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Revision Qs EDU3063

1. Discuss the role of the teacher in overcoming problems related to socio-cultural diversity in
the classroom.
- Possible socio-cultural diversity problems
o Language issues
o Ethnocentrism among students
o Biasness shown by teachers (due to ability, favouritism, social class income)
o Groupings among students
o Difference in value, beliefs, cultural ideas, religious elements
- Role of teacher to overcome these issues
o Role model : do not show, promote, suggest any ideas of favouritism, biasness
towards any of the pupils
o Motivator : encourage students to help each other, give and listen to opinions
o Clarify : explain the differences, encouraging students to understand the differences

2. Discuss ways on how schools in Malaysia can help to overcome the problems related to
culturally diversed learners.

- Sekolah Wawasan
- Promote activity which allows students of different ethnicity to work together inter school
English camps
- Allow more activity and events in schools to promote cultural differences culture night,
celebrations of important dates for each ethnic

3. What important aspects that a teacher needs to consider when developing a culturally
friendly environment?

Pengurusan bilik darjah yg dinamik (active, working classroom) dpt mencapai objektif ke arah
pembinaan modal insan / human capital (well developed, holistic, not only with
knowledge, but also with manners and values) yg menjurus kpd pembinaan jeris

- What is culturally friendly environment?

o Have an important role in creating acceptance among the diverse ethnic groups
o Appreciate, respect each others difference will eventually strengthen relationship
among ethnic groups :: able to prevent future cultural conflicts
- Aspects in culturally friendly learning environment

Aspects Aim Teachers role / example

Physical Components
- to accommodate and facilitate - security, shelter - safety to students
learning and socialisation - task completion - not distracting
process among learners - social contact - seating arrangements
- create conducive learning - symbolic identification - decoration, class identity,
climate - pleasure member identity
- growth, intellectual - class paint, cheerful
development - resources, quotes about
*for culturally diverse classroom
- make sure teacher and students are visible to each other all the time
- decorated with multicultural images, multicultural reading resources, show off identity of diversity
- activity encourage collaborative work among different members
- pathways clear and spacious enough, minimise distractions

*for special needs

- place special need student nearer to teacher
- guide visual impaired with arrangements around the classroom
Socio Emotional
- ability to understand own - learn diplomacy (give and - be attentive to childs need
feelings, other feelings, control take, respect each other) - model appropriate behaviour
own behaviour and get along - leadership - help child to regulate emotion
with others - trust and behaviour
- important to work - interacting with each other - provide opportunities to
cooperatively - avoid negative behaviours socialise
- Good management in this - help child to understand and
aspect will trigger interest, be empathetic
attitude towards improving
their study
*for culturally diverse
- develop trust and mutual respect among students
- apply hidden curriculum, through group activities
- opportunities for social interaction
- motivate, support, comfort students when needed
- explain about difference of values among ethnic groups
Teaching and Learning
Teaching : impart Aim for effective Effective teacher
knowledge teaching and - good command of subject matter
Learning : gain, learning - effective teaching skills, instructional strategies : goal
acquire knowledge ASSURE Model setting, instructional planning, classroom management
- Able to motivate, communicate and work effectively with
differentiated students
- know technology skills, time efficiency, 21st century skills
Management of TnL
- Planning, Implementation, Evaluation & assessment, follow up
- ASSURE (Analyse, State objective, Select materials, Utilise materials, Require learner, Evaluate)
- Tr must aim for Active, Interactive and Constructive (Cooperative, Colloborative) Learning
- Brain Breaks
*For Cultural Diverse Class - variety of materials, activities
- Group work - consider students culture and language skills
- integrate 21st skills - communicate expectations (LO, class rules)
- find out students preference and learning - provide feedback, promote on task behaviour
- promote critical thinking about subject and
Cultural and Indigenous (Org Asli) Relevant Pedagogy
Effective teaching is culturally 3 important focus a) Institutional : seating
supported and learner-centered a) Institutional administration, arrangements, class
context :: TnL process is policies, values decorations, involve
strengthen by manipulating multicultural community in
cultural references class activities, class rules
b) Personal confront biasness, - teacher communication skills
negative connotations - know students well, develop
relationship and trust
- language level : know taboo
words, confront native
language interference
- motivate students objective,
c) Instructional utilises ss - collaborative, cooperative
culture and language, materials, activities mix ethnic
strategies, activities - discovery method group
works to find info on other
culture (in context learning)
- materials : cross-cultural
reading materials
*indigenous classroom
- include community in classroom activity
- motivate to come to school (rewards, fun activities)
- develop relationship with students and parents
- make full use of nature and school environment for activities and class project or research
- alter language level
- introduce modern life through reading materials
Pedagogy Combined Class (SKM)
Different grades combined in 3 important aspects i) balance time and enough
one classroom not enough i) teacher subject matter guidance to all students in the
students, not enough teachers skills, cooperative learning class
- big gap in ability, skills, strategies, assessment ii) engage students into the
knowledge strategies, multitasking topic
ii) classroom resources, iii) keep them on task most of
arrangements, groupings the time
iii) Students same age / same iv) meaningful learning
grade / same preferences / v) peer coaching
peer coaching / etc
*advantage of combined class
- develop self study skills, independence, self confidence
- cooperate cross age, ethnic and ability, eventually nurture good relationship among ethnic
- peer coach, peer teaching develop responsibility
- importance of realising the - awareness of sociolinguistic - use targeted language
variety of communicative competence among ss diff frequently let ss become
behaviour in students is due to ethnic speak diff language with familiar
their varied language diff intention - level down the language to ss
background usage - use one official language ability reduce anxiety
increase familiarity of targeted - motivate ss
language - fun language games
- various activities incorporating
target language to increase
sociolinguistic competence in
fun ways
Culture based Assessment
Assessment done should - provide relevant, reliable - address cultural issues
consider ss background and feedback on strengths and i) should be on ss learning
ability to ensure result is valid weaknesses of TnL, and ss ii) should be based on activities,
and reliable ability inquiry-based, cooperative
- prepare follow up activity learning, group work
- daily observations
- portfolio assessment
- writing journal and reflection writing
- project
- ss self-assessment & tr self-assessment

4. Suggest relevant teaching pedagogy that teachers can employ in a culturally diversed class?

Group work cooperative learning Students need to work together among members in the group
and with other groups to complete task, peer coaching
Cross cultural material Introduce info on different cultures and ethnics through daily
manipulate themes and topics in lesson, materials, tasks
In context research, projects Motivate students to discuss, talk about own culture / cross
culture as monthly class project
Identity Incorporate diverse ethnicity in class through class decoration
instil pride and love of own culture in students
Socio-skills Develop relationship and trust (socio emotional), beware of
language used (sociolinguistic), motivate students to work
together (socio emotional), develop class rules (self-regulate)

5. Discuss how a teacher can use oral communication skills to develop culturally friendly

Pronunciation Clear pronunciation, enunciation easily understood by students, avoid

ambiguity, accent mocking
Culture-sensitive Do not talk, discuss, use any sensitive words / issues / phrases / jokes that
can hurt certain students / ethnic
Intonation Use proper intonation help convey the right mood / feeling help
students understand message better
Confidence Students have higher tendency to listen and trust your info if you are
confident when delivering it
Involve audience Use tag Qs, infer students reaction

6. Discuss how nonverbal communication skills can help a teacher to carry out his/her teaching
and learning effectively.

Body gestures Help explain instructional message

Help classroom management
- Use appropriate hand gestures avoid misinterpretations
Intonation Help convey mood serious / joke / angry
Eye contact Attract ss attention / focus
Touching Motivate ss (a pat at the back, etc)
- can be misinterpreted use carefully some culture see some
gestures as offensive
Symbols Drawings, symbols used in explaining instructional messages
- may bring ambiguity

7. What are the contributing factors why man need to live in a group?
- Harmony need to feel secured by someone else
- Status
- Self-esteem need to be appreciated
- Strength

8. Describe the four types of social class in traditional malay society

Ruler King, royalties

a) King
b) Officers Bendahara, laksamana, panglima,
a) Normal commoners
b) Slaves Workers for normal commoners, or royalties

9. What are the efforts made by the ministry of education to bridge the inequality of education
faced by special needs students?

Special school Special schools focusing on handling special needs

Teacher training Specially trained teachers focusing on handling special needs
New syllabus Special for classroom needs
Financial support To parents, schools, organisations
More programs, With normal students for them to mingle around and enhance social skills
Facilities and More material support for schools, teachers and parents
equipment support
10. Discuss the inequality of education contributed by social class

Less opportunities Lower social class members might not have enough awareness, financial,
motivation to go to school to get education

Upper social class prefer to go to overseas/ private than gov-based for

educational support, claiming local education is not good enough
Biasness Lower social class often seen not getting enough support by peers and
teacher to excel in education : If they are slow, little help or care is given

Upper social class often seen getting too special a treatment let off for
misbehaviours, compared to those from LSC
Financial support LSC usually dont have enough financial to buy / pay school needs hard
to further studies because no money

USC used to have high tech stuff at home sometimes are not allowed
to bring them to school will rebel and condemn teachers and their
Resources LSC might not have enough reference text / books to help grasp the
content of subject matter can only depend on books from school
LSC might not have enough time to study by own bound by need to help

USC have higher chance of getting more reference books / tuition class /
tutors to help on subject matter

11. If you are posted to the indigenous minority in Sarawak, create a cultural friendly
environment for the school

Physical - Introduce modern world through decorations, posters, reading materials

- Member identity in classroom, belonging to classroom
Socio emotional - Develop relationship with students and parents, trust and love
- Develop relationship among students, befriend each other
- Find out their need before start the class food, rest, etc.
- hidden curriculum
- motivation to learn, group work, rewards
Combined class - peer coaching
- group work
- individual engaging tasks
Sociolinguistic - identify language level
- practice using target language gradually
- rewards
- identify taboo words, gestures
Assessment - appropriate test forms, up to ss level
- assess what they have learnt
TnL - incorporate nature / environment around shool
- introduce modern world through materials / images
- fun activities, group works, rewards
- involve ss ss research and present, learner centred.