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Human Resource Management in Organizations

a key factor in creating an organization that functions effectively


helping employees feel that they belong to an organization, work team, or occupation group
employees are needed, respected and listened to
an action-oriented approach to people and their needs, goals, expectations, skills, knowledge and abilities

Human Resource Management Background


Human Resource Management (HRM)
the management of people and systems that pertain directly to employees
depends on influences from external and internal environments
importance of HRM is increasing
HRM is undergoing a consolidation process
a basic support function
distinct from other management functions

Human Resource Planning


forecasting the numbers and qualifications of employees and support services that will be required by the organization, and
determining how those sources will be made available
determine the best use of the talent and skills available to accomplish what is best for the individual and the organization

Techniques
Human Resource Inventories
information about skills, abilities, and knowledge that exist within the organization already
Human Resource Forecasts
predicting the organizations future requirements in terms of numbers available, skill mixes, and external labour supply

Action Plans
designing the recruitment, selection, training, orientation, promotion, development, and compensation plans used

Control and Evaluation


creating the monitoring system used to determine the extent to which human resource goals have been attained

Job Analysis
Systematically gathering and analyzing the duties and skills required for a job
An ongoing process
redesigning
A collection of human beings that need to be developed and nurtured
Enhance employee performance, rather than limit it

Steps in Job Analysis:


1. Examine the overall organization
2. Select jobs to be analyzed
3. Collect data on jobs
4. Prepare job description
5. Prepare job specification

Job Descriptions and Job Specifications


Job Description
a written statement of the jobs activities, the equipment required for it, and the working conditions in which it
exists
Job Specification
a written statement of the skills, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics needed to perform a job effectively

Hazards
preparing the description as if it were describing the incumbent
specifying a longer period of experience than may be justified
making the specification too rigid

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Job Design
The tasks required to complete the job, including how it relates to other jobs
attempt to differentiate essential tasks from tasks that may have been added in the past but are no longer essential e.g. report
generation
a change in one job likely will require complementary changes in other jobs

Job Specialization
assigning one job a small number of different tasks, which will be repeated
allows the employee to learn and practice the most efficient way of completing the job
no variety; little room for discretion or innovation

Job Rotation
systematically moving employees from job to job
introduces employees to more jobs and tasks
more than one person is familiar with each job
does little to change the nature of the work itself
reduces boredom, but increases cost of training

Job Enlargement
increasing the number and variety of tasks assigned to a job
broadens job range and offers variety
may result in an employee performing four boring jobs, rather than just one

Job Enrichment
giving employees more control over their work to make it more interesting and address their needs for growth, recognition, and a
sense of achievement
empowerment
increase job depth increased discretion

Considerations:
Personal and work outcomes that will result
Psychological and emotional states that are most likely to cause employees to reach those outcomes
Review the core dimensions skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback consider what might be done to
provide the desirable results
May require that the employee use a higher level of skills

Flextime
a plan in which employees can set their own work hours, within limits set by management
difficult to implement in teams
managers must work longer hours to cover supervision
may be alleviated by employees taking greater responsibility/empowerment

Telecommuting
doing work at home or in other locations but staying in communication with the workplace and other employees through
networks, computers, and modems
limited to a few positions where output can be readily monitored
flexibility

Recruitment
Searching for and selecting suitable, qualified, and motivated candidates for positions within the organization

Recruitment Plan
a systematic description of the need for recruitment and how, when, and by who it will be accomplished
job description including compensation; redesign; sources; steps in the search process; start and completion dates

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Sources of Candidates
Ask current employees for referrals
Job posting
making available to all employees written notice of job vacancies within the organization to permit those interested to
apply for the position
Universities, colleges, other institutions
Professional journals and magazines
Professional organizations

Government (Canada Employment)


the Internet
Published Advertisements
blind ads
Commercial Employment Agencies
executive search agencies

SELECTION
Preliminary Screening
analyzing resumes and associated information to sort applicants and select those who appear most suitable for employment in
the organization
Short List
the small number of preferred applicants who remain of interest to the organization after various stages of screening

Detailed Analysis of Resumes


close examination of how closely the applicants qualifications match those desired
unexplained gaps in time
Checking References
verification of specific facts
work habits, emotional stability, and ability to get along with coworkers and superiors
first warn the applicant

Pre-interview contact
ask questions about the resume
if the interview is fruitful, a live interview may be scheduled or the applicant may be rejected
Interview
in an office - not a social setting
have another manager close by
questions should be planned, and tailored to each applicant
always in control, but guiding
purpose is to provide a decision hire or not hire
find out as much relevant information as possible
if it ends well, interviewer provides more details about the job
make detailed notes, including commitments made, and points to follow up

Group Interviews
several mangers sit in on the interviews
various viewpoints will be represented one member may dominate
no one person is accountable for the hiring
appealing to the lowest common denominator
more effective as a second round of interview

Discrimination
Making decisions or taking actions based on an individuals personal characteristics that do not impinge on fitness for a job
selection, hiring, and management must be free from discrimination
governed by the Canadian Human Rights Act
HR must be aware of all policies and regulations, and ensure that all documentation follows them
monitor matters such as wage and salary levels and promotions and job assignments to ensure that other managers actions
do not contravene the legal requirements
provide training/sensitivity programs for managers

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Sexual Harassment
any act, word, gesture, or situation that diminishes an individuals sexual dignity or integrity
an unclear issue
includes criminal harassment
what is normal behaviour?
damaging to morale; liability; an ethical obligation to protect employees

Training and Development


Employee Training
an organized program in which employees are provided with information, concepts, and skills that the organization believes
will help them to become more effective in their jobs, or in jobs to which they may be later assigned

Change in skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour


HR responsible for planning and coordinating training programs

Decisions
the programs objectives
what techniques and approaches might be most effective
given the trainees involved
who will best be able to provide the training
how results will be evaluated and how feedback will be provided to assist in the design and presentation of future training
programs
Career Development Plan
an individualized outline of training, experience, and possible education, designed to facilitate an employees growth and
enhance opportunities for advancement

Performance Evaluation
a formal, systematic appraisal of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of an employees performance
attempt to be as objective as possible
utilization of appraisal committees, managerial/peer evaluation
employees evaluate supervisor
self-evaluation
Graphic Rating Scale
a listing of performance characteristics and behaviours that is used to evaluate numerically the performance of an employee
and arrive at a total that is intended to rate that performance in terms of value to the organization

Ranking
comparing the performances of employees by listing them in rank order of their contribution to the organizations
effectiveness

Descriptive Essay
a brief statement describing a managers evaluation of an employees job performance

Managers Judgment
employ a combination of decision-making tools intuition
improve their skills and identify and counteract their inherent biases

Compensation
the total of all rewards having a monetary value that are received by an employee in exchange for working for the employer
Direct
wages, salary, bonuses, commissions
Indirect
vacation allowances, maternity leave, employer paid insurance
Compensation Objectives
Effective Compensation Policy
Adequate
Equitable
Balanced
Cost-effective
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Secure
Incentive-providing
Accepted by the employees

positions that are roughly comparable within the organization should have comparable compensation levels
the level set for a position should factor its relation to other positions
must take into account what the competition is paying people in similar positions

Compensation and Performance


addition of fitness facilities and attention paid to employee health and well-being
tying of pay to performance to improve quality and quantity of work not fully agreed upon by all managers must have the
authority to base pay on performance
managers must be willing to discriminate
merit pay increase must be meaningful
managers must communicate the pay system
evaluation systems must be meaningful, equitable, and comprehensive

Selected Methods of Compensation


Flat Wage Rates
wages established for each position, and then varied only on the basis of seniority or length or service, without regard to
performance
Individual Incentives
pay for the number of units produced
piece-work, production bonuses, commissions
differential piece rate is the most effective

Gain sharing Incentive Plans


a compensation system in which the remuneration paid to employees is calculated on the basis of a pre-announced
formula the results of which are dependent at least in part on the financial success of the employer, usually as a result of
increased competitiveness arising from improved productivity or cost reduction
Equal Pay and Pay Equity
Equal Pay
wage or salary schedules based on the concept of paying the same amounts for identical jobs, regardless of the gender
of the employees doing those jobs
Pay Equity
the concept of setting wage and salary rates that are identical for jobs of equal value or equal worth to the employer,
regardless of the gender of the employees doing those jobs

Benefits and Services


Personnel Benefits
forms of employee compensation that are measurable in dollars but are not part of wages or salaries
Flex Benefits Plans
benefits plans in which employees are assigned a certain amount and can allocate that amount to the benefits that best
suit their own personal circumstances

Discipline and Dismissal


Progressive Discipline
a connected series of escalating disciplinary measures applied to an employee who is failing to meet the organizations
standards and policies
regulated by the labour relations acts or codes
just cause
Record of Employment (ROE)
federally mandated