which forms a shape of a T.
5.1.2.3 H-Tail
It has two vertical stabilizers which fom an h.
5.1.2.4 V-Tail
Two vertical stabilizers are attached at the bottom.
5.1.3 Describe the construction of an aircraft empennage
5.1.3.1 Rudder
The rudder is the primary control surface that causes an aircraft to yaw or move about the
vertical axis.
5.1.3.2 Elevator.
The elevator is the primary flight control surface that moves the aircraft around the horizontal or
lateral axis.
5.1.3.3 Horizontal Stabilizer
This is the horizontal part of the empennage where elevators are located.
5.1.3.4 Tail cone.
The tail cone serves to close and streamline the aft end of most fuselages.
5.1.3.5 Vertical stabilizer.
This is the vertical part of the empennage where rudder is located.

UNIT B6
DISCUSS MECHANICAL FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS.
6.1 FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
6.1.1 Discuss flight control surfaces.
6.1.1.1 Primary
6.1.1.1.1 Ailerons
The ailerons are attached to the trailing edge of both wings and when moved, rotate the aircraft
around the longitudinal axis.
6.1.1.1.2 Rudder
The rudder is hinged to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. When the rudder changes
position, the aircraft rotates about the vertical axis (yaw).
6.1.1.1.3 Elevator
The elevator is attached to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. When it is moved, it
alters aircraft pitch, which is the attitude about the horizontal or lateral axis.
6.1.1.2 Secondary.
6.1.1.2.1 Flaps
They enable landing at slower speeds and shorten the amount of runway required for takeoff and
landing.
6.1.1.2.2 Slats.
Extends the camber of the wing for greater lift and slower flight. Allows control at low speeds
for short field takeoffs and landings.
6.1.1.2.3 Spoilers.
Decreases (spoils) lift. They can also augment the ailerons function.
6.1.1.2.4 Slots.
Directs air over the upper surface of wing during high angle of attack. Lowers stall speed and
provides control during slow flight.
6.1.1.2.5 Tabs.
They reduce the force needed to move a primary control surface.