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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A

Propensity Score Matching Approach

An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to

The Faculty of the School of Economics

De La Salle University- Manila

In Partial Completion of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in Applied Economics

By:
Jillian Jovel Marie J. Casco
Jennifer Joy L. Lam
Kristine Joy V. Lumantas
Jose Emilio C. Magno

Advisers:
Myrna Austria, Ph.D.
Mariel Monica Sauler, Ph.D.
Mr. Marvin Castell

April 2015
The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Thesis Approval Sheet

This undergraduate thesis entitled The Impact of Pantawid Panilyang Pilipino Program

on Civic Engagement: A Propensity Score Matching Approach, prepared and submitted

by Jillian Jovel Marie J. Casco, Jennifer Joy L. Lam, Kristine Joy V. Lumantas, and

Jose Emilio C. Magno has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and

approval in partial fulfillment of the course requirements for the completion of the degree

of Bachelor of Science in Applied Economics.

Panel of Advisors:

________________________ ________________________
Myrna Austria, Ph.D. Mr. Marvin Castell
Panel Chair Panelist

________________________
Mariel Monica Sauler, Ph.D.
Panelist

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Science in


Applied Economics

________________________ _______________________
Date Gerardo L. Largoza, Ph.D.
Chairperson
Economics Department

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The researchers of this thesis express their sincerest gratitude to the individuals,

professionals and agencies that contributed in the completion of this study. First, the

researchers would like to thank Dr. Myrna Austria, Dr. Mariel Monica Sauler, and Mr.

Marvin Castell for their guidance and continuous motivation. The researchers also express

their thanks to Ms. Denise Serrano for the guidance in THSECO1. Second, the researchers

would like to thank the Community Based Monitoring System, Mr. Marlo Villanueva, Ms.

Maria Alvarado, and Ms. Lilibeth Famacion for allowing the researchers the access to the

data from the municipalities that are used in this research. Third, the researchers express

their sincerest gratitude to Ms. Mitzie Conchada, Mr. Alddon Christner Ang and Mr Roy

Loyola, Jr. for helping the researchers in fully grasping the methodology of the study.

Finally, the researchers would like to extend their gratitude to their families and the

Almighty Father, for continuously inspiring the researchers in achieving greater things in

life.

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT....9

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.....10

Background of the Study......10

Statement of the Problem.....17

Objectives of the Study....17

Significance of the Study.18

Scope and Limitations..19

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE....21

Conditional Cash Transfer....21

Mexicos Oportunidades...27

Brazils Bolsa Familia...28

Perus Juntos.28

Colombias Familias en Accion....29

Honduras Programa de Asignacin Familiar.29

Philippines Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program...30

Civic Engagement 37

Conditional Cash Transfers and Civic Engagement 39

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Conditional Cash Transfers and Voting Behavior42

Conditional Cash Transfers and Community Participation..45

CHAPTER III. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK..48

Human Capital Theory.48

Social Capital Theory...49

Spillover Effects...50

CHAPTER IV. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK...52

Selective Material Gratification...52

Social Engagement...53

Political Budget Cycle Model..53

CHAPTER V. OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK...55

Description of Variables Used..55

Traditional Regression vs. Matching....56

Matching...58

Propensity Score Matching...58

Hypothesized Econometric Model... 62

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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CHAPTER VI. METHODOLOGY64

Presentation of Data64

Methodology of the Study...66

CHAPTER VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 70

I. Descriptive Summary Statistics71

I.A. Luzon Descriptive Statistics.73

I.B. Visayas Descriptive Statistics...78

I.C. Mindanao Descriptive Statistics81

I.D. Countrywide Descriptive Statistics...85

II. Propensity Scores Calculation.89

II.A. Propensity Score for Luzon.89

II.B. Propensity Score for Visayas...90

II.C. Propensity Score for Mindanao91

II.D. Propensity Score for Luzon-Visayas....92

II.E. Propensity Score for Visayas-Mindanao...92

II.F. Propensity Score for Luzon-Mindanao..93

II.G. Propensity Score for Countrywide Dataset...93

III. Treatment Effects.94

III.A. Treatment Effects for Island Group 95

III.A.1. Luzon: Voting Turnout.95

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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III.A.2. Luzon: Organizational Membership95

III.A.3. Visayas: Voting Turnout.96

III.A.4. Visayas: Organizational Membership.96

III.A.5. Mindanao: Voting Turnout.96

III.A.6. Mindanao: Organizational Membership.97

III.B. Treatment Effects for Consolidated Data...97

III.B.1. Luzon-Visayas: Voting Turnout..97

III.B.2. Luzon-Visayas: Organizational Membership..99

III.B.3. Visayas-Mindanao: Voting Turnout....99

III.B.4. Visayas-Mindanao: Organizational Membership...100

III.B.5. Luzon-Mindanao: Voting Turnout.100

III.B.6. Luzon-Mindanao: Organizational Membership.101

III.C. Treatment Effects for Countrywide Dataset.102

III.G.1. Voting Turnout..102

III.G.2. Organizational Membership..103

IV. Role of Education and Employment on Civic Engagement.....103

V. Differences of Organizations Across Island Groups.106

CHAPTER VIII. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS109

CHAPTER IX. CONCLUSION.116

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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CHAPTER X. APPENDICES...118

I. Appendix A118

II. Appendix B...127

III. Appendix C..140

IV. Appendix D..152

V. Appendix E245

CHAPTER XI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 273

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Panilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A

Propensity Score Matching Approach

By: Jillian Jovel Casco, Jennifer Joy Lam, Kristine Joy Lumantas, Jose Emilio Magno

ABSTRACT

The Philippine government implemented the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)

and patterned it after Latin American conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs, with the

goals of poverty reduction and social development. With the insufficiency of research

focusing on the 4Ps indirect effects, the programs social impact remains unknown. Since

the beneficiaries receive cash transfers from the government, they might be obliged to

reciprocate their actions through civic engagement activities. In this study, civic

engagement is defined as the overall activeness of citizens to work and positively impact

their lives through participation in political and communal activities. Using propensity

score matching, the researchers found that beneficiaries of the 4Ps tend to vote and

participate in organizations more than the non-beneficiaries. However, this is accounted

mostly to Luzon. Moreover, the study concluded that the 4Ps alone is not sufficient to

improve civic engagement outcomes as they are also dependent on other factors which

include, but are not limited to: geographical location, educational attainment and

employment status, cultural diversity and uniqueness of organizations.

JEL Classification: E24

Keywords: conditional cash transfer, civic engagement

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Poverty is an economic issue that has long been a persistent problem in different

nations, especially among developing countries. The issue of poverty alleviation became

the focus of many political and socioeconomic reforms that have been undertaken in the

quest to mitigate poverty. However, many of these reforms did not yield sustainable results.

This is mainly because poverty is a complex phenomenon where the linking of economic,

social, political and demographic factors is crucial (Annan, 2013).

In the circumstance of the Philippines, poverty remains rampant. Although

the country attained economic growth, poverty was not reduced and income inequality

remains high (Asian Development Bank, 2009). According to the National Statistical

Coordination Board (2013), poverty statistics reported a poverty incidence of 27.9% during

the first semester of 2012. This is comparatively similar to the poverty incidence during the

first semester of 2006 and 2009 at 28.8% and 28.6%, respectively. On the other hand, there

is a very small change of the income gap during the first semester of 2006 and 2012 at

30.1% and 29.3%, correspondingly.

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Figure 1: 2006-2012 Official Philippine Poverty Statistics

Poverty Incidence Income Gap


30 30
20 20

10 10

0 0
2006 2009 2012 2006 2009 2012
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board

National Statistical Coordination Board (2013) also reported that the families in

extreme poverty persisted at 10% from the first half of 2006 until 2012. As exhibited in

Figure 1, there is a constant proportion of Filipinos living below the poverty line from 2006

to 2012.

According to the Asian Development Bank (2013), Philippine poverty is mainly

caused by low employment opportunities, substandard to moderate economic growth for

several decades, income inequality, and external shocks such as natural calamities,

economic crises, and political issues. The report also found that poverty is attributed to the

lack of human capital development. As educational attainment has long been linked to

poverty in the Philippines, the government has implemented several anti-poverty programs

focusing on the improvement of human capital to alleviate poverty.

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Anti-poverty programs in the Philippines began after the enactment of Republic Act

8425 or the Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act, where the Social Reform Agenda

(SRA) and National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC) were established during the 1990s.

The SRA aims to create a representation and participation of marginalized sectors in the

anti-poverty programs of the government, while the NAPC wants to uphold this partnership

in the long run between the poor and the government by implementing social reforms while

working towards a common goal, which is poverty alleviation (Bennagen, 2000).

Among the numerous anti-poverty programs, the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT)

Program sustained global attention because it addresses the issue of intergenerational

poverty cycle in developed and developing countries, where poverty remains prevalent

(Shahani, 2013). CCT programs have been distinguished as one of the most effective way

to alleviate poverty because of its targeting methods and conditionality of monetary

transfer. Reliant upon meeting the conditions imposed by the government, cash grants are

given to extremely poor families to finance their childrens education and health needs.

This positively impacts education and health of the children of poorest families (Son,

2008). Furthermore, the scope of CCTs is not limited to giving financial aid to the

extremely poor, but also in empowering poor households through social activities that

would help them mitigate poverty in the future.

In 2007, the Philippines implemented the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino

Program (4Ps), which is patterned after the CCT programs in Latin American countries

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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like Brazils Bolsa Familia and Mexicos Oportunidades. The Philippine government

believes that good governance and social service are the key mechanisms in poverty

alleviation (Reyes et al., 2012). According to the Budget ng Bayan (2012), the social

services sector received the biggest allocation of Php 567.9 billion or 31% of the total

budget in 2012. This amount further increased in 2013 with the allocation amounting to

Php 698.8 billion (Presidential Communications Operations Office, 2012). The 4Ps, being

one of the social mechanisms directed towards the needs of the poor, comprises a

significant amount of the budget allocated to the social services sector. The government

budget for 4Ps from its pilot year until 2013 is exhibited in Table 1 below.

Table 1. 4Ps Budget and Number of Beneficiaries from 2007-2013

Year
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Budget (in Php) 50.0 298.5 5.0 10.0 21.2 39.45 44.25
Million Million Billion Billion Billion Billion Billion

Number of 6,000 20,000 321,000 1 2.3 3.038 3.8


Target Million Million Million Million
Beneficiaries
and Households
Source: DSWD and Sun Star

From the table, it can be observed that the budget for 4Ps has been growing since its

implementation (Senate Economic Planning Office, 2011). Moreover, DSWD Secretary

Dinky Soliman noted that the budget for the 4Ps in 2014 further increased to Php 62.61

billion (4Ps Social Marketing Unit, 2014). It is also forecasted that there will be a Php 2.1

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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billion increase in 2015 from 2014s budget, which is the biggest allocation of the DSWDs

financial plan (Gavilan, 2014). Hence, the social service sector of the Philippines,

particularly the 4Ps, receives a significant budget for its operations and continues to

increase a lot for almost eight years.

The cash transfer that the beneficiaries receive is subject to several requirements

imposed by authorities. Based on DSWD (2009), the requirements of 4Ps include school

attendance and health center visits for children, and parents participation in Family

Development Sessions (FDS). These FDS allow the beneficiaries to interact with other

beneficiaries that could strengthen the social and community engagement of 4Ps recipients.

Thus, 4Ps could have an indirect social impact on its beneficiaries.

Given the possibility of the indirect impact of 4Ps on social aspects of the

community, the researchers aims to determine the impact of the program on a specific

social concept called civic engagement. Civic engagement is defined as the overall

activeness of citizens to work and positively impact their lives through participation in

political and communal activities (Ehrlich, 2000). There are various civic engagement

activities such as participation in elections, membership in community organizations,

political or community talk, and involvement in public affairs (Gastil et al., 2010).

Most CCT programs raise the concern that cash transfers will result to the

dependency of beneficiaries, hence lessening work incentives (Samson, 2009). In the case

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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of the Philippines, DSWD refuted this idea and denoted that the program teaches its

beneficiaries to exert an effort to improve their lives (ANC, 2013). However, there is still

no actual evidence in the Philippines proving that the beneficiaries reciprocate the cash

grant received through responsible citizenship.

Social capital is defined as the societal norms that shape the social relationships in

communities (Smith, 2009). This concept is essential for a democratic society, since social

capital binds the society together (World Bank, 2011). As most of the conditions of the 4Ps

involve social activities such as village meeting participation, government seminar

participation, health care visitation, and joint participation to other beneficiaries, then social

relationships could be affected by the 4Ps and then result to responsible citizenship

(Chaudhury et al., 2013).

Civic engagement is correlated with the social participation, social linkages, and

social trust to governmental involvement (Ekman and Amna, 2012). Active social

interaction between individuals helps develop cooperation and solve free rider problems

(Glaeser et al., 2002). Furthermore, Glaeser et al. (2002) said that the government tends to

be more efficient and responsive if citizens were interested with political and community

activism.

Labonne, et al. (2011) stated that poor communities that are less likely to be funded

by government development programs provide less support towards the government and

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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the community. It is also important to take note of the geographical differences of the poor

communities. This difference reflects different political and cultural behavior in terms of

thoughts, attitudes, frame of references, assumptions, and beliefs that can affect the civic

engagement of individuals (Elazar, 1999). The restrictions on land and oceans, efficiency

of capital cities, affiliations among nation-states, governmental systems, and voting

behavior of different communities involves political geography (World Geography, 2010).

Hence, the differences of the locations of the beneficiaries need to be considered.

Given the fact that the Philippines is a diversified country in terms of culture and

geography, civic engagement addresses various aspects of social environment. This does

not merely include individuals, but also community groups with different characteristics

such as culture, traditions, interests, experiences, geography, and ethics (Center for Disease

Control and Prevention, 1994). With this, civic engagement could be beneficial in solving

physical, interpersonal and cultural differences among the country by mobilizing the whole

community to engage in both political and nonpolitical activities. According to Khan

(2013), civic engagement is a tool for democracy. It strengthens government trust,

improves citizen ownership, eradicates corruption and stimulates pro-poor impacts while

having political and civil freedom which are all deemed necessary in the current situation

of the Philippines (Khan, 2013).

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Statement of the Problem

Most research and studies of the impact of the 4Ps in the Philippines are

concentrated on its expected and direct impacts such as education and health of children.

However, only very few researchers conducted studies regarding the indirect effects of the

4Ps.

Since civic engagement is a potential indirect and social effect of the 4Ps, this study

will assess the social impact of the 4Ps on the civic engagement of its beneficiaries. This

study will also consider different geographical locations of the beneficiaries, since there are

different characteristics and poverty levels across different regions or locations (Elazar,

1999). In this study, civic engagement will refer to voting turnout and community

organization membership.

Objectives of the Study

With the aforementioned background and the statement of the problem, this

research aims to determine the impact of the 4Ps on civic engagement among its

beneficiaries. Specifically, the paper would like to address the following objectives:

1. To determine the impact of 4Ps on civic engagement, specifically the voting

participation and community organization membership of beneficiaries, at a

countrywide level and island-group level.

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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2. To determine whether there are differences on the impact of 4Ps on civic

engagement based on their locations specifically in Luzon, Visayas, and

Mindanao.

3. To formulate policy recommendations on how the program will be able to

enhance civic engagement of individuals in the government and community.

Significance of the Study

Different studies regarding the 4Ps are mostly focused on its implementation and

expected effect on economic indicators, such as education and health, which are important

factors of well being. However, well being does not solely rely on economic indicators, but

on social aspects as well. An example of this social aspect is civic engagement, which

marks state-to-society relations (Baez et al., 2012).

Since some of 4Ps requirements include socialization and attendance in some

government programs, then the 4Ps could have some social impact on its beneficiaries. In

addition, the beneficiaries may feel gratified in receiving the cash transfers, which could be

an incentive for them to reciprocate their actions and support the government by engaging

in civic activities.

Given that there are potential unforeseen effects of how the CCT programs merge

with the social environment, particularly civic engagement, it is critical for development

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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practitioners and policy-makers to know these effects (Kirera, 2012). The findings of this

study will contribute to the emerging literature of conditional cash transfer programs

social impact on civic engagement of beneficiaries specifically in the Philippines.

Scope and Limitations

The study will cover the impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on civic

engagement, specifically on voting turnout and community participation, among the 4Ps

beneficiaries in provinces from Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The variables that this study

will use are obtained from the Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS). CBMS

collects organized data from local government units (LGU), national government agencies,

and non-government organizations. This study will use CBMS 2011 survey questionnaires,

to align the data for voting with the 2010 national elections. Hence, all the variables are

based from the survey questionnaire.

In this paper, the researchers approached different local government units, national

government agencies, and non-government organizations with CBMS 2011 survey data

around the Philippines. However, only selected municipalities responded, given that many

LGUs in rural areas have difficulties in telecommunications. Therefore, this paper will only

employ the CBMS data from Pasay City representing Luzon, Kalibo representing Visayas

and Surigao Del Norte representing Mindanao.

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The researchers will use the method of Propensity Score Matching (PSM) to obtain

the treatment effects. This is to be done by running Stata 13. It should be noted that the

study is limited to the impact of conditional cash transfer program exclusively in the

Philippines, specifically the effects of 4Ps on voter turnout and organization membership of

the beneficiaries. Other aspects that the program has impact on will not be covered.

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CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This section will begin with the introduction of the first CCTs in Latin America,

particularly in Mexico and Brazil, followed by several studies on CCT across different

countries. Previous studies concerning the social impact of CCTs are concentrated on the

smaller scale impact of the program, specifically the relationship between beneficiary

households and non-beneficiary households. Nonetheless, some researchers have

recognized the impact that CCT had on communal aspects, such as social relationships and

government support. With this, researchers conducted impact evaluation analyses regarding

CCT on these factors across different CCT programs. These include the Oportunidades

(Mexico), the Bolsa Familia (Brazil), the Juntos (Peru), the Familias en Accion

(Colombia), and the Programa de Asignacin Familiar (Honduras).

Conditional Cash Transfer

In an effort to provide financial aid, education and health to the poor, the first

conditional cash transfer programs were integrated in Brazil and Mexico. Brazils first CCT

program was called Programa de Eradicaco do Trabalho Infantil, but this was later

integrated to the countrys recent CCT called Bolsa Familia (World Bank, 2011). On the

other hand, Mexico implemented its CCT, called Progresa, in an attempt to provide

financial aid to poor households and improve education and health among children

(Fiszbein et al., 2009). According to Jaramillo (2011), the positive initial impact that

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Progresa and Programa de Eradicaco do Trabalho Infantil had on enrollment and health

encouraged other countries to follow the framework of CCT. One of the reasons for this is

the spillover effect that CCTs cause. For instance, Lehmann (2009) found that in low-

income countries, CCTs have social spillover effects when women receive the cash

transfer. This is exhibited when women become more empowered since they are the ones

directly receiving the cash from the program.

As of 2014, there are 26 active CCT programs worldwide. The countries

implementing the CCT programs are shown in the table below:

Table 2: General Information of Different Conditional Cash Transfers

Conditional Cash Year


Country Targeting Approach
Transfer Implemented

Programa
Familias/Asignacin
Universal por Hijo Argentina 2002 Categorical
(Universal Child
Allowance) (AUH)
Juancito Pinto Bolivia 2006 Categorical
Female Secondary
Geographic targeting
School Assistance Bangladesh 1994
and gender targeting
Program II (FSSAP II)
Unverified means
Started in testing, semi verified
Bolsa Familia Brazil
1990s selection, proxy
means test
Geographic targeting
Orphans and Burkina
2008 and proxy means
Vulnerable Children Faso
testing

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Cambodia Education Geographic targeting


Cambodia 2005
Sector Support Project of school
Chile Solidario Chile 2002 Proxy Means Testing
System for
Identifying
and Selecting
Beneficiaries
Familias en Accin Colombia 2000
(SISBEN),
Geographic targeting
and proxy means
testing
Geographic targeting
Dominican
Solidaridad 2005 and proxy means
Republic
testing
Bono de Desarrollo
Humano (Human Ecuador 2003 Proxy Means Testing
Development Bond)
Geographic targeting
Red Solidaria El Salvador 2005 and proxy means
testing
Geographic targeting
Mi Familia Progresa Guatemala 2008 and proxy means
testing
Geographic targeting
Programa de the poorest
Honduras 1998
Asignacin Familiar communities and
proxy means test
ApniBeti Apna Dhan
Poverty Line
(Our Daughter, Our India 1994
Estimates for girls
Wealth)
Poorest district
Jaring Pengamanan geographical
Indonesia 1998
Sosial targeting, community
assessment
Programme of
Advancement Through
Jamaica 2001 Proxy Means Test
Health and Education
(PATH)
Cash Transfer for Geographic targeting,
Orphans and Kenya community
2004
Vulnerable Children assessment
Oportunidades/PROGR Mexico Started during Proxy Means Test

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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ESA 1997 however and Geographical


name was Targeting
changed to
Oportunidades
in 2002.
Geographical
Started in 2005
Atencin a Crisis Nicaragua Targeting and Proxy
ended in 2006
means testing
Community
Care of the POOR
Nigeria 2008 targeting, proxy
(COPE)
means testing
Child Support Program Pakistan 2006 Proxy Means Testing
Red de Oportunidades Panama 2006 Proxy Means Testing
Geographical
Targeting, life quality
Tekopor/PROPAIS II Paraguay 2005
index and proxy
means testing
Proxy Means formula
was used to
determine the
eligibility based on
Juntos Peru 2005
poverty. Geographic
targeting and
community
validation.
Pantawid Pamilyang
Philippines 2008 Proxy Means Test
Pilipino Program (4Ps)
Social Risk Mitigation
Turkey 2001 Proxy Means Testing
Project
Basic Education Geographical
Yemen 2007
Development Project Targeting
Source: World Bank

Meanwhile, the eligibility requirements and conditions of receiving cash transfers in

these CCT programs are shown in the next table.

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Table 3: Eligibility Requirements and Conditions on Receiving Cash Transfers

Conditional
Cash Eligibility Conditions
Transfer
Health Condition: Pregnant
beneficiaries must avail pre and post
natal care. Children 0-5 years old must
Pantawid Households that have avail of the free vaccines and visit the
Pamilyang children 0-14 years of health center. Children 6-14 years old
Pilipino age and/or pregnant must take deworming pill twice a year.
Program women are eligible Health grant Php 500 per month
(4Ps) for the program. (regardless the number of children).
(Labonne, 2011) (Labonne, 2011)
Education Condition: For children 6-14
years old, must at least be present in
class 85% of the time. Php 300 per
child, maximum of 3 children.
Others: Parents should be present
during the Family Development
Sessions (once a month). Be active in
community activities. (Chaudhury &
Onishi, 2013)
Oportunidad Beneficiaries must be Children 0-23 months: must have the
es / from underserved required vaccines and monitoring
PROGRESA communities that are clinics must be visited every two
low-income months.
households. (Gertler, Children 24-60 months: every 4 months
2004) they must visit nutrition monitoring
clinics.
Pregnant women: obtain 5 pre-natal
care starting their first trimester and
health education.
Lactating women: once a year physical
checkup is required
All adult household members must join
the regular health meetings. (Gertler,
2004)
Education Condition: Child must have
an attendance rate of at least 80%
monthly and 93% annually. Child must

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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be finished with middle school. Child


was able to finish 12th grade before 22
years old. (Fiszbein & Schady, 2009).
Must belong to For 0-4 attend regular health checkups,
participating districts complete the vaccination required. For
selected on certain children 6-14: school attendance at least
Juntos criteria. Households 85% of the school year.
that have pregnant Pregnant and lactating mother should
and children under 14 attend prenatal and postnatal checkups.
were the only eligible (Vakis & Perova, 2009)
applicants for the Other condition includes joining the Mi
program. (Vakis & Nombre (My Name) program by
Perova, 2009) families ofchildren who do not have
birth certificate and/or identification
card for 18 years old above (Fiszbein &
Schady, 2009).
Poor and extremely Vaccination, regular checkups and
Bolsa poor families. monitoring of growth for children 0-6
Familia Households with per- years old
capita monthly Prenatal and postnatal checkups for
income below $56 pregnant and lactating women.
USD. School-age children enrolled in school
should have at least 85% attendance
each month. Join the parent-teacher
meeting (Fiszbein & Schady, 2009).
Eligibility Health Requirement: Children 0-6 years
Familias en requirements include old must be present in appointments set
Accin that households must by the health authorities. A grant of $17
be from the SISBEN per month.
level one. Meaning Education Requirement: Attendance
the poorest 20% must be 80% of school classes during
households in the school year. For 2nd-5th grade grant
Colombia. (Ayala, would be at $5, for 6th-11th grade grant
2006) would be $10. (Ayala, 2006)

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Education Requirements:
Programme To be eligible a Attendance in school must be 85% of
of household must get a the total number of school days for
Advancement certain eligibility children aged 6-17.
Through score based on the Health Requirement:
Health and questionnaire For children, aged 0-12 months 1 health
Education provided MLSS. visit every 2 months.
(PATH) (Ayala, 2006) For children, aged 12-17 months, 1
health visit every 6 months.
For elderly and disabled 1 health visit
every 6 months.
Approximately $10 is provided per
beneficiary per month. (Ayala, 2006)
Source: World Bank

The succeeding subsections will focus on the literature concerning the CCTs of

Mexico, Brazil, Peru and Honduras because of the numerous studies conducted on their

CCT programs.

Mexicos Oportunidades

Holmes et al. (2007) conducted interviews and surveys in determining the effect of

Oportunidades on social cohesion, which is defined as the willingness of citizens to

cooperate to achieve certain objectives (Stanley, 2003; Little, 2011). They found that

community engagements among beneficiaries improved because of the increase in the

accessibility of public goods. However, beneficiaries are discovered to be more detached to

non-beneficiaries, in a way that beneficiaries huddle together in civic engagement

activities. In the case of young adults who were beneficiaries of the program, community

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

participation improved and they are found to be more civil and have more civic knowledge

(Cortes, 2013).

Brazils Bolsa Familia

During the 2006 presidential elections in Brazil, there was a significant change in

support for the governing party in regions where Bolsa Familia beneficiaries are located

(Zucco, 2010). Fried (2012) explained the reason for this change in support stating that the

shift was because the poor citizens of Brazil based their election decision on the tangible

benefit they received from the political process, which was the Bolsa Familia.

Perus Juntos

Camacho (2014) studied the impact of Juntos on trust and social engagement. The

findings showed that trust among the non-beneficiaries decreased since these individuals

deem that the selection in availing the cash transfer is unfair. However, to those households

that are eligible, the study showed that government trust increased, while trust towards

other institutions remain unchanged. On the other hand, Juntos also increased civic

engagement in both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries through the increase of the number

of people who voted. The effect has not been attributed to material incentives although the

program made beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries more active in terms of voting behavior

(Perova, 2010).

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Colombias Familias en Accion

In a case study conducted by Attanasio et al. (2009), it has been observed

that the communities in Cartagena that received coverage from the Familias en Accin

exhibit a considerably higher level of community engagement in contrast to communities

that do not receive coverage from the CCT program. In this case, civic engagement is

measured as a component of social capital in the form of community members attendance

in civic organization meetings, as well as in their participation in the electoral process.

Honduras Programa de Asignacin Familiar

In the current Programa de Asignacin Familiar (PRAF), CCTs have an impact on

government support. It has been observed that the municipal-level government party that

implemented the program has a higher chance of being re-elected in municipalities that

have PRAF beneficiaries. However, there was no effect regarding the same government

party at national level elections (Linos, 2013). On the other hand, a slightly negative

outcome was found on support towards the incumbent government at national level, which

was hypothesized to be because of the infrequent cash transfers and difficulty in accessing

the money. The non-beneficiaries showed more support towards the government compared

to the beneficiaries (Krishnaswamy, 2012).

Given previous studies by researchers, impact evaluation of CCT on social aspects

is more focused on other countries. In the Philippines, the 4Ps is evaluated based on its

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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impact on economic indicators such as education and health. However, the cash transfer

that the beneficiaries receive might have a social impact on them because they might feel

gratified towards the government. This social impact could be in the form of civic

engagement.

Philippines Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program

In 2007, the Philippines implemented a conditional cash transfer program for the

poorest Filipino households. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program or 4Ps, which also

serves as the countrys version of CCT, is the central program of the many poverty

alleviation tactics applied. Other current poverty reduction programs include the

subsidized health insurance coverage, supplemental feeding program, the food for work

program, rice subsidy program, the Self-Employment Assistance-Kaunlaran (SEA-K) and

the Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan Comprehensive Integrated Delivery of Social

Service (KALAHI-CIDSS) (Geron, et al., 2011).

The 4Ps has been the proposed solution of the Philippine government to the

intergenerational poverty cycle by providing immediate financial support to poor

households, conditional upon investments in child education and health. The program has

the primary objectives of social assistance and social development. Social assistance aims

to promote short-term poverty alleviation through cash transfers, while social development,

aims to mitigate the persistent poverty pattern through investments in human capital.

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Moreover, it aims to contribute to the fulfillment of the 2015 Millennium Development

Goals (MDG). These are to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal

primary education, promote gender equality, reduce child mortality, and improve maternal

health (Reyes et al., 2012).

The conditions set by the program are the prenatal and postnatal care for pregnant

women, childbirth with the assistance health professionals, mandatory attendance in Family

Development Sessions (FDS), regular check-ups and vaccines for children below 5 years

old, semi-annual deworming for children between 6 and 14 years old, schooling of all

children below 18 years of age and at least 85% school attendance (DSWD, 2009).

The program selected municipalities based on the National Statistical Coordination

Board (NSCB) Small Area Estimates that determine the poorest municipalities by their

poverty incidence. Then, eligible beneficiaries are selected based on their characteristics.

Households with income not greater than the provincial poverty line are considered.

Moreover, households with children below 14 years of age or pregnant women are also

taken into consideration for the eligibility of the beneficiaries. In addition, National

Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS PR) is utilized based on

proxy variables such as housing type, assets ownership, household head educational

attainment, livelihood and access to water and sanitation facilities (DWSD, 2009).

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The 4Ps also promotes civic activities through its means of transferring cash.

According to DSWD (2009), through the implementation of the 4Ps, women were

empowered because they are the ones who are the primary recipient or holder of the

monetary transfers. In addition, belongingness is developed and opportunities to learn new

things are attained from community meetings, where individuals develop open

communication with the local government. Local officials show sharp provision and

commitment to the program by guaranteeing the active participation of focal persons on

health and education at the community level. Lastly, there has been a dynamic involvement

of the government including local officials from DSWD, Department of Education,

Department of Health, National Anti-Poverty Commission, and Department of Interior and

Local Government in controlling the 4Ps implementation and provision of apt

recommendations in order to ensure its regularity and broad consultations from the regional

to the municipal levels.

Since the 4Ps is patterned after CCT programs implemented in other countries such

as Mexico and Brazil, it is essential to know the similarities and differences between the

design of 4Ps and other CCTs. A table for the comparison of 4Ps and other CCTs is shown

in the table below.

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Table 4: Similarities and Differences of CCT Programs and 4Ps

Name of CCT Similarities with 4Ps Differences with 4Ps


Oportunidades / Uses Proxy Means Test Have no additional
PROGRESA and Geographical condition aside from
Targeting health and education
Payee: Mother condition.
Duration: as long as
eligible
Payment: bimonthly
Verification is done
bimonthly
Use Proxy Means Test Have other conditions
and Geographical relating to birth
Targeting certificates and
Juntos Payee: Mother identification card.
Payment: Monthly Verification of
compliance is done
every 3 months.

Uses Proxy Means Test Duration:


Bolsa Familia to identify eligibility Recertification every 2
Payee: Mother years as long as eligible
Payment: Monthly Verification compliance
is done bimonthly for
education and twice a
year for health
Uses Proxy Means Test Payment: Bimonthly
Familias en and Geographical Duration: As long as
Accin Targeting eligible
Payee: Mother Verification of
compliance is done
bimonthly
Uses Proxy Means Test Payee: Household
Programme of representative or his/her
Advancement agent
Through Health Duration: recertification
and Education must be done after 4
(PATH) years as long as eligible
Payment: bimonthly
Verification of

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compliance is done
every 2 months.

Source: World Bank

The CCTs chosen for comparison in the table are Mexicos Oportunidades, Perus

Juntos, Brazils Bolsa Familia, Colombias Familias en Accion, and Jamaicas PATH.

These are specifically chosen because the literature for these CCTs is extensive, and the

Philippines 4Ps is patterned after Oportunidades in Mexico and Bolsa Familia in Brazil.

Usually, the similarities between the 4Ps and these CCTs lies in the targeting method,

which is Proxy Means Testing, and the recipient of the cash transfer (except in the case of

PATH). This indicates that the economic state of households that are targeted with the

CCTs across different countries is similar. On the other hand, the differences of the 4Ps

with the CCTs of other countries include the duration of availability of the program and

frequency of verification program. This is crucial since the length of the availability of the

program entails a greater impact on CCT beneficiaries (Parker, 2012; De La O, 2013).

There are only a few intensive evaluations done on the 4Ps. These evaluations

showed ambiguous results. According to Chaudhury et al. (2013), 4Ps has increased school

attendance among children and increased long-term nutritional status of 6-36 months old

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children. However, Reyes et al. (2012) noted that the impact of the 4Ps is limited to

elevating the poorest of the poor status to the poverty threshold. Moreover, the Philippines

was met with supply-side constraints, such as shortages of classrooms, when the 4Ps was

implemented. Chaudhury et al (2013) also found discrepancies regarding the program

execution and several socio-environmental factors that accounts for the different impacts of

the 4Ps on different regions of the Philippines. Also, the different impacts of the 4Ps could

be attributed to the accessibility of the beneficiaries to schools and health clinics

(Chaudhury et al., 2013).

To conclude, the different social impacts of different CCTs are summarized in the

table below. It should be noted that some common results include the higher probability for

re-election of the incumbent officer, and the neutrality in the impact of CCTs on civic

activities on a national level. Hence, this study will address the research gap of assessing

the impact of the 4Ps on a national and specific level.

Table 5: CCTs and Their Literature

Conditional Cash Methodology Results of Study


Transfer
Pantawid Pamilyang Average In the case of the Philippines, even
Pilipino Program (4Ps) Treatment if the incumbent has no role in
Effects implementing or influencing CCT program
in the municipality the incumbent is still
electorally benefitted (Labonne, 2011).

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Oportunidades/PROG Difference-in- According to De La O (2013), the


RESA Difference longer the beneficiary is enrolled in
Estimator Progresa the higher participation in voting.
Also, CCT increase the votes for the
incumbent. There is also an increase in the
engagement of the beneficiaries. Another
reason for voting is the reciprocity from the
cash transfers received.

Juntos Difference-in- Camachos (2014) study showed


Differences that trust among the non-beneficiaries
Strategy, OLS decreased, since these individuals deem that
the selection in availing the CCT is unfair.
However, to eligible households it showed
that government trust increased, although
there is no change in the trust towards other
institutions. Civic engagement increased in
both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries
through the increase of the number of
people who voted.

Bolsa Familia Propensity Zucco (2011), showed the


Score Matching probability of re-election for incumbent
officials that are known to provide BFP
coverage is much higher regardless of the
fact that benefits are distributed universally.
Moreover, non-beneficiaries that live in
areas with expansive BFP coverage are
known to adhere to a pro-incumbent
electoral stance as opposed to other non-
beneficiaries.
Familias en Accin Fuzzy In the case of Familias en Accion,
Regression high political rewards may affect the choice
Discontinuity, of policies and projects of the government,
OLS as government funds are concentrated on
CCTs (Nupia et al., 2011). It was seen that
the beneficiaries showed more eagerness to
vote in the presidential elections. This
shows that the monetary transfers possibly
influenced the voters choices (Baez et al.,
2012).

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Programme of Regression It has been observed that the


Advancement Discontinuity municipal-level government party that
Through Health and Design, implemented the program has a higher
Education (PATH) Randomization chance of being re-elected in municipalities
of Treatment that have beneficiaries. However, there was
no effect regarding the same government
party at national level elections (Linos,
2013). A slightly negative outcome was
found on support towards the incumbent
government at national level, a possible
reason is because of the infrequent cash
transfers and difficulty in accessing the
money. The non-beneficiaries showed more
support towards the government compared
to the beneficiaries (Krishnaswamy, 2012).

Source: World Bank

The succeeding sections will discuss the definition of civic engagement and its

indicators that are used in the study. Related studies will aid the researchers in discussing

the link between Pamilyang Pantawid Pilipino Program and civic engagement activities

such as voting participation, and membership in community organizations. The literature

will be assessed to see the effect of cash transfer programs on civic engagement across

different countries.

Civic Engagement

Civic engagement does not have a specific and universal definition (Levine, 2012).

For instance, World Bank defined civic engagement as the direct and indirect interaction of

the citizens to business establishments and the state in order to accomplish common

objectives. In a simpler definition, civic engagement encourages better welfare through

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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participation in political and nonpolitical activities (Ehrlich, 2000). These activities range

from organizational involvement to electoral participation (Adler et al., 2005; Berger,

2009). Nonetheless, these activities are grounded on the intention of a citizen to accomplish

civic acts.

Democratic countries have been known to promote civic engagement, and this

concept may be viewed at the local and national level (Ruf, 2013). At state level, civic

engagement could involve the funding of insurance for health centers (Szilagyi et al.,

2000). Meanwhile, civic engagement at the local level is more important since national

civic engagement could only be achieved through the aggregation of individual civic

engagements (Ruf, 2013). Adler et al. (2005) denoted local civic engagement as

participation in civic activities that are within reach in the local community, such as

participation in community organizations and voting. Despite democratic values being

reflected in civic engagement, people that are more likely to participate are those with

higher resources such as income and education. Those who have more understanding and

opinions towards politics and its system are more likely to engage in civic engagement

activities (Uslaner, 2003).

Although the specific definitions of civic engagement vary, these

definitions are grounded on the key concepts of community involvement and political

participation for the common good. Since this study will also be analyzing impacts on a

community level, the definition of civic engagement for the purpose of this research is the

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community involvement of an individual through electoral participation and membership in

community organizations.

Civic engagement is inherent in a democratic country like the Philippines. Filipinos

are known to exercise democracy through political and communal engagement activities

such as voting in elections and joining in community organizations. Since the Philippines is

a democratic and developing country, social development and anti-poverty programs are

expected to reinforce democracy and civic responsibility among its citizens (Baez et al.,

2012).

Cash Transfer and Civic Engagement

Majority of the studies concerning CCTs were centered on evaluating the intended

effects of the program, which are improvement in education, labor, health, and poverty

status of the program beneficiaries. However, along with these intended effects are indirect

effects of the program. These usually cover the impact of the program on social and

political aspects, such as civic engagement (Baez et al., 2012; Camacho, 2014; Perova,

2010).

According to Narayan (1999), the determination of the social impact of CCTs is

crucial because this impact could positively contribute to overall welfare through

improving social cohesion and capital stock of a country. Social cohesion refers to the

collective acts of a community in dealing with societal issues (Berger-Schmitt, 2000).

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Identifying the CCT programs contribution to capital stock is crucial, as capital stock is

one of the factors of economic growth (African Development Bank, 2014).

Some studies found that conditional cash transfers could have potential links

on civic engagement. De Janvry et al. (2010) noted that in Brazils Bolsa Escola, a

decentralized CCT program under Bolsa Familia, intended to decrease school dropout rates

among poor children while entrusting local officials with the selection of eligible

beneficiaries. Those mayors with the highest program performance on beneficiaries

increase their chances of reelection (De Janvry et al., 2010). Furthermore, beneficiaries

showed reciprocity through more civic engagement activities, such as participation in

elections (De Janvry et al., 2010).

In Perus Juntos, it was explained that there are three factors that affected

the civic engagement of CCTs beneficiaries (Perova, 2010). First is the selective material

gratification, wherein the beneficiaries receive monetary incentives, which made them

believe that there would be extensions of incentives through supporting the government.

Second is the change in the outlook of beneficiaries towards the government wherein the

beneficiaries saw the governments capability and readiness to address the problems in the

community. This made the beneficiaries more interested in the governments activities.

Lastly, the social interaction that is required in the program also exposed the beneficiaries

to civic actions (Perova, 2010).

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In Kenyas Cash Transfer Program (CTP), Ressler (2008) identified the length of

the period wherein beneficiaries received the cash grant. He also obtained the degree of

knowledge that beneficiaries have about the program. He found out that the beneficiary

with a longer experience in the program and a deeper understanding of the program

participates in more civic engagement activities compared to others who have just received

their initial cash grant.

As previous literature focused on the effects of conditional cash transfer on the civic

engagement of beneficiaries in general, the next two subsections will classify previous

impact evaluation analyses of conditional cash transfer on specific indicators of civic

engagement such as voting behavior and participation in community organizations,

respectively.

According to Perova (2010) who studied the impact of CCT program Juntos in Peru

on civic engagement emphasizing on voting, the cash transfer program may affect political

participation of individuals through political budget cycles. These budget cycles refer to

monetary incentives, changes in government perception, and social interactions required by

the program. The cash transfer may affect the perception of individuals on governments

responsiveness. Furthermore, the requirements of CCT programs that are focused on social

interactions can influence even non-beneficiaries to support the government. Hence, will

increase support on the government in general through civic engagement activities.

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Cash Transfer and Voting Behavior

Voting is one of the main determinants of civic engagement. There are different

factors that affect the voting behavior of people. These include education and income.

Coley et al. (2012) found that in the case of the United States of America, citizens in the

upper classes in terms of income and education are more likely to engage in civic activities.

A more educated person is more knowledgeable in civic knowledge. Hence, this person has

a higher probability of exercising his right to vote (Uslaner, 2003).

Voter turnout is defined as the number of registered voters who voted in an election

(Roberts, 2009). A high voter turnout brings a desirable effect given that it reinforces

democracy in the country. In the case of the Philippines, 85% of its citizens exercise their

right to vote despite the difficulties in the process of election voting (Sallaveria, 2010).

However, this ratio does not specify the type and class of citizens who vote.

According to Ericta et al. (2003), Region IV and NCR region had the biggest

voting turnouts, whereas the CARAGA region had the smallest voting turnouts ever since

year 2000. Furthermore, last 2010 automated elections, voter turnout for women is 75.7%

which was slightly greater than the voter turnout for men at 74.4% (PCW, 2014). This

implies that gender doesnt make any much difference when it comes to voting today.

Aside from gender, socioeconomic factors like literacy, educational attainment and

employment, determine the voting turnout in the Philippines. Ericta et al. (2003) found that

higher percentage of Filipino voters have completed at least elementary education and there

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was a projected literacy rate at 92% of the voting population. Meanwhile, 88.76% of the

voting population was employed. Hence, this entails that Filipino voters have a high

educational attainment and employability.

Baez et al. (2012) found that political views could be reflected in cash transfer

beneficiaries in Colombias Familia en Accion, especially among women. He discovered

that women beneficiaries tend to vote more compared to men and change their candidate

choices given additional information on the significance of voting participation. This is

because women are the primary recipients of the monetary transfers of the CCT. With this,

women became more supportive of candidates promoting social welfare projects such as

the cash transfer program.

Through implementing CCT in a country, beneficiaries could be persuaded to

exercise their voting rights. CCT could be the strategy to have greater support on the

incumbent, hence the increase in voter turnout (Baez et al., 2012). However, De La O

(2013) noted that in Mexicos Progresa, CCTs act as a mobilizing factor for citizens to

vote rather than merely persuading them. This means that beneficiaries are empowered to

vote for the long run, as their civic participation improves.

Zucco (2011) found in his case study of Brazils Bolsa Familia Program (BFP) that

the probability of reelection for incumbent officials that are known to provide BFP

coverage is much higher regardless of the fact that benefits are distributed universally.

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Moreover, non-beneficiaries that live in areas with expansive BFP coverage are known to

adhere to a pro-incumbent electoral stance as opposed to other non-beneficiaries. The study

concluded that election monitoring is not necessary in order to derive electoral returns for

candidates; it is only required that the benefits of the CCT program is observed and felt by

the voters. Reinforcing these results, Baez et al. (2012) found that the CCT program has

driven beneficiaries to register and re-elect incumbent officials either as a reward for their

services or from fear of losing CCT benefits.

Most citizens are more likely to support the incumbent because of the

implementation of anti-poverty programs and social policies that are geared toward the

masses. In the case of Colombias Familias en Acciones, high political rewards may affect

the choice of policies and projects of the government, as government funds are

concentrated on CCTs (Nupia et al., 2011). It was seen that the beneficiaries showed more

eagerness to vote in the presidential elections. This shows that the monetary transfers

possibly influenced the voters choices (Baez et al., 2012). Hence, there is a positive

correlation between reelection and CCT in Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay.

The duration of the beneficiarys enrollment in the program also has an effect in

voting. De La O (2013) stated in his study about Mexicos Progresa that the longer a

household is enrolled in the program the higher the participation in voting. It was also

concluded that there is an increase in votes for the incumbent due to the program.

Moreover, increase in the engagement of the beneficiaries was also observed in the case of

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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Progresa. A reason for voting and higher engagement is the reciprocity from the cash

transfers received (De La O, 2013).

In the study of Labonne (2011), it was observed in the Philippines that even if local

incumbents are poor performing officials, with the aid of involvement in 4Ps, these

officials can still be reelected. Furthermore, even if the incumbent has no role in

implementing or influencing 4Ps in the municipality the incumbent is still electorally

benefitted, since voters are think that they should merit the incumbent from the cash

transfers they received (Labonne, 2011).

Cash Transfer and Community Participation

One of the fundamental objectives of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program

(4Ps) is to involve its citizens in community organizations specifically in the

implementation of the program itself. Skovdal et al. (2013) stated that the main

responsibility of the program is to organize community meetings and verify eligible

beneficiaries. He said that every citizen has important roles in the planning and

implementation of the program such that each oversees the check and balances, monitor

compliance of beneficiaries on conditions, and facilitate parenting skills classes.

It is often mistaken that community development and community participation have

the same definition. Mathbor (2008) implied that community participation is a component

of community development, which is defined as to have a share in or take part in.

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Community participation is also the voluntary engagement of individuals in a situation that

will enhance their standard of living (Chaudhury et al., 2013).

In this study, community participation is measured through an individuals

membership in community organizations. Community participation is highlighted in civic

engagement because it gives additional satisfaction for having an open community

involvement where the citizens and the local government have a transparent and

harmonious relationship with each other (Reid, 2000). Putnam (2000) explained some

factors that affect community participation include education, income and age. According

to him, a person with higher education will more likely volunteer in community

organizations, as education is one of the main indicators of civic engagement. Furthermore,

in terms of income, the poor offer more time for civic engagement activities while the rich

offer more money for social issues. Lastly, in terms of age, younger citizens focus less on

news, volunteering, and other civic engagement activities.

Diaz (2012) stated in his study on Mexicos Oportunidades that the program was

able to increase community engagement since there were volunteers from the beneficiaries.

Most volunteered for the position of being community spokeswoman for the support of

implementation of the program. The volunteers task includes addressing the questions of

beneficiaries regarding the program. Due to these practices, the program promotes

transparency.

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In relation to this, Bjornskov (2008) explained that institutional character and

subjective well-being of community members is often paired with trust. There could be an

indirect effect on the trust of community members since cash transfer programs are usually

paired with government development projects. It is not the local government alone who

monitor on how the cash was spent because community members help them. Hence,

community members develop trust and sense of belongingness in the program

implementation.

Reid (2000) concluded that a community with higher citizen participation

has higher community spirit and resource acquisition. There is also a manifestation of

control over their governing boards, and a more diverse board membership. Hence, citizen

participation is crucial in strengthening community relationships.

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CHAPTER III. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The theoretical bases of this study are the Human Capital Theory, Social Capital

Theory and Spillover Effects. Human Capital Theory indicates the importance of

investments in human capital of a country, while Social Capital Theory, which explains

social network where individuals work together to improve well being. Spillover effects

refer to the externality that is sourced from CCT.

Human Capital Theory

Human capital refers to the set of skills that an individual can contribute to

productivity. These skills are usually dependent on education, health and work ethic of an

individual (LSE Economics, 2014). The concept of human capital is rooted in Adam

Smiths The Wealth of Nations where he described that the wage level of a worker is

positively related to the skill of the said worker, which is now widely regarded as the

theory of compensating wage differentials (Kern, 2009). Thereafter, economist Theodore

Schultz, who is credited with coining the term human capital, proposed that humans (not

technology) are the primary driving force for economic growth. Moreover, Schultz also

established that education and productivity are factors that are positively related (Kern,

2009). Hence, the human capital theory states that when capital is invested in education and

training programs, then human capital will improve (Fitzsimons, 1999).

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According to Kwon (2009), human capital can make an impact on an individual

(employment opportunities), organizational (core competencies and competitiveness) and

societal (socio-political development) level. Furthermore, Kwon (2009) cites that human

capital can be measured using an output-based approach (through measuring school

enrolment rates, literacy and other educational variables), a cost-based approach (through

measuring the costs of education) and an income-based approach (through measuring the

benefits incurred through education and training).

Putting all the aforementioned insights into perspective, it is intuitive that returns on

human capital stem from the education and health invested on children. For a given

household, investments on children depend on the household income and number of

children in the household. For a given level of income, more investment is distributed on

each child with fewer children in the household. With this, countries with little human

capital are usually characterized by large family size and invest little on each child. On the

contrary, those with abundant capital invest more on fewer kids. Thus, a country would be

well off if there are more investments in children, and long-term physical capital

accumulation (Tamura et al., 1990).

Social Capital Theory

According to Garson (2006), social capital can be defined as the resources that are

integral in social relations, which help facilitate cooperative and collaborative action within

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a society. These resources may include, but are not limited to, socio-cultural norms such as

trust, friendship and goodwill, as well as networks of association that work towards a

common goal. Although the social capital theory has not yet been fully established due to

the complexity of social capital and its components, it can be loosely theorized to describe

that productivity can be derived from the social bonds, bridges and linkages that people

share and utilize (OECD, n.d.). Given that a conditional cash transfer program is a part of a

social network where individuals develop social relationships in order to strengthen their

well being, social capital is imperative with regard to the programs success, especially

since the social network in this study is composed of the government, the community, and

the household members. Using the social capital theory as a basis, the cash transfer

program can be seen as a form of social protection method in order to alleviate poverty and

vulnerability through giving cash transfers. Hence, there is a need to develop relationship

between the government and community for a proper implementation of the program

(Ressler, 2008).

Spillover Effects

Spillover effect is defined as the unintended impact of a certain program on

individuals that are not targeted by the program (Jaffe, 1996). Spillovers can also be

viewed as externalities, which could be positive or negative depending on the private and

social gains and costs incurred (Helbling, 2010). According to Jaffe (1996), spillovers can

be categorized into market spillovers (tangible benefits received by society), knowledge

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spillovers (use of knowledge without compensation) and network spillovers (program

benefits become highly valued as more people become beneficiaries). As such, spillover

effects may also be present in CCT programs. This is because the resources that the

beneficiaries use are the same resources used by non-beneficiaries (Angelucci et al., 2010).

In addition, the social interactions between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries could have

an influencing factor on the non-beneficiaries. For instance, children from non-beneficiary

households may share the academic materials that are given to children from beneficiary

households (Angelucci et al., 2010). Overall, externalities can be attributed to CCT

programs, especially with regard to schooling (positive effect on school enrolment),

economic (positive effects on inequality and food consumption), social (positive effects on

human and physical capital prospects) and health (positive effects on nutrition and health

consciousness) indicators (Lehmann, 2010).

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CHAPTER IV. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This study is grounded on concepts from behavioral studies which are

supplemented with economic theories: Selective Material Gratification which implies that

beneficiaries would be inclined to reciprocate the gratitude that they obtain from cash

transfers received; Social Engagement which denotes civic solidarity as the precondition

for civic activities; and Political Budget Cycle Model, in which political budget cycles are

used to determine the impact of government intervention on government support.

Selective Material Gratification

Selective material gratification refers to beneficiaries feeling gratified by receiving

cash transfers (Perova, 2010). In this case, the selectivity refers to the feeling of

gratification as expressed by the beneficiary group only, while materialism refers to the

cash received by the beneficiaries. Since beneficiaries receive additional cash, their poverty

status is improved., The additional cash would aid them in their additional expenses

pertaining to health and education. Hence, beneficiaries will feel more gratified towards the

government. This will serve as an incentive to reciprocate the benefits that they receive by

participating in civic activities (Verba et al., 1995).

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Social Engagement

Conditional cash transfers require beneficiaries to meet certain requirements in

order to continue receiving cash transfers. This includes attendances in health clinics,

educational activities and other orientations. This would allow them to interact more with

community members and hence form a social network with them. Putnam (2000) said this

would create some level of trust and reciprocity between them. This is termed as civil

solidarity, and aside from the role of this concept on socioeconomic modernization, this is

also considered as a precondition for voters turnout and membership in organizations. This

is because when civil solidarity is developed, influences on the collective action of the

networks in the community would be developed. Hence, there is an impact on civic

engagement.

Political Budget Cycle Model

Drazen et al. (2006) developed the Political Budget Cycle Model. The model uses

political budget cycles, specifically government expenditures, on the public to determine

the impact of government intervention on the behavior of voters. Voters who are supported

by a government group turned out to be motivated to vote for that particular government

group, signaling an influence of government programs on support for the government. In

the case of conditional cash transfer, which is a form of government intervention,

beneficiaries could then have an increased support for the government. For the non-

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beneficiaries, the effects could also be positive since they would have expectations of being

compensated in the future should they support the government.

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CHAPTER V. OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK

In this section, the variables, a priori expectations, and hypothesized econometric

model applied to evaluate the impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on civic

engagement in the Philippines is discussed. The researchers will employ impact evaluation

analysis to determine the outcomes caused by the program. It is important to know the

outcomes of the treatment group and the non-treatment group in order to determine the

impact of the treatment.

Descriptions of the Variables Used

Before the estimation of the effect of 4Ps on civic engagement in the Philippines, it

is important to be familiar with the definitions and measurements of the variables used in

this study. In this paper, the researchers used the Community Based Monitoring System

2011 Household Profile Questionnaire, wherein the household survey includes questions

about participating in Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), voting in the last

election of year 2010 and participating in community organizations. From this, the

independent variable was named pantawid, in order to sort out the 4Ps beneficiaries and

non-beneficiaries for matching. This is shown in Table 2 in Appendix A. The researchers

set the beneficiary status as a dummy variable wherein:

0 = non-beneficiary
1 = beneficiary

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Moreover, the dependent variables were named voted and orgind, in order to

determine the effect of 4Ps on civic engagement. This is shown in Table 3 in Appendix A.

The researchers set both of these as dummy variables, wherein:

0 = did not vote / did not join org


1 = voted / joined org

Other variables were drawn from the household survey questions, such as the

household characteristics, (e.g.housing type, assets ownership, livelihood and access to

water and sanitation facilities.) household head job employment, household head

educational attainment, and other livelihood. These are the characteristics that were

included in the Proxy Means Test, which is the main tool used by officials for targeting

eligible beneficiaries for 4Ps (Grosh et al., 1995). The Proxy Means Test is the combination

of variables from the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) and Labor Force

Survey (LFS) of 2003 (Fernandez, 2012). In this study, the variables that are used are

based on the Proxy Means Test variables in Chaudhury et al. (2003) that are in accordance

with the balance test that will be conducted for the propensity score matching

methodology. The definitions and forms of measurement of the aforementioned variables

are summarized in Table 1 in Appendix A.

Traditional Regression vs. Matching

It is important to note that traditional regression is not appropriate for this study

because the 4Ps requires its beneficiaries to meet certain qualifications before granting

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them cash transfers. Regression assumes random selection, and therefore tends to

generalize information regarding the gap between the participants and non-participants

(Khandker et al., 2010). Thus, consistent estimates would be difficult to attain because

there is a tendency that households that are being compared have different characteristics.

Thus, it would be difficult to establish a counterfactual (Khandker et al., 2010).

Furthermore, doing traditional regression analysis will cause spurious results

(Granger et al., 1974). Spurious relationships among variables occur when it is assumed

that there are causal connections among variables, when in fact there are none. This false

inference of causality may be due to exclusion of a confounding variable, which can affect

the dependent variable by making it appear to be related to the independent variables.

Inclusion of this variable improves the goodness of fit of the model. However, if this is

excluded and variables are correlated, then the model will overestimate or underestimate

the results due to this omission. This false estimation is also known in econometrics as

omitted variable bias.

In order to reduce the bias brought about by confounding variables, the statistical

technique of matching will be used (Austin, 2011). Employing matching in this study will

assess the effects of the 4Ps on civic engagement by matching the propensity scores of the

beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries with the most similar characteristics to the participants.

If they are perfectly matched, then the treatment effect for the beneficiaries will be

obtained.

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Matching

Matching is a statistical technique that is widely used in observational studies. In a

typical dataset, the observations contain both unique and similar characteristics (Kum et al.,

2008). Using a software, the observations with similar characteristics are matched to form a

common region.

Matching is a popular method that is used in different scientific fields such as

economics and medicine (Stuart, 2010). In economics, a specific technique of matching is

usually used to measure treatment effects of government policies and programs. This

method is known as the propensity score matching.

Propensity Score Matching

Propensity score matching is a quantitative methodology that is widely used in

analyzing program effects on the treatment group. This involves constructing a control

group that has similar attributes as the treatment group (Dehejia et al, 2002). The

beneficiaries of the program are then matched to the non-beneficiaries in the control group

based on their propensity scores, or the probability of the non-beneficiaries being chosen in

the program (Khandker et al., 2010). In this way, the treatment effect for the beneficiaries

could then be estimated after obtaining the mean difference between the two groups.

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Although propensity score matching is adapted by several conditional cash transfer

impact evaluation, the applicability efficiency of this method relies in the fulfillment of its

conditions. Its first requirement is called the conditional independence assumption

(Khandker et al., 2010). This states that the outcomes are not related to the treatment

assignment, given observational characteristics. Furthermore, this assumption also implies

that PSM is based solely on observable attributes of the beneficiaries and the non-

beneficiaries. In the case of the 4Ps, the targeting method uses Proxy Means Test. This test

selects beneficiaries based on observable assets that a household possesses. Hence, the first

requirement of PSM is satisfied.

The second condition of PSM is called the overlap condition (Khandker et al.,

2010). This states that at least a significant portion of the beneficiaries and non-

beneficiaries must have similar observable characteristics, which enables the establishment

of a region of common support. For the satisfaction of this condition, the researchers

gathered a large pooled dataset of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries to increase the

probability of common support. According to Khandker et al. (2010), identical

questionnaire should be used for surveying the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries to

ensure consistency of results. Following this suggestion, the researchers used CBMS data,

as CBMS applied the same questionnaire for surveying different households across

different provinces in the Philippines. The similarity of the questionnaires will make the

results of this study more consistent.

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The study aims to estimate the effect of 4Ps on its beneficiaries regarding civic

engagement using PSM. This implicitly involves the construction of a logistics model to

estimate the propensity scores (Khandker et al., 2010). This is shown in equation 1 and 2.

= = 1 Eq. 1

= = 0 Eq. 2

The estimated propensity score, , is obtained based on observable covariates,

denoted by X. The observable covariates are taken from the Proxy Means Test variables

that are used in targeting beneficiaries. The dummy variables T=1 represents the treatment

group while T=0 denotes non-treatment group. In the set of equations above, Equation 1

represents the propensity scores obtained from the beneficiaries of the 4Ps, while Equation

2 represents the propensity scores obtained from non-beneficiaries.

After the propensity score is estimated, the region of common support must be

established (Khandker et al., 2010). In order to establish the region of common support, the

treatment observations must have similar characteristics as the control units. Hence, the

excess control units that are not included in the region of common support are dropped.

0< =1 <1 Eq. 3

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Equation 3 represents the overlap condition for estimating the treatment effect for

the treated. The Balancing Test will be conducted to verify the overlap or similarity of the

distribution of the treatment and the comparison group (Khandker et al., 2010). In

conducting a Balancing Test, Equation 4 must be verified.

= 1 = (| = 0) Eq. 4

After the region of common support is established, the observations are then

matched based on their propensity scores (Khandker et al., 2010). The matching technique

that will be used in this study is the Nearest-neighbor matching technique. This involves

matching each beneficiary with the non-beneficiary that has the most proximate propensity

score (Khandker et al., 2010).

After matching is done, the average treatment effect for the treated is estimated

(Khandker et al., 2010). The general equation for this is denoted in Equation 5.

= ! ! , = 1 = ! , = 1 (! |, = 1) Eq. 5

The average treatment effect is defined as the impact of a treatment variable on the

dependent variable, wherein the treatment variable is a binary variable that takes the value

of 1 if treated and 0 if not treated (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2014). In this

study, the treatment variable is T=1 if the observation is a beneficiary of the 4Ps, while T=0

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if the observation is not a beneficiary of the 4Ps. After estimating the average treatment

effect for the treated, the likelihood that a beneficiary will participate in civic engagement

activities is obtained.

Hypothesized Econometric Model

The study aims to estimate the effect of 4Ps on its beneficiaries regarding civic

engagement using Propensity Score Matching. After matching is done, the general equation

for average treatment effect for the treated is estimated in these equations:

= !!"#$% !!"#$% , = 1 = !!"#$% , = 1 (!!"#$% |, = 1) Eq. 6

= !!"#$%& !!"#$%& , = 1 = !!"#$%& , = 1 (!!"#$%& |, = 1) Eq. 7

The average treatment effect is defined as the impact of a treatment variable on the

dependent variable, wherein the treatment variable is a binary variable that takes the value

of 1 if treated and 0 if not treated (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2014). In this

study, the treatment variable is T=1 if the observation is a beneficiary of the 4Ps, while T=0

if the observation is not a beneficiary of the 4Ps.

Equation 6 shows the hypothesized model for the treatment effect for voting, while

Equation 7 shows the model for the treatment effect for organizational membership. Both

equations have the same independent variables. After estimating the average treatment

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effect for the treated, the likelihood that a beneficiary will participate in civic engagement

activities is obtained.

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CHAPTER VI. METHODOLOGY

In economic policy analysis, the most important aspect in evaluating a policy

intervention, like the 4Ps, is applying an appropriate methodology in obtaining a credible

estimate. With non-experimental data, this study will use the method of Propensity Score

Matching before estimating the treatment effect for the treated group.

Presentation of Data

The study aims to determine the impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program

on civic engagement activities such as voter turnout and community organization

participation among households across different regions. The source of these variables are

to be obtained from the Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS), which is a source

for policymakers and development practitioners to collect organized data from local

government units, national government agencies, and non-government organizations

through the utilization of survey questionnaires (Partnership for Economic Policy, 2014).

In this paper, the researchers will utilize the recent version of CBMS 2011

Household Profile Questionnaire to ensure of timely and relevant results. Based on

Appendix B - Figure 1, the household questionnaire includes questions about participating

in the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, voting in the last election of year 2010 and

participating in community organizations, which are the main variables to be used in the

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study. Also, the 4Ps beneficiaries and the data of the household profiles to determine the

eligibility of households in the program can be obtained from the questionnaire such as the

housing type, assets ownership, household head educational attainment, livelihood and

access to water and sanitation facilities.

The sample data of this study includes the provinces with beneficiaries from the

regions that are covered by the CBMS survey last 2011. The targeted provinces and

municipalities with the available 2011 data are Pasay in NCR region; Kalibo, Aklan in

Region VI; and Surigao del Norte in CARAGA Region. These provinces are from

different island groups (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) of the Philippines. Pasay will

represent Luzon island with 70,481 observations, Kalibo will represent Visayas island with

13,517 observations and Surigao will represent Mindanao island with 6,320 observations.

Methodology for the Study

The objective of determining the general impacts of the 4Ps on civic engagement is

addressed by aggregating all the datasets from CBMS Household Survey 2011 into a single

dataset before using Stata 13 to run the PSM. On the other hand, the second objective is

answered by grouping the datasets according to Philippine island groups then performing

the PSM on each of these datasets. Country level analysis, island group level analysis and

island group comparison will be done in the study. In the country level analysis, all the data

from the provinces selected will be put together and run by PSM. PSM will be done for

Luzon-Visayas-Mindanao to determine the aggregate impact of 4Ps on civic engagement in

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the Philippines. In the island group level, data will be pooled by island group and run by

PSM separately. This is done to estimate the treatment effects per island group. In the

island group comparison, PSM will be done for Luzon-Visayas, Luzon-Mindanao and

Visayas-Mindanao to determine if there are differences in the treatment effects when

matched with a different island group.

Figure 2: Methodology of the Study

OBTAIN REGION OF
PROPENSITY COMMON BALANCING TREATMENT
TEST
EFFECTS
BOOTSTRAPPING

SCORE
SUPPORT

The figure above summarizes the step-by-step process in order to determine the

treatment effects of 4Ps using propensity score matching. The first assumption that the

covariates must be observable is satisfied, since the variables used as covariates in this

study are household and household head characteristics. After this is satisfied, the statistical

software implicitly used logistic regression to generate the propensity score for each

observation. The logistic regression denotes the probability that a household is selected as a

beneficiary of the 4Ps based on the household assets that they possess or the characteristics

of the household and household head. Commonly, the pseudo R2 is observed to check how

well the econometric model fits the data. However, in the case of a logistic regression, the

R2 tends to be lower than usual because the coefficients in the results are merely the natural

logarithm of the odds ratio. Because of this, the coefficients still have to be converted to the

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odds ratio by computing for their anti-log. The logistics regression function creates a new

column in the dataset. This dataset contains the different propensity scores assigned to each

household. These propensity scores are computed based on the household and household

head characteristics, and the assets that the household possesses.

After the software generates the propensity scores, Stata implicitly finds the region

of common support, or the range of propensity scores wherein there are matches between

the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. As a general rule, there should exist a region of

common support for the second condition of PSM to be satisfied. The non-beneficiaries

that are matched will be retained, while the unmatched non-beneficiaries are dropped. After

this, Stata, summarizes the new dataset generally and by percentile.

To assure that the propensity scores obtained are meaningful, the software conducts

a balancing test to assure that the balancing property is satisfied. The software conducts the

balancing test by stratifying the observations by block depending on the matches between

the propensity scores of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries.

The software indicates the results of the balancing test. If the propensity score

estimates are not balanced, the software indicates the variables that make the results

unbalanced. Hence, a re-specification of the variables (e.g. removing the unbalanced

variables, changing the variable combination) is done. After re-specifying the variables,

then the propensity score algorithm is run again until the balancing property is satisfied.

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When the balancing property is satisfied, the second condition of the PSM is achieved.

Hence, the propensity scores can be used to estimate the average treatment effect for the

treated.

For the treatment effects, the nearest neighbor matching will be used. This

matching if effective for treatment effects for the treated estimates, since this considers all

treatment observations. Hence, only control observations will be dropped. There have been

arguments that the nearest neighbor matching technique reduces the number of

observations, but this is mainly because of the number of unmatched control observations

that are dropped (Stuart, 2010). In the case of this study, the reduced number of

observations is still applicable for statistical testing.

The treatment effects for the treated for voting and organizational membership are

executed through Stata. Results use the t-statistic as the indicator for significance. Hence, a

t-statistic with an absolute value of at least 1.96 indicates that results are significant.

Finally, the standard errors will be bootstrapped for them to approximate their true values.

Since this study aims to conduct a country-level and island-group level analysis on

the effects of 4Ps on civic engagement activities, more than one PSM will be run using

Stata. To estimate the country-level impact of 4Ps on civic engagement, the researchers

will pool data from different provinces into a single dataset, then perform PSM to obtain

the general treatment effects.

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To estimate the island-group (Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao) level, the researchers will

classify the data from different provinces into their corresponding island group, then pool

the data into three separate datasets per island group (Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao). Hence,

there will be one pooled data for Luzon, one pooled data from Visayas and one pooled data

from Mindanao. PSM will be run separately for each pooled data to obtain the treatment

effect for each island group. Furthermore, PSM will be run for pooled datasets for

beneficiaries belonging to (i) Luzon-Visayas, (ii) Luzon-Mindanao and (iii) Visayas-

Mindanao. This is to indicate whether the beneficiaries have different voting turnout and

organizational membership status based on their geographical locations. It is important to

note that the treatment effects will be run separately for voting turnout and organizational

membership, since the treatment effects for the treated can only handle a binary dependent

variable.

PSM will be done 7 times to obtain 7 different propensity scores. Likewise, the

treatment effects for voting and organizational membership are run on the software 7 times

for each effect. The analysis column displays the type of analysis that the researchers will

do. The data column refers to the dataset that the researchers will use in doing the

corresponding analysis. The PSM column shows the number of propensity score

matching runs that will be done in Stata corresponding to the specific analysis, while the

outcome is the result that will be obtained.

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CHAPTER VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

After running all the datasets for Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao, Luzon-Visayas,

Visayas-Mindanao, Luzon-Mindanao, and Luzon-Visayas-Mindanao, the researchers

examine the results per island-group level, island group comparison, and countrywide

level. In this section, the descriptive summary of statistics for all the results obtained, then

the discussion of the algorithm in estimating the propensity scores is done, then the results

on the effects of 4Ps on voting and community participation is analyzed. Lastly, the

underlying concepts and explanations about the results are discussed. The general results

are shown in table below.

Table 6. Summary of Results

Organizational
Dataset Voting Turnout
Membership
Luzon 1.40%** 7.20%***
Visayas 1.30% -0.70%
Mindanao 1.10% -0.40%
Luzon-Visayas -4.30%*** 13.4%***
Visayas-Mindanao -0.40% -33%***
Luzon-Mindanao -4%*** -19.5%***
Luzon-Visayas-Mindanao 7.20% 9.30%
* significant at = 0.10
** significant at = 0.05
*** significant at = 0.01

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Table 6 summarizes the outcomes of the study. Generally, the results indicate that the

4Ps beneficiaries in the Philippines tend to engage more in civic engagement activities than

the non-beneficiaries. For the island group analysis, only Luzon has significant results.

However, results are ambiguous for the analysis among the beneficiaries who are located in

different geographical locations. A more in-depth analysis is done in the succeeding

subsections.

I. Descriptive Summary Statistics

This subsection shows the descriptive statistics of the data of the provinces from

Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Analyses on these datasets are also shown in this section.

Table 7 shows the summary statistics of the data.

Table 7. Descriptive Summary Statistics

4Ps Beneficiaries
Island
Region City Non-
Group Beneficiary Total
Beneficiary
National
Luzon Capital Pasay City 1, 384 61, 615 62, 999
Region
Region VI:
Visayas Western Kalibo City 1, 217 12, 299 13, 516
Visayas
Burgos City,
Region XIII: Malimono
Mindanao 1, 974 4, 345 6, 319
CARAGA City, Pilar
City

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Voting Turnout
Island
Region City Non-
Group Beneficiary Total
Beneficiary
National
Luzon Capital Pasay City 96.10% 93.81% 93.86%
Region
Region VI:
Visayas Western Kalibo City 94.72% 90.37% 90.77%
Visayas
Burgos City,
Region XIII: Malimono
Mindanao 94.73% 93.93% 93.76%
CARAGA City, Pilar
City
Organizational Membership
Island
Region City Non-
Group Beneficiary Total
Beneficiary
National
Luzon Capital Pasay City 15.82% 29.92% 10.07%
Region
Region VI:
Visayas Western Kalibo City 3.29% 4.72% 20.92%
Visayas
Burgos City,
Region XIII: Malimono
Mindanao 35.31% 34.41% 34.69%
CARAGA City, Pilar
City

According to Table 7, Luzon has the greatest number of observations while

Mindanao has the least number of observations. This can be attributed to the differences in

the accessibility of households. Since CBMS is based in Manila, then areas around Luzon

are more accessible than areas in Visayas and Mindanao in terms of conducting surveys.

However, Mindanao has the largest proportion of 4Ps beneficiaries with 1,974 number of

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beneficiaries. Since the 4Ps target the poor, then a greater number of beneficiaries in

Mindanao indicates that there is a greater proportion of poor households in Mindanao as

compared to Luzon and Visayas.

The greatest voting turnout ratio of 4Ps beneficiaries is in Luzon with 96.10%

increase in voting turnouts. This is due to the fact that Luzon has the biggest voting

population in the country. On the other hand, the greatest organizational membership of

4Ps beneficiaries is in Mindanao with 35.31%. Since Mindanao is known for its cultural

diversity, it is more likely for different organizations to evolve in the island. Generally, its

still Luzon who has the highest voting turnout while Mindanao has the highest

organizational membership for both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries.

I. A. Luzon Descriptive Statistics

The survey data from Luzon was obtained from Pasay City. Luzon data presented

62,999 observations or households included in the survey. The household head of each

observation is the basis in order to determine the effects of 4Ps on voting turnout and

organizational membership. Based on the summary of statistics, the researchers found that

61,615 households or 97.80% of the sample data are 4Ps non-beneficiaries and only 1,384

households or 2.20% of the sample data are 4Ps beneficiaries in Luzon. This indicates a

small proportion of 4Ps beneficiaries in Luzon. Moreover, the researchers found that

beneficiaries have less female household heads, with 14.88% of female household heads

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compared to non-beneficiaries with 23.17% of female household heads. This implies that

there are more housewives for the beneficiaries than the non-beneficiaries.

According to this table, Luzon has the greatest number of observations while

Mindanao has the least number of observations. This can be attributed to the differences in

the accessibility of households. Since CBMS is based in Manila, then areas around Luzon

are more accessible than areas in Visayas and Mindanao in terms of conducting surveys.

However, Mindanao has the largest proportion of 4Ps beneficiaries with 1,974 number of

beneficiaries. Since the 4Ps target the poor, then a greater number of beneficiaries in

Mindanao indicates that there is a greater proportion of poor households in Mindanao as

compared to Luzon and Visayas.

The greatest voting turnout ratio of 4Ps beneficiaries is in Luzon with 96.10%

increase in voting turnouts. This is due to the fact that Luzon has the biggest voting

population in the country. On the other hand, the greatest organizational membership of

4Ps beneficiaries is in Mindanao with 35.31%. Since Mindanao is known for its cultural

diversity, it is more likely for different organizations to evolve in the island. Generally, its

still Luzon who has the highest voting turnout while Mindanao has the highest

organizational membership for both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries.

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Figure 3. Luzon Statistics

Beneficiaries Non-Beneficiaries

97.82%
94.94% 96.10% 93.81%
84.32%
75.85%

15.82%
9.94%
3.97%6.63%

Job Employment Electricity Land Voting Turnout Org Membership

Figure 3 represents the summary statistics for Luzon Island. After sorting out the

beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries among the households in Luzon, the researchers found

that beneficiaries have greater percentage of job employment compared to non-

beneficiaries but have less percentage in terms of electricity and land ownership. This

shows that despite the beneficiaries being poor, they exert more effort to work for their

living compared to non-beneficiaries. Furthermore, beneficiaries were found to join

organizations more and to vote in elections more compared to non-beneficiaries.

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Figure 4. Luzon Asset Ownership

Non-Beneficiaries Beneficiaries

Karaoke 12.00%
6.86%

Internet 17.90%
4.62%

Tricycle 8.43%
6.00%

Car/Jeep 5.64%
1.81%

Sewing Machine 3.45%


1.46%

Aircon 11.12%
1.52%

Cellphone 85.63%
75.72%

Computer 22.69%
5.78%

Microwave 11.19%
2.38%

Washing Machine 39.80%


27.67%

Lpg 71.68%
54.62%

Electric iron 70.84%


60.12%

Electric fan 94.54%


95.01%

Refrigerator 42.86%
17.63%

Stereo 23.37%
14.31%

Cd/Vcd 59.96%
59.47%

Television 86.29%
86.20%

Radio 42.20%
37.28%

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In terms of assets, the figure above shows that beneficiaries have lesser luxury

assets, or those assets that are costly items such as karaoke, refrigerators, lpg, washing

machine, microwave, internet, aircon, and private vehicles compared to non-beneficiaries.

For instance, regrigerators, microwaves and air conditioners require more cost since these

appliances increase electrical consumption. On the other hand, LPG stoves require LPG

gas, which is also an expensive item. The beneficiaries usually have televisions, electric

fan, electric iron, and cellphone; which are all considered basic assets.

Generally, 4Ps beneficiaries in Luzon have less female household heads, less

percentage has electricity, less percentage possesses land and less percentage owns assets

compared to non-beneficiaries. Hence, this proves that 4Ps beneficiaries are poorer than the

non-beneficiaries, as targeted by the program. In contrast, greater percentage of the

beneficiaries has jobs, greater percentage of the beneficiaries participates in organizations

compared to non-beneficiaries and greater percentage of the beneficiaries voted last

election compared to non-beneficiaries. The big percentage of job employment can be

attributed to the fact that beneficiaries are required to send their children to school with

85% of class attendance thus, more incentives for them to work hard given that going to

school is costly. Lastly, results of Luzon prove that 4Ps positively affects the civic

engagement of beneficiaries through higher voting turnouts and organizational

memberships. This can be attributed to Selective Material Gratification wherein the

beneficiaries reciprocate the cash grants they received through supporting government and

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community activities, especially in NCR region where voting election is more intense and

there are many community projects available.

I. B. Visayas Descriptive Statistics

The dataset from the municipality of Kalibo, Aklan will represent Visayas Island.

There are a total of 13,516 observations in Kalibo where 12,299 or 90.37% of the sample

data are non-beneficiaries and 1,217 or 9% of the sample data are beneficiaries of 4Ps. This

indicates that for Visayas, the proportion of beneficiaries is slightly higher than that of

Luzon.

Figure 5. Visayas Descriptive Statistics

Beneficiaries Non-Beneficiaries

94.74% 96.22%97.83%
90.37%
82.58%

67.42%

18.07%19.80%

3.30% 4.70%

Job Employment Land Voting Turnout Org Membership Electricity

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To summarize, the figure above showed that the beneficiaries of the 4Ps have

94.74% voting turnout compared to non-beneficiaries who have 90.37% voting turnout in

the last 2010 elections. For membership of organization, 4.7% of the non-beneficiaries and

3.3% for the beneficiaries are members. Also, 67.42% in non-beneficiaries have job while

82.58% for the beneficiaries. Beneficiaries voted slightly more than the non-beneficiaries.

In terms of membership in organizations, non-beneficiaries tend to be involved in

organizations more, but the percentages for beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries are almost

similar. There is a large difference in terms of employment levels, since the beneficiaries

have a greater proportion of employed household heads. This could be attributed to

maintaining the requirements of the 4Ps. Like what is mentioned earlier, 4Ps beneficiaries

are required to have children in school and in clinics for medical check-ups. However, the

grants of the 4Ps are only Php500 per household for health, and Php300 per child for a

maximum of 3 children (Department of Social Welfare and Development, 2009). With this

amount, the beneficiary is required to use this money to have check-ups and proper

education with school materials. Hence, the grants are mostly used in these expenses. The

household members who are not qualified within the age range of the 4Ps requirements are

not included in the cash grants. Hence, the amount that a household receives from the 4Ps

is dependent on the number of eligible 4Ps candidates. With this, they still have to support

the ineligible household members though employment to maintain the requirements of the

4Ps, so that they can continue to receive the cash grants.

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Figure 6. Visayas Asset Ownership

Beneficaries Non-Beneficiaries

Karaoke 3.04%
10.46%

Internet 0.66%
9.65%

Tricycle 16.60%
33.28%

Car/Jeep 0.33%
8.56%

Sewing Machine 0.74%


3.82%

Aircon 0.33%
7.80%

Cellphone 71.65%
77.94%

Computer 1.56%
19.20%

Microwave 0.33%
7.85%

Washing Machine 6.49%


26.92%

Lpg 2.47%
25.42%

Electric Iron 14.95%


40.71%

Electric Fan 51.19%


74.40%

Refrigerator 12.16%
45.39%

Cd/Vcd 36.40%
47.43%

Television 78.39%
86.65%

Radio 51.19%
60.85%

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In terms of assets ownership for the 4Ps non-beneficiary, the researchers found out

that non-beneficiaries possess more assets than those of the beneficiaries given that

beneficiaries are usually deemed to be the poorest households with less assets ownership. It

can also be observed that for beneficiaries, the majority only has the basic appliances such

as radio, television and cellphone. For the beneficiaries, only a few have computer, internet

access, microwave, LPG stove, landline, air conditioner, sewing machine and jeepney. It

should be noted that these assets that are uncommon among the beneficiaries are costly. For

instance, air conditioners, computers, internet access, and LPG stove consume more

electricity and other expenses such as LPG gas and internet prepaid and postpaid

subscription. On the other hand, since most of the beneficiaries have cellphones, they use

this gadget as their network communication instead of landlines. The figure below

summarized the asset ownership for both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries.

I. C. Mindanao Descriptive Statistics

Out of 6319 observations, 1974 or 31.24% of the data are beneficiaries while 4345

or 68.76% of the data are non-beneficiaries. Furthermore, 15.44% of the non-beneficiaries

have female household heads, while 13.22% of the beneficiaries have female household

heads. Although the proportions of female household heads have a slight difference, these

figures indicate that for the beneficiaries, females are usually housewives rather than

workingwomen.

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Beneficiaries of the 4Ps are slightly more active in civic engagement, with 94.73%

voting turnout among the beneficiaries last 2010 general elections, and 35.31% members

in organizations. On the other hand, 93.33% of the non-beneficiaries voted last elections,

while 34.41% are members in organizations. The increase in civic engagement can be

attributed to the Selective Material Gratification and Political Budget Cycle Model like

the others. Since Mindanao has the most number of 4Ps beneficiaries in our sample data,

more individuals will reciprocate the benefits they received from the government through

civic engagement, thus spillover effects will happen. The figure below summarized the

Mindanao statistics.

Figure 7. Mindanao Descriptive Statistics

Beneficiaries Non-Beneficiaries
94.73% 93.33%
89.72% 89.09%
80.29% 77.33%

35.31% 34.41%

17.40%
14.13%

Job Employment Land Voting Turnout Org Membership Electricity

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Interestingly, 80.29% of the beneficiaries have jobs, while only 77.33% among the

non-beneficiaries are employed. This indicates that household heads of beneficiaries tend

to be employed more than the non-beneficiaries.

It should be noted that out of the three island groups, Mindanao has the

largest proportion of beneficiaries. Since the 4Ps target households that are the poorest in

barangays, then it can be hypothesized that municipalities Mindanao has more poor

households since this island group contains that largest proportion of beneficiaries. Also,

the beneficiaries in Mindanao have more household heads that are employed compared to

non-beneficiaries. This is because the beneficiaries have to keep up with the requirements

of the cash transfers to continue receiving the cash grants as stated before.

Focusing on the asset ownership of the 4Ps beneficiaries, the researchers found out

that beneficiaries of Mindanao have more televisions, CD players, and cellular phones than

other assets. Only a small proportion have air conditioners, LPG stove, landlines,

microwaves, washing machines, computer, internet access, and cars. This may be because

assets that have cheaper expenses could substitute these assets. For instance, air

conditioners can be substituted for electric fans, landlines can be substituted for cellular

phones, LPG stoves can be substituted for coal, washing machines can be substituted for

hand-washing laundry, and cars can be substituted for tricycles. Hence, beneficiaries of the

4Ps are more inclined to own and use assets that have fewer expenses in terms of

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consumption. The figure below summarized the asset ownership of both beneficiaries and

non-beneficiaries in Mindanao.

Figure 8. Mindanao Asset Ownership

Beneficaries Non-Beneficiaries

10.79%
Stereo 14.71%
Karaoke 9.77%
13.88%
Internet 1.32%
1.63%
Tricycle 11.00%
14.52%
Car/Jeep 1.27%
2.67%
Sewing Machine 1.17%
2.67%
Aircon 1.57%
3.77%
Cellphone 53.75%
59.06%
Computer 3.34%
6.00%
Microwave 2.13%
3.04%
Washing Machine 9.17%
12.45%
Lpg 8.46%
15.74%
Electric Iron 17.73%
24.42%
Electric Fan 22.70%
32.01%
Refrigerator 18.95%
27.18%
Cd/Vcd 44.63%
47.57%
Television 51.37%
55.37%
Radio 21.58%
26.50%

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I. D. Countrywide Descriptive Statistics

The dataset from Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao was pooled into one dataset in

order for the researchers to determine the aggregate treatment effect of Pantawid

Pamilyang Pilipino Program in the whole country. A summary of statistics presented

90,308 observations included in the whole survey from Pasay, Kalibo and Surigao City.

The researchers found out that 85,655 households or 94.85% of the sample data are 4Ps

non-beneficiaries and only 4, 654 households or 5.15% of the sample data are 4Ps

beneficiaries.

In a countrywide analysis, among the 4Ps non-beneficiaries, 74.99% of the household

heads have jobs, 97.38% have electricity, 8.92% possess land, 9.83% of the household

heads are members in an organization, and 85.19% of the household heads voted last

election. Based on these figures, about a quarter of the non-beneficiary household heads

from the sample are unemployed, which is not a good indicator. As compared among 4Ps

beneficiaries, 82.25% of the household heads have jobs, 93.08% have electricity, 11.97%

possess land, 20.65% of the household heads are members in an organization and 93.53%

of the household heads voted last election. All of these were summarized in the figure

below.

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Figure 9. Countrywide Descriptive Statistics

Beneficiaries Non-beneficiaries

97.38%
93.53% 93.08%
82.25% 85.19%
74.99%

20.65%
11.97%8.92% 9.83%

Job Employment Land Voting Turnout Org Membership Electricity

As seen in the Figure 9, there is a higher percentage of job employment of

beneficiaries. This could be attributed to the need for beneficiaries in earning income to

meet the requirements of the 4Ps such as education and health care. They have to meet the

requirements so that they can receive cash grants.

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Figure 10. Countrywide Asset Ownership

Beneficaries Non-Beneficiaries

Karaoke 7.07%
11.86%

Internet 2.13%
15.86%

Tricycle 10.96%
12.09%

Car/Jeep 1.16%
5.84%

Sewing Machine 1.12%


3.40%

Aircon 1.20%
10.35%

Cellphone 65.13%
83.21%

Computer 3.59%
21.33%

Microwave 1.72%
10.31%

Washing Machine 14.29%


36.02%

Lpg 21.14%
61.66%

Electric Iron 30.08%


63.63%

Electric Fan 52.88%


88.36%

Refrigerator 16.59%
41.98%

Cd/Vcd 47.03%
57.21%

Television 69.30%
84.22%

Radio 34.31%
43.53%

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Figure 10 summarized the asset ownership of both beneficiaries and non-

beneficiaries in the country. In terms of assets, the researchers conclude that beneficiaries

have lack of assets compared to non-beneficiaries, since beneficiaries are poorer than those

non-beneficiaries. However, both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries possess televisions

and cell phones as their top valuable assets, since they garnered the highest percentage of

assets owned by both parties. Big differences are noticed when it comes to electric fan,

electric iron, washing machine, microwave, lpg, landline, internet and computer, wherein

only non-beneficiaries possess most assets. This implies that poor beneficiaries think of the

following assets as luxury items which they would not avail since its costly; they would

rather look for substitute goods. For example, since they have cell phones, they will use it

for communication instead of landline, internet & computer. Instead using microwave or

lpg, they can use coals, and the like.

To summarize, in a countrywide analysis, most 4Ps beneficiaries in the country

have less female household heads, despite the fact that the cash grant was given to female

heads. This implies that the gender of household heads do not really matter when it comes

to selecting beneficiaries. Moreover, less percentage of 4Ps beneficiaries has electricity,

and less percentage of 4Ps beneficiaries owns assets compared to non-beneficiaries like

radios, tvs, cd players, karaoke, refrigerators, electric fan, etc. This proves that the 4Ps

main target are poor people with lack of assets at home in their daily living. However,

greater percentage of the beneficiaries has jobs, greater percentage owns land, greater

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percentage participates in organizations and greater percentage voted last election

compared to non-beneficiaries. This implies that 4Ps gives incentives to beneficiaries to

work in order to comply with their eligibility requirements and 4Ps positively affects the

civic engagement of beneficiaries.

II. Propensity Scores Calculation

This subsection shows the algorithm for the calculation of the propensity scores of

each dataset. Separate propensity scores are calculated for the datasets for Luzon, Visayas,

Mindanao, Luzon-Visayas beneficiaries, Luzon-Mindanao beneficiaries, Visayas-

Mindanao beneficiaries and Luzon-Visayas-Mindanao dataset.

II.A. Calculation of the Propensity Scores in Luzon

After the calculation of the propensity scores, the software identified the optimal

number of blocks, depending on the pscore of the observations that are within the range of

the common support, this ensures that the mean propensity scores between the beneficiaries

and the non-beneficiaries of each block are matched. This algorithm is shown in Appendix

E-Figure 1.

After 3 PSM runs in Stata, balancing property is satisfied. In order to satisfy the

balancing property, the researchers only used the variables, jobind toilet tv cd stereo ref lpg

washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep

tricyclemotor land sex and educal because they are the only variables that matched, other

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variables were dropped. The region of common support is [.0092401, .11647302] which

means that the pscore of the households must be within this range to be considered

matching. From this, 8 blocks were identified. After the balancing property is satisfied, the

researchers found that all the variables are significant except the toilet, stereo, internet,

sewing, carjeep, tricycle motor, and land, thus they were dropped.

According to the results, if the household head has a job, theres a 40.87% chance

for him to be selected as a beneficiary. In terms of assets, if the household owns a ref, lpg,

washing machine, microwave, computer, cellphone, landline and aircon, the chances to be

selected as a beneficiary decreases by large percentages. These assets can be considered

luxury assets to the typical poor households and owning them implies that the household is

not poor. This proves that in Luzon, the fact that 4Ps main target are the poorest households

which lack assets at home, holds true.

II. B. Calculation of the Propensity Scores in Visayas

According to Appendix D Figure 2, in the estimation of the propensity score, the

software also selected the region of common support of [.00204728, .46561938]. This

indicates that observations that have propensity scores between .00204728 and .46561938

have matches. Hence, these observations are going to be estimated for the final treatment

effects. On the other hand, the observations with propensity scores that do not lie within

this range are dropped.

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Next, the software implicitly did the balancing test. Initially, a variable was

unbalanced in a block. This variable is tricycle. The software suggested the re-specification

of the asset to be included in selecting the matches. Hence, the variable with the

unbalanced observations was dropped. After dropping, the balancing property is already

satisfied. Results showed that significant variables in Kalibo are roof, educal, jobind, sex,

tenure, radio, cd, ref, electricfan, iron, lpg, washing, and computer, which means these can

help in the estimation of the treatment effects of the 4Ps beneficiaries.

II. C. Calculation of Propensity Scores in Mindanao

Five runs of the PSM were done before the balancing property was satisfied. This is

exhibited in Appendix D- Figure 3. The retained variables with matches among the

beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries are jobind, toilet, radio, stereo, karaoke, ref,

electricfan, iron, lpg, washing, microwave, computer, internet, cellphone, landline, aircon,

sewing, carjeep, tricyclemotor, land, sex and educal. The region of common support is

[.10328081, .49210252], indicating that only observations with propensity scores ranging

from 0.10328081 and 0.49210252 have matches. The observations that have propensity

scores not within the range of common support are dropped. The optimal number of blocks

is 6, which indicates that the data is stratified into 6 categories in conducting the balancing

test.

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II. D. Calculation of the Propensity Scores in Luzon-Visayas

For the Luzon-Visayas pooled data, the propensity scores were balanced on the

fourth run. This is shown in Appendix D- Figure 4. The remaining variables wherein the

beneficiaries from Luzon and Visayas have matches are electricfan, sewing, carjeep and

land. Following this, the region of common support of [.02156687, .91758458] has been

selected. Hence, observations with propensity scores beyond this range are dropped. From

this range, the optimal number of blocks selected is 5, and the balancing property is now

satisfied.

II. E. Calculation of the Propensity Scores in Visayas-Mindanao

After 4 PSM runs showed in Appendix D- Figure 05, the balancing property is

satisfied. The last PSM run shows that the number of blocks by which the average

propensity score of treatment and control variables do not differ at 5. At this point, the

balancing property is satisfied and the characteristics of the treatment and control variables

are observationally identical. It was found that all the variables that were balanced in this

run were found to be significant except for the following: washing, internet, landline,

aircon, carjeep and educal. The insignificant variables might not appear in most

households in Visayas and Mindanao, given that it is more of a rural area compared to

Luzon. Only karaoke, lpg, microwave, cellphone, and tricycle were significant given that

these are only the common assets owned by a typical rural household in Visayas and

Mindanao.

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II. F. Calculation of the Propensity Scores in Luzon-Mindanao

The propensity score was balanced on the fifth run, as shown in Appendix D -

Figure 06. By this time, the remaining variables are jobind, karaoke, aircon, sewing,

carjeep, tricyclemotor and sex. The selected region of common support is [.19379027,

.65482714]. Hence, only households with propensity scores within this range are used for

treatment effects. For the balancing test, the optimal number of blocks is 7, and with this

number of blocks, the balancing test was satisfied.

II. G. Calculation of the Propensity Scores: Countrywide analysis

After the researchers calculated the pscore and satisfied the balancing property in

the software, only the variables of electricfan lpg landline aircon sewing and carjeep were

found matched. This is exhibited in Appendix D - Figure 07. Furthermore, all the variables

are significant except sewing and carjeep. The region of common support is [.00240419,

.19514472] which means that the pscore of the households must be within this range to be

considered matching. From this, 6 blocks were identified. Generally, 4Ps beneficiaries in

the country are less likely to own household assets such as electric fan, lpg, landline and

aircon.

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III. Treatment Effects

This subsection discusses the treatment effects of the 4Ps on voting turnout and

organizational membership for each dataset. The treatment effects are first discussed by

island group, namely Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Then, the effects of the geographical

location among beneficiaries are assessed before a discussion on countrywide effects is

discussed. Finally, a more in-depth analysis is done on the role of educational attainment

and employment in voting turnout and the differences in organizations across the country.

III. A. Island Group Analysis

Table 8 indicates the summary of the results per island group. Results show that

only Luzon has significant results, while Visayas and Mindanao have insignificant results

in terms of voting turnout and membership in community organizations. An in-depth

discussion is provided in the subsections below.

Table 8. Island Group Results Summary


Island Group

Organization
Membership
t-value (one-

t-value (one-
Turnout
Voting

tailed)

tailed)

Luzon 1.40% 2.223** 7.20% 6.059***


Visayas 1.30% 1.244 -0.70% 0.844
Mindanao 1.10% 1.336 -0.40% 0.233

*significant at = 0.10
** significant at = 0.05

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*** significant at = 0.01

III.A.1. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Luzon: Voting Turnouts

The researchers utilized the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated: Nearest

Neighbor Matching to determine the treatment effect on our independent variables such as

voting and membership in organization. Based on the outcomes in Pasay, exhibited in

Appendix E -Figure 1, using the variable for voting, the households are 1.40% more likely

to increase their voting if these households were to become beneficiaries of the 4Ps. Also,

the t-value is 2.223, which means that the result is statistically significant. Bootstrapping is

applied to ensure that there will be robust standard errors. After the bootstrapping of

standard errors, the researchers found that there were no necessary changes. 4Ps

beneficiaries will still have 1.40% chances to increase their voting compared to non-

beneficiaries. The t-value increased to 2.307, which means that the result is statistically

significant.

III.A.2. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Luzon: Organizational Membership

Lastly, Appendix E Figure 2 showed that after running the variable for

membership in organization and after the bootstrapping of standard errors, the 4Ps

households are 7.20% more likely to increase their membership in organizations if these

households were to become beneficiaries of the 4Ps. The t-value is 6.059, which means that

the result is statistically significant. Hence, it can be concluded that organizational

membership could increase if households become beneficiaries of the 4Ps.

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III.A.3. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Visayas: Voting Turnouts

The researchers determined whether or not the probability of voting is affected if a

household becomes a beneficiary of the 4Ps. The result for the treatment effects for Visayas

in terms of voting turnout is shown in Appendix E- Figure 3. After bootstrapping, the

researchers were able to obtain an ATT, which is the probability of voting if a non-

beneficiary becomes a beneficiary. Unfortunately, the researchers found the variables

insignificant with a t value of 1.244.

III.A.4. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Visayas: Organizational Membership

The result for the treatment effects for organizational membership in Visayas is

shown in Appendix E- Figure 4. For organizational membership, the results are

insignificant with a t value of 0.844.

Hence, voting turnouts and organizational membership are both insignificant in the

case of Visayas. This can be explained by the lower educational attainment of most

household heads in the sample data and the lack of opportunity to become active in

organizations in the Visayas region, which will be expounded in the subsection after the

explanation of all treatment effects.

III.A.5. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Mindanao: Voting Turnouts

The result for the voting turnout in Mindanao is indicated in Appendix E- Figure 5.

Initial results show that 2433 non-beneficiaries were matched to 1974 beneficiaries. The

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average treatment effect for the treated is is insignificant, with a t-statistic of 1.336. Since

the t-statistic of 1.336 is less than 1.96, which is the threshold for the 5% critical level,

results for voting are deemed insignificant.

After bootstrapping, results became more insignificant. The standard error increased

slightly to 0.009, while the t-statistic further deviated from the 5% critical value. Hence,

being a beneficiary does not increase the probability of voting.

III.A.6.Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Mindanao: Organizational Membership

For organizational membership of household heads, 2433 non-beneficiaries were

matched to 1944 beneficiaries. This is shown in Appendix E- Figure 6. The average

treatment effect for the beneficiaries is insignificant, with a t-statistic is 0.233, which is less

than the significant threshold value of 1.96. Hence, results are insignificant.

After bootstrapping, the standard errors were further reduced to 0.015, but the t-

statistic remains insignificant, with its absolute value at 0.248. Hence, if a non-beneficiary

becomes a beneficiary, membership in organizations is unaffected.

III.B. Consolidated Island Group Treatemnt Effect

Table 9 below shows the summary of the results for this subsection. For Luzon-

Visayas and Luzon-Mindanao, all variables are significant. However, results in Luzon-

Mindanao are counter-intuitive. Only organizational membership is significant for Visayas-

Mindanao. An in-depth analysis is done in the subsections below.

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Table 9. Effect on Beneficiaries from Different Island Groups


Consolidation
Island Group

Organization
Membership
t-value (one-

t-value (one-
Turnout
Voting

tailed)

tailed)
Luzon-Visayas -4.30% -3.989*** 13.40% 13.339***
Visayas-
-0.40% -0.421 -33.00% -16.415***
Mindanao
Luzon-
-4.00% -5.570*** -19.50% -12.556***
Mindanao
* significant at = 0.10
** significant at = 0.05
*** significant at = 0.01

III.B.1. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Luzon-Visayas: Voting Turnouts

Following the selection of beneficiaries from Luzon and Visayas with matching

propensity scores, 1,212 non-beneficiaries were matched to 1463 beneficiaries. Since the

number of non-beneficiaries is less than the beneficiaries, then the number of matches that

will be used for treatment effects is also lesser than 1,463.

Results, as shown in Appendix E- Figure 7, indicate that a beneficiary in Visayas is

0.043 likely to vote less if the beneficiary were situated in Luzon, and this is significant

with an absolute t-value of 3.588. The standard error is 1.2%. After bootstrapping, the

standard error was reduced to 0.011, and the results became more significant with an

absolute t-value of 3.989. This suggests that being a beneficiary of the 4Ps does not

guarantee an increase in the probability of voting, especially in the cases of different

geographical regions. This suggests that there might be other factors that contribute to the

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voting turnout among beneficiaries from different geographical locations, such as

educational background and employment status. These are further explained in the

subsection after the explanation of the treatment effects.

III.B.2. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Luzon-Visayas: Organizational

Membership

For organizational membership, results are shown in Appendix F- Figure 8. The

results are very significant at an absolute t-value of 11.208. The standard error is 0.012, and

results show that a beneficiary in Visayas is 13.4% more likely to be a member in

community organizations if this beneficiary is situated in Luzon. After bootstrapping, the

standard errors were reduced to 0.010 and the t-statistic became more significant at 13.339.

This is because Luzon and Visayas have similar community and political organizations,

which is further explained in the subsection after the explanation of the treatment effects.

III.B.3. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Visayas-Mindanao: Voting Turnouts

Appendix E- Figure 09 presented the result of the ATT, it was found that the

absolute value of the t-score is 0.421, which means the result is insignificant. After

bootstrapping, results remain insignificant, which shows that being a 4Ps beneficiary in

Mindanao does not affect voting turnout.

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III.B.4. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Visayas-Mindanao: Organizational

Membership

Based on the result presented in Appendix E- Figure 10, it can be said that if

beneficiary households in Mindanao are situated in Visayas, they are 33% less likely to be

members of organizations. The absolute value of the t-score, given as 16.415, shows that

the result is significant. Hence, this could be attributed to the differences in the types of

organizations active in both regions, as organizations differ in scope and breadth. These

are further discussed in the subsection below.

III.B.5 Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Luzon-Mindanao: Voting Turnouts

Initial results, as presented in Appendix F- Figure 11, indicate that 1948

beneficiaries from Mindanao are matched with 1463 beneficiaries from Luzon. The

average treatment effect for the treated is -0.040, indicating that if a beneficiary of the 4Ps

in Mindanao were to be situated in Luzon, then the probability of voting will decrease by

0.040. This is counter-intuitive, but the result was significant at the absolute t-value of

4.368.

After bootstrapping, the standard error was reduced to 0.007, while the result

became more significant at the absolute t-value of 5.570. This suggests that differences

among beneficiaries in terms of geographical location has a negative effect on voting

turnout, and this has a similar result with the Luzon-Visayas analysis. This could be due to


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the differences in education and employment of the household heads, which is further

explained in the subsection below.

III.B.6. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Luzon-Mindanao: Organizational

Membership

For organizational membership, the average treatment effect for the treated is -

0.195. This is exhibited in Appendix E- Figure 12. This indicates that if a beneficiary in

Mindanao were to become a beneficiary in Luzon, then the probability of the household

head being a member in community organizations will decrease by 0.195. This is also

significant at the absolute t-value of 13.152.

After bootstrapping, the t-statistic decreased to 12.556. However, this is still very

significant. Standard errors only increased slightly to 0.016. This shows that differences in

geographical locations have a negative effect in organizational membership, especially

when the geographical difference is quite large, like Luzon and Mindanao. This is in line

with previous studies mentioned in the literature review. One reason for this

counterintuitive result is because the organizations in Luzon are different from Mindanao.

Hence, beneficiaries in Mindanao may not be inclined to join organizations if they were in

Luzon because the objectives of the organizations may be different from their preference.


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III. C. Countrywide Analysis

Table 10 below shows the summary statistics of the countrywide data. Generally,

all variables are significant. However, this significance cannot be generalized since in the

island group analysis conducted above, results in Visayas and Mindanao are insignificant.

An in-depth analysis is done in the following subsections.

Table 10. Treatment Effect for Countrywide Analysis

Organization
Membership
t-value (one-

t-value (one-
Turnout
Voting

tailed)

tailed)
7.20% 16.751*** 9.30% 17.403***
* significant at = 0.10
** significant at = 0.05
*** significant at = 0.01

III.C.1. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Voting Turnouts: Countrywide analysis

The researchers utilized the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated Nearest

Neighbor Matching (ATTND) to determine the treatment effect on our independent

variables such as voting and membership in organization. Based on the outcomes in the

country level, exhibited in Appendix E- Figure 13, using the variable for voting, the 4Ps

beneficiaries in the country have 7.20% chances to increase their voting compared to non-

beneficiaries. Also, the t-value is 17.547 which means that the result is statistically

significant, given that t-value must be greater than 1.96 to be considered statistically

significant. The researchers also utilized bootstrapping and found that there are no


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necessary changes, households in the country will still be 7.20% more likely to vote if they

became beneficiaries. The t-value changed to 16.751, which means that the result is

statistically significant. Hence, in a countrywide analysis, 4Ps increased the chances of

voting participation among its beneficiaries.

III.C.2. Estimation of the Treatment Effects for Organizational Membership: Countrywide

analysis

For organizational membership, the average treatment effect for the treated is 0.093.

This is exhibited in Appendix E-Figure 14. This indicates that the households are still

9.30% more likely to become members in organizations if they became beneficiaries. T-

value is 17.403, which means that the result is statistically significant.

After bootstrapping, the t-statistic increased to 17.403 which is still significant.

Standard errors decreased to 0.005. This shows that 4Ps increased the chances of

organizational membership among its beneficiaries in a countrywide analysis.

IV. Role of Educational Attainment and Employment Status on Voting Turnout Among

Beneficiaries

Based on the results, Luzon-Visayas pooled data resulted to 0.043 likely to vote less

if the beneficiary were situated in Luzon and Luzon-Mindanao resulted to 0.040 likely to


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vote less if the beneficiary were situated in Luzon. These are counterintuitive effects of the

4Ps on voter turnout among beneficiaries if they are compared based on island group. This

suggests that among beneficiaries, there is still a discrepancy in voting when it comes to

differences in geographical locations. This suggests that aside from being a beneficiary of

the 4Ps, there must be several factors that account for the discrepancy between different

island groups. A report from COMELEC about the Philippine voter profile indicates that

some notable characteristics of voters include educational attainment and employment

status (Ericta et al, 2003). Among voters in the Philippines, 88.76% tend to be employed

while 11.24% are unemployed.

In the data of beneficiaries, 80.29% Mindanao beneficiaries are employed, while

84.32% beneficiaries from Luzon are employed. For Visayas beneficiaries, 82.58% are

employed. Mindanao has more unemployed individuals than Visayas, and Visayas has

more unemployed individuals than Luzon. This suggests that there are differences in

employment status among beneficiaries in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Hence, this

could account for the differences in in voting turnout among beneficiaries across different

regions.


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Figure 11. Educational Attainment Differences Across Island Groups

PS grad

no grad

grade 6

grade 4

grade 2

elem grad Mindanao


day care Visayas
4th HS higher Luzon
3rd PS

3rd college

2nd HS

1st PS

1st college
0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00%

As for educational attainment, it can be observed that most heads of beneficiary

households are high school graduates or in college. This is exhibited in Figure 11 above.

However, fewer household heads from Visayas and Mindanao finished high school. More

Visayas and Mindanao household heads finished grade school compared to Luzon

beneficiaries. Hence, Luzon beneficiaries have better educational attainment. Ericta et. at

(2003) also showed that a greater portion of Filipino voters are from elementary and high

school graduates. Following these are college undergraduates. In the case of the data used

in this study, Visayas and Mindanao beneficiaries may have higher elementary graduates

compared to Luzon. Visayas has almost 15% elementary graduates while Mindanao almost


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20%, in contrast to Luzon which has around 11% elementary graduates. However, Luzon

beneficiaries have higher high school graduate and undergraduates. Almost 40% of the

household head beneficiaries in Luzon finished high school while Visayas has about 28%

and Mindanao has about 18%. For the undergraduate, Luzon has almost 5% of its

household head beneficiaries that was able to reach 1st year college, while about 3% for

Visayas and Mindanao. Hence, the discrepancy in terms of voting behavior could also be

explained through this reason.

V. Differences in Community Organizations across Island Groups

In terms of organizational memberships, there is a negative effect where Mindanao

data is included. This may be attributed to the Mindanao having a diverse culture. The

difference in culture of those from Mindanao and the rest of the island group may result to

people having different preference in joining community organizations.


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Table 11. Organizations across Island Groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao


BOHOLANO
MMDA FCG
ORGANIZATION
BUKAS PALAD KAPATIRAN VICE MAYORS LEAGUE
ADAPTION BROTHERHOOD OF THE PHIL
SALAAM POLICE
GIRLS SCOUT AGRICULTURE
VOLUNTEER GROUP
PARDSS NBUSTODA PACAP
PHILIPPINE APD GUARDIAN
CANCRECO
INSTITUTE ENGR. FRATERNITY
PHIL. COUNCILOR'S ROTARY CLUB OF
PACAD
LEAGUE KALIBO
PHIL GUARDIANS
RIC SOLID WASTE BPLK
ASSOCIATION
KIWANIS CLUB OF
MOA
KALIBO
PGBI DAJONG
GUARDIANS DAYONG
PHILBIKERS CMO
SUNSHINE PHIL.
CALMA
MOVEMENT
AKLAN ASSOCIATION CALO
BRGY.PEACE KEERING
CAFISA
ACTION TEAM
BPKAT CIVIC RELIGIOUS
KCAMC COOPERATIVE BMO
LITODA BMO AND MMO
MAO 4HCLUB
NATODA
NAPRICAB
COMMANDERS GROUP

Moreover, as seen in Table 11 above, the organizations between Luzon, Visayas,

and Mindanao are different. Hence, a beneficiary in Mindanao may have negative

community membership effects had this beneficiary been transferred to Luzon because of


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the differing organizations. In another case, a beneficiary in Visayas might not prefer the

organizations in Luzon since the organizations between Luzon and Visayas are different in

terms of nature and objectives. This is could also explain why results are ambiguous when

beneficiaries from different island groups are pooled. Different organizations have different

objectives and visions, and difference in culture may have an influence in a person joining

different organization, so beneficiaries in Mindanao may not prefer some organizations that

are present in Luzon and Visayas.


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CHAPTER VIII. POLICY RECOMMENDATION

Ericta et al. (2003) showed that education and employment have an effect on civic

engagement, particularly with voting behavior. Moreover, the archipelagic nature of the

Philippines has effects on the outcome of civic engagement. As a result, the policy

recommendation that the researchers suggest focuses on the factors mentioned.

1. Increase employment opportunities to the beneficiaries

Statistics show that being a beneficiary of the 4Ps is not enough to encourage civic

engagement. According to Ericta et al. (2003), about 88% of Philippine voters are

employed, which indicates that most voters have jobs. However, based on the gathered

data, there are discrepancies with employment with regards to the different island groups.

For instance, the Luzon has the most number of employed beneficiary household heads,

followed by Visayas, and then Mindanao. Based on the results of the study of the

individual island groups, being a 4Ps beneficiary increases voting turnout in Luzon only, as

results in Visayas and Mindanao were insignificant. Hence, it would be beneficial to

increase employment opportunities among beneficiaries, especially those situated in

Visayas and Mindanao.

One of our recommendations is for the 4Ps to act as a middleman between

employers, government projects, and the beneficiaries. During the required monthly family


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development sessions, the 4Ps officers can publicize announcements regarding job

opportunities. This could enable the beneficiaries to acquire jobs if they are unemployed, or

acquire the job that matches their skills. Moreover, the 4Ps could partner with the

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to provide more job opportunities, like job

fairs, for the beneficiaries. This is helpful since the 4Ps require the beneficiaries to comply

with the requirements for cash grants (e.g. school attendance of children, regular check-ups

and vaccinations), which amount to Php 500 per month, per household for healthcare, and

Php 300 per month per child, with a maximum of 3 children per household. These amounts

may not be sufficient to cover the expenses of the household in terms of education and

healthcare expenses, such as school supplies, nutritional food expenditures, and

transportation to the school and authorized clinics. These cash grants may not be enough,

especially for the households who have a very large household size, but only a few

beneficiaries (e.g. the number of children in a household is 5, but the 4Ps only allow 3

beneficiaries per household). In this case, the household heads are induced to acquire jobs

in order to support the additional expenses of the non-beneficiary household members, at

the same time to comply with the requirements of the 4Ps to continue receiving the cash

grants. If the household heads are employed, then they may be more likely to vote, because

according to Ericta et al. (2003), employed Filipinos are more inclined to vote than those

who are unemployed.


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2. Encourage 4Ps beneficiaries to have obtain higher education

According to Ericta et al (2003), education is also a factor in term of voting turnout.

In their study, most of the voters were high school graduates and college undergraduates,

followed by the elementary graduates. In this study, statistics show that there are

discrepancies among the educational attainment of household heads in different island

groups. For instance, there are more high school graduates and college undergraduates in

Luzon than in Visayas and Mindanao. Conversely, there are more elementary graduates in

Visayas and Mindanao, than in Luzon. This could explain the reason why the result of this

study is significant for Luzon, but insignificant for Visayas and Mindanao.

The differences in educational attainment could also be a factor of the differences in

employment opportunities in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Since Luzon household heads

finished a higher tier of education than those in Visayas and Mindanao, then Luzon

household heads are more likely to find better employment opportunities because the

additional education contributes to their additional skills.

Since the requirements of the 4Ps generally extend to children, we suggest the 4Ps

expand the range of the age and educational level of the beneficiaries. Aside from focusing

on high school levels, it would also be beneficial for the 4Ps to include cash grants for

college level education, as tertiary education usually require more expenses. The additional

skills that the beneficiaries may acquire from the tertiary education would be helpful for


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them to find jobs in the future, which would eventually help improve the poverty status of

the household. In addition, higher education will expose the beneficiaries to civic

engagement concepts and the different organizations in the community, which would

induce them to participate in civic engagement activities.

3. Creation and funding of national community organizations

Results show that the percentage of membership in organization is quite low. In the

case of the comparison of different island group household heads, results cannot be

generalized since there are different community organizations in different island groups For

instance, the organization in Visayas are targeted only for municipalities in Visayas, while

results in Luzon and Mindanao are targeted for their respective cities. Hence, if a

beneficiary in an island group were to be transferred to another island group, this

beneficiary might not join the organizations in that area, since the vision and goals of the

organization might be different from the culture and preferences of the beneficiary.

Results indicate that the organizations are targeted to improve the problems that are

specific to each community. This accounts for the differences in organizations among the

island groups. However, the three island groups still have similar general problems, such as

discrepancies in education, health care, pollution, and employment, which might be

addressed by common national organizations. These organizations may target these

common issues (e.g. anti-pollution community organization, organizations that promote


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childrens health, etc.). The researchers suggest the creation of organizations that do not

target merely municipality-wide issues, but nationwide problems that are common to the

citizens of the Philippines. In this case, the beneficiaries can be involved in these common

organizations even if they migrate from one island group to another. These organizations

could establish different regional branches across different island groups, and the

representatives of these organizations from each region could meet for the organization

meetings. This also promotes social cohesion and social capital in the country since

members from different regions will be given the chance to interact with one another, with

which they could share their communitys problems and solutions with individuals from

other island groups.

Specifically, the researchers propose for DSWD to include in their 4Ps Family

Development Sessions (a requirement for 4Ps beneficiaries) publicity campaigns and mini-

symposiums in order to inform the citizens about the community organizations available

for them; from these they would be aware on the organization goals and requirements.

DSWD can partner up with these organizations and help them promote their advocacies to

4Ps beneficiaries. This would encourage 4Ps beneficiaries to be involved in civic activities.


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4. Improve targeting approach of 4Ps

The targeting approach of 4Ps is mainly through Proxy Means Test. Although

Geographical Targeting is being used in choosing beneficiaries, the researchers suggest that

DSWD considers the differences in the demographics of the different island groups. For

instance, Luzon areas are more urbanized, while areas in Mindanao tend to be rural. Hence,

the poverty status of the poor in Luzon might be different form the poverty status in

Mindanao.

In the case of this study, statistics show that beneficiaries in Mindanao are poorer

than the beneficiaries in Luzon. Since the 4Ps targets the poorest of the poor, then this

indicates that the poorest household in Mindanao are poorer than the poorest households in

Luzon. This is observed from the differences in asset ownership and household

characteristics of each household, as well as the employment status and educational

attainment of the household heads. Hence, the researchers of this study suggest that the

DSWD consider a more in-depth geographical targeting, in terms of the geographical

locations, which takes into account the demographics of each municipality (e.g. Is the area

rural or urban?).

In addition, the researchers also recommend the use of a more updated Family

Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) issued by the National Statistical and Coordination

Board (NSCB). The DSWD uses the questionnaire that is based on the survey of FIES last


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2006. This survey is outdated already, and there is a need to utilize an updated survey to

cope with the latest poverty status of the households.


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CHAPTER VIII. CONCLUSION

Ever since the 4Ps has been implemented throughout the Philippines, it can be said

that the CCT program has been instrumental not only in terms of alleviating poverty, but

also in terms of motivating the average Filipino to be aware and to participate and

contribute to the community where he or she lives in. Although the reduction of poverty

was the pertinent issue surrounding the implementation of the program itself, the program

also brought about unintended consequences with regard to the beneficiaries civic

engagement, embodied by increased political participation through voting and increased

community participation through being members of organizations.

Despite this, the scope and breadth of the programs social impact has remained

relatively unknown until now. This is due to many factors that include, but are not limited

to, geographical considerations due to the archipelagic nature of the Philippines, as well as

cultural and demographic factors that vary among households that encompass Luzon,

Visayas and Mindanao. Hence, this study sought to bridge the gaps that these factors

impose in order to obtain a thorough impact assessment of the 4Ps.

Based on the results, it can be said that the objective of determining the impact of

the program on civic engagement has been achieved. Accounting for the differences

between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries, it was found that the former are more inclined


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to vote and be active in organizations as opposed to the latter. However, this result is only

relevant with regard to observations stemming from the Luzon island group, as results from

Visayas and Mindanao are inconclusive. Furthermore, it was found that generally, non-

beneficiaries would be more likely to vote and become members of organizations if they

were to become beneficiaries.

With regard to the differences in the programs level of impact on beneficiaries in

consideration of geographical location, results were ambiguous since most of the resulst

were insignificant. Overall, results across regions vary and it cannot be generalized that

simply being a beneficiary of the 4Ps is adequate in enticing poor Filipinos to be more

active in terms of civic engagement.

In light of the results obtained from the study, it is recommended that future

research endeavors related to the topic at hand should focus on implementing the study on a

wider scale by taking into account more municipalities across different provinces in order

to draw more accurate and unbiased results. Furthermore, given that the 4Ps was only

recently implemented, data with regard to the beneficiaries of the program across time was

not readily available for this study. Hence, a comprehensive time-series analysis can be

done in the future when more data is available, in order to better observe the effects of the

4Ps on civic engagement.


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CHAPTER X. APPENDICES

I. Appendix A

Table 1. Variables for Propensity Score

Variable Variable Name Description

hcn Household number Number assigned by CBMS to each


household they interview.

jobind Job indicator Dummy variable, with 0 indicating if the


household head does not have a job and 1 if
the household head has a job.

toilet Type of toilet facility Multivariate dummy variable, indicating


that the household i. 0: closed pit
has ii. 1: no toilet
iii. 2: open pit
iv. 3: water sealed flush to
sewerage system or septic
tank- own use
v. 4: water sealed flush to
sewerage system or septic
tank- shared
vi. 5: others

tenure Tenure status of the Multivariate dummy variable, indicating


household i. 0: living in a public place with
rent
ii. 1: living in a public space
without rent
iii. 2: own house, rented lot
iv. 3: own house, rent-free lot with
consent of owner
v. 4: own house, rent-free lot
without the consent of the owner
vi. 5: own house, owner-like
possession of the house and lot
vii. 6: rented house/room including
lot


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viii. 7: rent-free house and lot with


consent of the owner
ix. 8: rent-free house and lot
without consent of the owner
x. 9: others
welec Electricity Dummy variable indicating 0 if
availability household does not have
electricity and 1 if household has
electricity
.

wall Construction Multivariate dummy variable, indicating:


materials of the walls i. 0: light materials
ii. 1: mixed but predominantly
light
iii. 2: mixed but predominantly
salvaged
iv. 3: mixed but predominantly
strong
v. 4: salvaged/makeshift
materials
vi. 5: strong materials

roof Construction Multivariate dummy variable,


materials of the roof indicating:
i. 0: light materials
ii. 1: mixed but predominantly
light
iii. 2: mixed but predominantly
salvaged
iv. 3: mixed but predominantly
strong
v. 4: salvaged/makeshift
materials
vi. 5: strong materials

radio Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that


ownership of the household does not possess
radio/radio cassette radio/radio cassette, and 1 indicating
that the household possesses


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radio/cassette.
tv Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess
television television, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses television.
cd Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of cd, vcd, the household does not possess cd, vcd,
dvd player dvd player, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses cd, vcd, dvd
player.
stereo Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess
stereo/component stereo/component, and 1 indicating that
the household possesses
stereo/component
karaoke Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess
karaoke/videoke karaoke/videoke, and 1 indicating that
the household possesses
karaoke/videoke.
ref Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess
refrigerator/freezer refrigerator/freezer, and 1 indicating
that the household possesses
refrigerator/freezer.
electricfan Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of electric the household does not possess electric
fan fan, and 1 indicating that the household
possesses electric fan.
iron Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of electric the household does not possess electric
iron iron, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses electric iron.
lpg Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of lpg gas the household does not possess lpg gas
stove or range stove or range, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses electric gas stove
or range.
washing Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess washing
washing machine machine, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses washing machine.


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microwave Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that


ownership of the household does not possess
microwave oven microwave oven, and 1 indicating that
the household possesses microwave
oven.
computer Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess
computer/laptop/netb computer/laptop/netbook, and 1
ook indicating that the household possesses
computer/laptop/netbook.
internet Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of internet the household does not possess internet
connection connection, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses internet
connection.

cellphone Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that


ownership of cellular the household does not possess cellular
phone phone, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses cellular phone.
landline Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess landline
landline telephone telephone, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses landline telephone.
aircon Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of air the household does not possess air
conditioner conditioner, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses air conditioner.
sewing Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of sewing the household does not possess sewing
machine machine, and 1 indicating that the
household possesses sewing machine.
carjeep Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess vehicles
vehicles like cars and like cars and jeepneys, and 1 indicating
jeepneys that the household possesses vehicles
like cars and jeepneys.
tricyclemotor Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that
ownership of the household does not possess vehicles
vehicles like tricycle like tricycle or motorcycle, and 1
or motorcycle indicating that the household possesses
vehicles like tricycle or motorcycle.


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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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land Possession of Dummy variable, with 0 indicating that


ownership of land the household does not possess land
(agricultural, (agricultural, commercial, residential),
commercial, and 1 indicating that the household
residential) possesses land (agricultural,
commercial, residential).
sex The gender of the A dummy variable, indicating 0 if the
household head household head is a male, and 1 if the
household head is female
educal Educational Multivariate dummy variable,
attainment of the indicating
household head i. 0: 1st year college graduate
ii. 1: 1st year highschool
iii. 2: 1st year post-studies
iv. 3: 2nd year college
v. 4: 2nd year high school
vi. 5: 2nd year post-studies
vii. 6: 3rd year college
viii. 7: 3rd year high school
ix. 8: 3rd year post studies
x. 9: 4th year college or higher
xi. 10: 4th/5th year high school
xii. 11: College Graduate
xiii. 12: Daycare
xiv. 13: Doctors/Masters Degree
xv. 14: Elementary Graduate
xvi. 15: Grade 1
xvii. 16: Grade 2
xviii. 17: Grade 3
xix. 18: Grade 4
xx. 19: Grade 5
xxi. 20: Grade 6/7
xxii. 21: Highschool graduate
xxiii. 22: No grade
xxiv. 23: Nursery, Kinderdarten,
prep school
xxv. 24: PS Graduate
xxvi. 25: With units
masters/doctors
Source: CBMS 2011 Household Profile Questionnaire


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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Table 2. Independent Variable

Variable Variable Measure Description A priori


Name

pantawid The qualitativ Dummy variable, Conditional cash


household is e with 0 indicating if transfers increase the
a beneficiary the household is a probability that its
of the 4Ps beneficiary of the beneficiaries engage in
4Ps, and 1 if the civic activities because
household is a non- the cash transfers will
beneficiary. make the beneficiaries
feel gratified, hence
reciprocate the benefits
that they received (Verba
et al., 1995).

Table 3. Dependent Variables

Variable Variable Measure Description A priori


Name

voted The qualitative This variable is a 4Ps beneficiaries


household measure whether the increase their
head household head probability of voting
participated in participated in the compared to non-
2010 national 2010 national beneficiaries because
elections elections. This is a they are motivated
dummy variable, given the
where 1 represents government
the observations that intervention they
participated in the received (Drazen &
2010 national Eslava, 2006).
elections and 0
otherwise.


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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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orgind Membership qualitative This is a dummy 4Ps beneficiaries


in variable indicating 0 increase their
organization for non-membership probability of
by the and 1 for membership in
household membership in organization because
head organizations. they are required to
attend social
activities, hence,
increase civic
solidarity (Putnam,
2000).

islandgroup Indicates the qualitative For Luzon- There are


island group Visayas: Dummy geographical
in which the variable 0 if the
differences among
beneficiary beneficiary lives beneficiaries per
belongs to. in Visayas, while 1
island such that a
if the beneficiary
beneficiary from one
lives in Luzon.
island can be

more/less motivated
For Luzon-
Mindanao:
to participate in civic
Dummy variable 0 activities compared
if the beneficiary to a beneficiary from
lives in Mindanao, another island due to
while 1 if the political and cultural
beneficiary lives differences (Elazar,
in Luzon. 1999).

For Visayas-
Mindanao:
Dummy variable 0
if the beneficiary
lives in Mindanao,
while 1 if the
beneficiary lives
in Visayas.

Table 4. Summary of Methodology

Analysis Data Number of PSM Outcome


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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Runs in Stata
Country Level Pooled 1 PSM run
provinces into a (i) probability that
single dataset beneficiary is a
voter
(ii) probability that a
beneficiary is a
member

Luzon Pasay City 1 PSM run


dataset (i) probability that
beneficiary from
Luzon is a voter
(ii) probability that a
beneficiary from
Luzon is a member
Visayas Kalibo, Aklan 1 PSM run
dataset (i) probability that
beneficiary from
Visayas is a voter
(ii) probability that a
beneficiary from
Visayas is a
member
Mindanao Surigao dataset 1 PSM run
(i) probability that
beneficiary from
Mindanao is a
voter
(ii) probability that a
beneficiary from
Mindanao is a
member
Luzon and Pooled Pasay 1 PSM run
Visayas City and (i) probability that a
Kalibo, Aklan beneficiary from
beneficiaries Visayas is a voter
data into a if this observation
single dataset had been a
beneficiary situated
in Luzon
(ii) probability that a


125

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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beneficiary from
Visayas is a
member if this
observation had
been a beneficiary
situated in Luzon
Luzon and Pooled Pasay 1 PSM run
Mindanao City and (i) probability that a
Surigao beneficiary from
beneficiaries Mindanao is a
into a single voter if this
dataset observation had
been a beneficiary
situated in Luzon

(ii) probability that a


beneficiary from
Mindanao is a
member if this
observation had
been a beneficiary
situated in Luzon
Visayas Pooled Kalibo, 1 PSM run (i) probability that a
and Aklan and beneficiary from
Mindanao Surigao Mindanao is a
beneficiaries voter if this
into a single observation had
dataset been a beneficiary
situated in Visayas
(ii) probability that a
beneficiary from
Mindanao is a
member if this
observation had
been a beneficiary
situated in Visayas

II. Appendix B


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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Figure 1. CBMS Survey


127

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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128

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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136

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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137

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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138

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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III. Appendix C

Figure 1. Luzon Summary Statistics

. summarize jobind pantawid toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd


stereo kara
> oke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
cellphone landl
> ine aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal orgind voted

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 62999 .7603613 .4268664 0 1
pantawid | 62999 .0219686 .1465821 0 1
toilet | 62999 3.281179 .6001576 0 5
tenure | 62999 5.112859 1.595294 0 9
welec | 62999 .9775552 .1481262 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
wall | 62999 4.059112 1.570951 0 5
roof | 62999 4.062287 1.535828 0 5
radio | 62999 .4209591 .4937169 0 1
tv | 62999 .8629026 .3439529 0 1
cd | 62999 .5995333 .4899969 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
stereo | 62999 .2317338 .4219432 0 1
karaoke | 62999 .1188273 .3235877 0 1
ref | 62999 .4230702 .4940503 0 1
electricfan | 62999 .9455388 .2269273 0 1
iron | 62999 .7059953 .4555976 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
lpg | 62999 .7130113 .4523598 0 1
washing | 62999 .3953714 .4889342 0 1
microwave | 62999 .1099859 .3128746 0 1
computer | 62999 .2231464 .416359 0 1
internet | 62999 .1760345 .3808526 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
cellphone | 62999 .8541088 .3529999 0 1
landline | 62999 .1311767 .3375962 0 1
aircon | 62999 .1090493 .3117036 0 1
sewing | 62999 .0340482 .1813544 0 1
carjeep | 62999 .0555247 .2290033 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
tricyclemo~r | 62999 .083795 .2770823 0 1
land | 62999 .0657312 .2478136 0 1
sex | 62999 .2299084 .4207771 0 1
educal | 62999 13.08556 7.639751 0 25
orgind | 62999 .1007 .3009335 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
voted | 62999 .9385863 .2400895 0 1


139

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 2. Luzon Summary Statistics for Non-Beneficiaries

. bysort pantawid: summarize jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd
ster
> eo karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
cellphon
> e landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal orgind voted

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
-> pantawid = 0

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 61615 .7585004 .427996 0 1
toilet | 61615 3.280711 .5972044 0 5
tenure | 61615 5.119419 1.593971 0 9
welec | 61615 .9781871 .1460733 0 1
wall | 61615 4.070648 1.565129 0 5
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
roof | 61615 4.068052 1.533674 0 5
radio | 61615 .4220401 .4938889 0 1
tv | 61615 .862923 .3439314 0 1
cd | 61615 .5996429 .4899747 0 1
stereo | 61615 .2337256 .4232031 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
karaoke | 61615 .1199546 .324911 0 1
ref | 61615 .4286132 .4948817 0 1
electricfan | 61615 .9454354 .2271303 0 1
iron | 61615 .7083502 .4545256 0 1
lpg | 61615 .7168384 .4505379 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
washing | 61615 .3980362 .489497 0 1
microwave | 61615 .1119208 .3152715 0 1
computer | 61615 .2268603 .4188049 0 1
internet | 61615 .1789499 .3833135 0 1
cellphone | 61615 .856285 .3508034 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
landline | 61615 .1333928 .3400016 0 1
aircon | 61615 .111158 .3143302 0 1
sewing | 61615 .0344884 .1824814 0 1
carjeep | 61615 .0563661 .2306293 0 1
tricyclemo~r | 61615 .0843301 .2778845 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
land | 61615 .066315 .248834 0 1
sex | 61615 .2317293 .4219404 0 1
educal | 61615 13.06747 7.63771 0 25
orgind | 61615 .0994076 .2992109 0 1
voted | 61615 .9380833 .2410062 0 1


140

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 3. Luzon Summary Statistics for Beneficiaries

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
-> pantawid = 1

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 1384 .8432081 .3637359 0 1
toilet | 1384 3.302023 .7194008 0 5
tenure | 1384 4.820809 1.627129 0 9
welec | 1384 .949422 .2192136 0 1
wall | 1384 3.54552 1.735831 0 5
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
roof | 1384 3.805636 1.608617 0 5
radio | 1384 .3728324 .4837328 0 1
tv | 1384 .8619942 .3450307 0 1
cd | 1384 .5946532 .4911365 0 1
stereo | 1384 .1430636 .3502642 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
karaoke | 1384 .0686416 .2529351 0 1
ref | 1384 .1763006 .3812134 0 1
electricfan | 1384 .9501445 .217725 0 1
iron | 1384 .6011561 .4898375 0 1
lpg | 1384 .5426301 .4983594 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
washing | 1384 .2767341 .4475456 0 1
microwave | 1384 .0238439 .1526179 0 1
computer | 1384 .0578035 .2334558 0 1
internet | 1384 .0462428 .2100863 0 1
cellphone | 1384 .7572254 .4289149 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
landline | 1384 .0325145 .1774261 0 1
aircon | 1384 .0151734 .1222865 0 1
sewing | 1384 .0144509 .1193832 0 1
carjeep | 1384 .0180636 .1332296 0 1
tricyclemo~r | 1384 .0599711 .2375191 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
land | 1384 .0397399 .1954181 0 1
sex | 1384 .1488439 .3560632 0 1
educal | 1384 13.8909 7.689873 0 24
orgind | 1384 .158237 .365095 0 1
voted | 1384 .9609827 .1937062 0 1


141

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
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Figure 4. Summary Statistics for Visayas

. summarize pantawid wall roof educal regvotind voted jobind orgind sex
toilet ten
> ure welec radio tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave
compute
> r internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricycle land

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | 13516 .0900414 .2862517 0 1
wall | 13516 3.025747 2.345563 0 5
roof | 13516 2.568955 2.338861 0 5
educal | 13516 13.6698 6.64154 0 25
regvotind | 13516 .9480616 .221911 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
voted | 13516 .907665 .289509 0 1
jobind | 13516 .6878514 .4633872 0 1
orgind | 13516 .0458716 .2092142 0 1
sex | 13516 .2550311 .4358948 0 1
toilet | 13516 2.820805 1.024307 0 5
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
tenure | 13516 4.387171 1.441649 0 9
welec | 13516 .9768423 .1504099 0 1
radio | 13516 .5998076 .4899553 0 1
tv | 13516 .8590559 .3479767 0 1
cd | 13516 .4643386 .4987451 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
karaoke | 13516 .097958 .2972688 0 1
ref | 13516 .424016 .494211 0 1
electricfan | 13516 .7231429 .4474618 0 1
iron | 13516 .3839154 .4863557 0 1
lpg | 13515 .2335183 .4230848 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
washing | 13516 .2508139 .4334976 0 1
microwave | 13516 .0717668 .2581109 0 1
computer | 13516 .1760876 .3809088 0 1
internet | 13516 .0884137 .2839062 0 1
cellphone | 13516 .7737496 .4184186 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
landline | 13516 .0602249 .2379119 0 1
aircon | 13516 .0713229 .2573729 0 1
sewing | 13516 .0354395 .1848947 0 1
carjeep | 13516 .0782036 .2685017 0 1
tricycle | 13516 .3177715 .4656273 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
land | 13516 .1965078 .3973716 0 1


142

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 5. Summary Statistics for Visayas Non-Beneficiaries

. bysort pantawid: summarize wall roof educal regvotind voted jobind orgind
sex to
> ilet tenure welec radio tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing
microwave
> computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricycle land
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
-> pantawid = 0

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
wall | 12299 3.157818 2.317404 0 5
roof | 12299 2.717538 2.335057 0 5
educal | 12299 13.56988 6.626692 0 25
regvotind | 12299 .9451988 .2276011 0 1
voted | 12299 .903732 .2949704 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 12299 .6742012 .4686916 0 1
orgind | 12299 .0471583 .211986 0 1
sex | 12299 .2631921 .4403837 0 1
toilet | 12299 2.832751 1.005068 0 5
tenure | 12299 4.423937 1.418336 0 9
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
welec | 12299 .9782909 .1457379 0 1
radio | 12299 .6085048 .4881046 0 1
tv | 12299 .8664932 .3401355 0 1
cd | 12299 .4742662 .4993576 0 1
karaoke | 12299 .1046427 .3061049 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
ref | 12299 .4539393 .4978941 0 1
electricfan | 12299 .7440442 .4364148 0 1
iron | 12299 .4071063 .491315 0 1
lpg | 12298 .2541877 .4354213 0 1
washing | 12299 .2692089 .4435667 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
microwave | 12299 .078543 .269035 0 1
computer | 12299 .1919668 .3938631 0 1
internet | 12299 .0965119 .295304 0 1
cellphone | 12299 .779413 .4146594 0 1
landline | 12299 .0657777 .2479032 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
aircon | 12299 .0780551 .2682692 0 1
sewing | 12299 .0382145 .1917215 0 1
carjeep | 12299 .0856167 .2798086 0 1
tricycle | 12299 .3327913 .4712317 0 1
land


143

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 6. Summary Statistics for Visayas Beneficiaries

-> pantawid = 1

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
wall | 1217 1.691044 2.207909 0 5
roof | 1217 1.067379 1.781778 0 5
educal | 1217 14.67954 6.709492 0 25
regvotind | 1217 .9769926 .1499885 0 1
voted | 1217 .9474117 .223302 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 1217 .8258012 .3794363 0 1
orgind | 1217 .0328677 .1783636 0 1
sex | 1217 .1725555 .3780178 0 1
toilet | 1217 2.700082 1.195362 0 5
tenure | 1217 4.015612 1.613243 0 9
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
welec | 1217 .9622021 .1907855 0 1
radio | 1217 .5119145 .5000635 0 1
tv | 1217 .7838948 .411756 0 1
cd | 1217 .3640099 .4813492 0 1
karaoke | 1217 .0304026 .1717631 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
ref | 1217 .1216105 .3269698 0 1
electricfan | 1217 .5119145 .5000635 0 1
iron | 1217 .1495481 .3567745 0 1
lpg | 1217 .0246508 .1551222 0 1
washing | 1217 .0649137 .2464748 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
microwave | 1217 .0032868 .0572596 0 1
computer | 1217 .0156122 .1240204 0 1
internet | 1217 .0065735 .0808437 0 1
cellphone | 1217 .716516 .4508745 0 1
landline | 1217 .0041085 .0639918 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
aircon | 1217 .0032868 .0572596 0 1
sewing | 1217 .0073952 .0857122 0 1
carjeep | 1217 .0032868 .0572596 0 1
tricycle | 1217 .1659819 .3722174 0 1
land | 1217 .1807724 .3849877 0 1


144

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 07. Summary Statistics for Mindanao

. summarize jobind pantawid toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd


stereo kara
> oke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
cellphone landl
> ine aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal orgind voted

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 6319 .7825605 .4125366 0 1
pantawid | 6319 .3123912 .4635051 0 1
toilet | 6319 2.675898 .8428459 0 5
tenure | 6319 5.177085 1.320741 0 9
welec | 6319 .8928628 .3093121 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
wall | 6317 2.327054 2.203986 0 5
roof | 6318 2.210668 2.303427 0 5
radio | 6319 .2495648 .4327954 0 1
tv | 6319 .5412249 .498337 0 1
cd | 6319 .4665295 .4989179 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
stereo | 6319 .1348315 .3415705 0 1
karaoke | 6319 .1259693 .331841 0 1
ref | 6319 .2460832 .4307617 0 1
electricfan | 6319 .2910271 .4542719 0 1
iron | 6319 .2232948 .4164873 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
lpg | 6319 .1346732 .3414012 0 1
washing | 6319 .1142586 .3181502 0 1
microwave | 6319 .027536 .1636521 0 1
computer | 6319 .0515904 .2212162 0 1
internet | 6319 .0153505 .1229524 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
cellphone | 6319 .5739832 .4945353 0 1
landline | 6319 .0061719 .0783246 0 1
aircon | 6319 .0308593 .1729501 0 1
sewing | 6319 .0219972 .1466857 0 1
carjeep | 6319 .0223137 .1477133 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
tricyclemo~r | 6319 .1341984 .3408924 0 1
land | 6319 .1637917 .3701158 0 1
sex | 6319 .1474917 .3546235 0 1
educal | 6319 14.28137 6.533714 0 25
orgind | 6319 .3468903 .4760182 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
voted | 6319 .9376484 .2418123 0 1


145

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 08. Summary Statistics for Mindanao Non-Beneficiaries

. bysort pantawid: summarize jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd
ster
> eo karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
cellphon
> e landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal orgind
voted

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-> pantawid = 0

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 4345 .7733026 .4187434 0 1
toilet | 4345 2.684465 .8349526 0 5
tenure | 4345 5.248331 1.315464 0 9
welec | 4345 .8909091 .3117891 0 1
wall | 4345 2.510472 2.219834 0 5
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
roof | 4345 2.440736 2.325344 0 5
radio | 4345 .2649022 .4413319 0 1
tv | 4345 .5537399 .4971608 0 1
cd | 4345 .4757192 .4994676 0 1
stereo | 4345 .1470656 .3542121 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
karaoke | 4345 .1387802 .3457568 0 1
ref | 4345 .2718067 .444942 0 1
electricfan | 4345 .3201381 .4665831 0 1
iron | 4345 .2441887 .4296546 0 1
lpg | 4345 .1574223 .3642404 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
washing | 4345 .1245109 .3302015 0 1
microwave | 4345 .0303797 .1716496 0 1
computer | 4345 .0598389 .2372154 0 1
internet | 4345 .0163406 .1267963 0 1
cellphone | 4345 .5905639 .4917864 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
landline | 4345 .0057537 .0756436 0 1
aircon | 4345 .0377445 .1905997 0 1
sewing | 4345 .0266974 .161216 0 1
carjeep | 4345 .0266974 .161216 0 1
tricyclemo~r | 4345 .1452244 .3523675 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
land | 4345 .1739931 .3791472 0 1
sex | 4345 .1544304 .3614024 0 1
educal | 4345 14.19148 6.54086 0 25
orgind | 4345 .3440736 .4751199 0 1
voted | 4345 .9332566 .2496058 0 1


146

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 09. Summary Statistics for Mindanao Beneficiaries

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----
-> pantawid = 1

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 1974 .8029382 .3978802 0 1
toilet | 1974 2.657042 .8598781 0 5
tenure | 1974 5.020263 1.319123 0 9
welec | 1974 .8971631 .3038227 0 1
wall | 1972 1.922921 2.113747 0 5
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
roof | 1973 1.704004 2.170606 0 5
radio | 1974 .2158055 .4114842 0 1
tv | 1974 .5136778 .4999395 0 1
cd | 1974 .4463019 .4972341 0 1
stereo | 1974 .1079027 .3103361 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
karaoke | 1974 .097771 .2970801 0 1
ref | 1974 .189463 .3919753 0 1
electricfan | 1974 .2269504 .4189664 0 1
iron | 1974 .177305 .3820234 0 1
lpg | 1974 .0845998 .2783557 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
washing | 1974 .091692 .2886638 0 1
microwave | 1974 .0212766 .1443415 0 1
computer | 1974 .0334347 .1798142 0 1
internet | 1974 .0131712 .1140365 0 1
cellphone | 1974 .5374873 .4987191 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
landline | 1974 .0070922 .0839373 0 1
aircon | 1974 .0157042 .1243598 0 1
sewing | 1974 .0116515 .1073385 0 1
carjeep | 1974 .0126646 .1118507 0 1
tricyclemo~r | 1974 .1099291 .3128806 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
land | 1974 .1413374 .3484575 0 1
sex | 1974 .1322188 .3388144 0 1
educal | 1974 14.47923 6.515242 0 24
orgind | 1974 .3530902 .4780515 0 1
voted | 1974 .9473151 .2234603 0 1


147

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 10. Summary Statistics of the Aggregate Level Data

. summarize pantawid jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd


karaoke ref
> electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone
landline airc
> on sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal orgind registered voted

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | 90309 .0515342 .2210858 0 1
jobind | 90309 .7536237 .4309026 0 1
toilet | 90309 3.173349 .7324841 0 5
tenure | 90309 5.027838 1.584748 0 9
welec | 90309 .9716307 .1660264 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
wall | 90307 3.792408 1.835316 0 5
roof | 90308 3.719338 1.861114 0 5
radio | 90309 .4305772 .4951598 0 1
tv | 90309 .8345458 .371592 0 1
cd | 90309 .5668317 .4955161 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
karaoke | 90309 .1161125 .3203615 0 1
ref | 90309 .4066704 .4912151 0 1
electricfan | 90309 .8652737 .3414329 0 1
iron | 90309 .6189638 .4856441 0 1
lpg | 90308 .5956947 .4907598 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
washing | 90309 .3489685 .4766466 0 1
microwave | 90309 .0986723 .2982232 0 1
computer | 90309 .2041103 .4030522 0 1
internet | 90309 .1515464 .3585826 0 1
cellphone | 90309 .8228084 .3818329 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
landline | 90309 .1106202 .313663 0 1
aircon | 90309 .098772 .2983573 0 1
sewing | 90309 .0328096 .1781389 0 1
carjeep | 90309 .0559745 .2298737 0 1
tricyclemo~r | 90309 .1202759 .3252857 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
land | 90309 .0907661 .2872779 0 1
sex | 90309 .2302207 .4209763 0 1
educal | 90309 13.22659 7.428068 0 25
orgind | 90309 .1038988 .305131 0 1
registered | 90309 .9067867 .2907327 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
voted | 90309 .8562048 .3508839 0 1


148

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 11. Summary Statistics of the Aggregate Level Non-Beneficiaries

. bysort pantawid: summarize jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv
cd kara
> oke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
cellphone landl
> ine aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal orgind registered
voted
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------
-> pantawid = 0

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 85655 .7498803 .4330843 0 1
toilet | 85655 3.189773 .7139033 0 5
tenure | 85655 5.045987 1.584203 0 9
welec | 85655 .9738486 .1595864 0 1
wall | 85655 3.869581 1.782752 0 5
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
roof | 85655 3.80223 1.803935 0 5
radio | 85655 .4353278 .4958028 0 1
tv | 85655 .8422392 .3645187 0 1
cd | 85655 .572074 .494781 0 1
karaoke | 85655 .1185804 .323296 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
ref | 85655 .4197537 .4935214 0 1
electricfan | 85655 .8835561 .3207583 0 1
iron | 85655 .6362501 .4810807 0 1
lpg | 85654 .6165737 .4862236 0 1
washing | 85655 .3601658 .4800511 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
microwave | 85655 .1030996 .3040908 0 1
computer | 85655 .2132508 .4096058 0 1
internet | 85655 .1586247 .3653279 0 1
cellphone | 85655 .8321289 .373754 0 1
landline | 85655 .1158718 .320073 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
aircon | 85655 .1034849 .304593 0 1
sewing | 85655 .0339852 .1811921 0 1
carjeep | 85655 .0583854 .2344721 0 1
tricyclemo~r | 85655 .1208569 .3259628 0 1
land | 85655 .089195 .2850267 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
sex | 85655 .2347791 .4238631 0 1
educal | 85655 13.1669 7.447648 0 25
orgind | 85655 .0983247 .2977549 0 1
registered | 85655 .9037184 .2949788 0 1
voted | 85655 .8519059 .3551953 0


149

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 12. Summary Statistics of the Aggregate Level Beneficiaries

-> pantawid = 1

Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max


-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
jobind | 4654 .8225183 .3821169 0 1
toilet | 4654 2.871079 .9669642 0 5
tenure | 4654 4.693812 1.557597 0 9
welec | 4654 .9308122 .2538005 0 1
wall | 4652 2.371453 2.177667 0 5
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
roof | 4653 2.193424 2.206256 0 5
radio | 4654 .3431457 .4748107 0 1
tv | 4654 .6929523 .4613189 0 1
cd | 4654 .4703481 .4991736 0 1
karaoke | 4654 .0706919 .256337 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
ref | 4654 .1658788 .3720118 0 1
electricfan | 4654 .5287924 .4992239 0 1
iron | 4654 .3008165 .4586623 0 1
lpg | 4654 .211431 .4083672 0 1
washing | 4654 .1428878 .349996 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
microwave | 4654 .0171895 .129991 0 1
computer | 4654 .0358831 .1860187 0 1
internet | 4654 .021272 .1443052 0 1
cellphone | 4654 .6512677 .4766203 0 1
landline | 4654 .0139665 .1173643 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
aircon | 4654 .0120327 .1090432 0 1
sewing | 4654 .0111732 .1051224 0 1
carjeep | 4654 .0116029 .1071016 0 1
tricyclemo~r | 4654 .1095832 .312403 0 1
land | 4654 .119682 .3246242 0 1
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
sex | 4654 .1463257 .3534705 0 1
educal | 4654 14.3251 6.96806 0 25
orgind | 4654 .206489 .404829 0 1
registered | 4654 .9632574 .1881493 0 1
voted | 4654 .9353245 .2459789 0 1


150

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

IV. Appendix D

Figure 1. Algorithm for Propensity Score Calculation in Luzon

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd stereo karaoke
> ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline
> aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore)
blockid(myb
> lock) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 61,615 97.80 97.80
1 | 1,384 2.20 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 62,999 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -6652.9923


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -6287.9375
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -6174.6699
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -6167.0064
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -6166.7517
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -6166.7508

Logistic regression Number of obs = 62999


LR chi2(28) = 972.48
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -6166.7508 Pseudo R2 = 0.0731

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3550598 .0765077 4.64 0.000 .2051075 .5050121
toilet | -.0636871 .0385951 -1.65 0.099 -.1393322 .0119579
tenure | -.0796446 .0151284 -5.26 0.000 -.1092958 -.0499934
welec | -1.001616 .1705917 -5.87 0.000 -1.335969 -.6672622
wall | -.1676069 .0201664 -8.31 0.000 -.2071324 -.1280814
roof | .10233 .0223563 4.58 0.000 .0585124 .1461476


151

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

radio | .0506535 .0610009 0.83 0.406 -.0689061 .170213


tv | .3682105 .0993682 3.71 0.000 .1734524 .5629687
cd | .4133172 .0673043 6.14 0.000 .2814031 .5452313
stereo | .0507218 .0911114 0.56 0.578 -.1278532 .2292969
karaoke | .0317857 .1203016 0.26 0.792 -.2040011 .2675725
ref | -.8917433 .083139 -10.73 0.000 -1.054693 -.7287938
electricfan | 1.1121 .1732446 6.42 0.000 .7725463 1.451653
iron | .1124907 .0710881 1.58 0.114 -.0268393 .2518207
lpg | -.6125046 .0694272 -8.82 0.000 -.7485794 -.4764298
washing | .2284655 .072291 3.16 0.002 .0867778 .3701532
microwave | -.4992907 .1923199 -2.60 0.009 -.8762307 -.1223507
computer | -.7033456 .1641955 -4.28 0.000 -1.025163 -.3815283
internet | -.1289803 .1792813 -0.72 0.472 -.4803652 .2224045
cellphone | -.5008936 .0728864 -6.87 0.000 -.6437483 -.3580388
landline | -.4140918 .1683767 -2.46 0.014 -.744104 -.0840795
aircon | -.8866688 .2445698 -3.63 0.000 -1.366017 -.4073208
sewing | .218128 .2370568 0.92 0.357 -.2464948 .6827508
carjeep | .2733185 .2203237 1.24 0.215 -.1585081 .705145
tricyclemo~r | .1402246 .1197578 1.17 0.242 -.0944964 .3749456
land | .1748328 .1442069 1.21 0.225 -.1078075 .4574732
sex | -.439302 .0778554 -5.64 0.000 -.5918957 -.2867082
educal | .0082122 .0035931 2.29 0.022 .0011699 .0152545
_cons | -2.881284 .2051886 -14.04 0.000 -3.283446 -2.479122
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00094652, .29141601]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0012258 .0009465
5% .0021066 .0009478
10% .0034419 .0009486 Obs 62350
25% .0080659 .0009486 Sum of Wgt. 62350

50% .0171948 Mean .0221846


Largest Std. Dev. .0196132
75% .0305555 .2642658
90% .0466964 .2711282 Variance .0003847
95% .0593152 .2753083 Skewness 2.18747
99% .0897971 .291416 Kurtosis 12.99991


152

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 8

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 3

Variable wall is not balanced in block 3

Variable carjeep is not balanced in block 5

Variable welec is not balanced in block 6

Variable roof is not balanced in block 6

Variable electricfan is not balanced in block 6

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 11,933 47 | 11,980
.00625 | 11,406 95 | 11,501
.0125 | 17,510 304 | 17,814
.025 | 10,300 320 | 10,620
.0375 | 4,880 271 | 5,151
.05 | 4,604 301 | 4,905
.1 | 319 41 | 360
.2 | 14 5 | 19
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 60,966 1,384 | 62,350

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


153

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet radio tv cd stereo karaoke ref iron lpg washing mi
> crowave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor
> land sex educal, pscore(myscore1) blockid(myblock1) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 61,615 97.80 97.80
1 | 1,384 2.20 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 62,999 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -6652.9923


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -6323.1949
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -6251.3426
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -6245.3865
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -6245.1515
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -6245.1506

Logistic regression Number of obs = 62999


LR chi2(23) = 815.68
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -6245.1506 Pseudo R2 = 0.0613

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3423026 .0762601 4.49 0.000 .1928356 .4917696
toilet | -.0711717 .0394145 -1.81 0.071 -.1484227 .0060794
radio | .0614739 .0606476 1.01 0.311 -.0573932 .1803409
tv | .4401099 .0920798 4.78 0.000 .2596368 .6205831
cd | .4101227 .067182 6.10 0.000 .2784484 .5417969
stereo | .0174046 .0906563 0.19 0.848 -.1602786 .1950878
karaoke | .0359456 .1199631 0.30 0.764 -.1991777 .271069
ref | -.9159005 .0825784 -11.09 0.000 -1.077751 -.7540499
iron | .123618 .0709748 1.74 0.082 -.0154901 .262726
lpg | -.5982491 .0694207 -8.62 0.000 -.7343113 -.462187
washing | .2036871 .0719621 2.83 0.005 .0626439 .3447303
microwave | -.5272533 .1914946 -2.75 0.006 -.9025758 -.1519307


154

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

computer | -.6990172 .1628704 -4.29 0.000 -1.018237 -.379797


internet | -.1524053 .1779422 -0.86 0.392 -.5011655 .196355
cellphone | -.4833485 .0707369 -6.83 0.000 -.6219903 -.3447067
landline | -.4233195 .1677206 -2.52 0.012 -.7520458 -.0945931
aircon | -.912788 .2435885 -3.75 0.000 -1.390213 -.4353634
sewing | .2422836 .2366389 1.02 0.306 -.22152 .7060873
carjeep | .2841846 .2197054 1.29 0.196 -.1464301 .7147993
tricyclemo~r | .1366794 .1194684 1.14 0.253 -.0974743 .3708331
land | .1316538 .1438017 0.92 0.360 -.1501924 .4134999
sex | -.4527545 .0776886 -5.83 0.000 -.6050213 -.3004877
educal | .008757 .0035809 2.45 0.014 .0017387 .0157753
_cons | -3.466298 .1736603 -19.96 0.000 -3.806666 -3.12593
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00093004, .11621498]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0012114 .00093
5% .0021051 .0009315
10% .0035318 .0009319 Obs 62391
25% .0089487 .0009319 Sum of Wgt. 62391

50% .0186363 Mean .0221596


Largest Std. Dev. .0168812
75% .0323781 .1154399
90% .0442249 .1156725 Variance .000285
95% .0547924 .1160166 Skewness 1.187145
99% .0744337 .116215 Kurtosis 4.829899

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 9

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


155

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable iron is not balanced in block 5

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 11,126 44 | 11,170
.00625 | 5,181 42 | 5,223
.009375 | 4,757 53 | 4,810
.0125 | 19,018 338 | 19,356
.025 | 10,942 334 | 11,276
.0375 | 5,967 303 | 6,270
.05 | 3,465 214 | 3,679
.075 | 477 43 | 520
.1 | 74 13 | 87
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 61,007 1,384 | 62,391

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


156

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet radio tv cd stereo karaoke ref lpg washing microwa
> ve computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land
> sex educal, pscore(myscore2) blockid(myblock2) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 61,615 97.80 97.80
1 | 1,384 2.20 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 62,999 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -6652.9923


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -6324.1621
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -6252.7847
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -6246.9041
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -6246.6739
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -6246.6731

Logistic regression Number of obs = 62999


LR chi2(22) = 812.64
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -6246.6731 Pseudo R2 = 0.0611

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3428223 .0762627 4.50 0.000 .1933502 .4922944
toilet | -.073619 .0392181 -1.88 0.060 -.150485 .003247
radio | .0655738 .0606296 1.08 0.279 -.053258 .1844055
tv | .45909 .091409 5.02 0.000 .2799317 .6382483
cd | .4180192 .0670741 6.23 0.000 .2865565 .549482
stereo | .0208636 .0906901 0.23 0.818 -.1568857 .1986129
karaoke | .035771 .1199826 0.30 0.766 -.1993905 .2709325
ref | -.9050354 .0824972 -10.97 0.000 -1.066727 -.7433439
lpg | -.5505226 .063941 -8.61 0.000 -.6758446 -.4252006
washing | .2168679 .0716923 3.02 0.002 .0763536 .3573822
microwave | -.5257299 .191611 -2.74 0.006 -.9012805 -.1501793
computer | -.7031036 .1635983 -4.30 0.000 -1.02375 -.3824568
internet | -.1419363 .1787011 -0.79 0.427 -.4921841 .2083115
cellphone | -.4662804 .0700487 -6.66 0.000 -.6035733 -.3289876


157

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

landline | -.4174521 .1678765 -2.49 0.013 -.746484 -.0884202


aircon | -.9176458 .2436945 -3.77 0.000 -1.395278 -.4400135
sewing | .2469165 .2366768 1.04 0.297 -.2169615 .7107946
carjeep | .2792878 .2197523 1.27 0.204 -.1514187 .7099944
tricyclemo~r | .136179 .1194626 1.14 0.254 -.0979635 .3703215
land | .1339104 .1438047 0.93 0.352 -.1479416 .4157625
sex | -.4504653 .0776746 -5.80 0.000 -.6027048 -.2982259
educal | .0086981 .003581 2.43 0.015 .0016795 .0157167
_cons | -3.452898 .1729542 -19.96 0.000 -3.791882 -3.113914
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00093852, .12039214]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0012252 .0009385
5% .0021157 .0009388
10% .0035542 .00094 Obs 62399
25% .0089833 .0009405 Sum of Wgt. 62399

50% .018674 Mean .0221686


Largest Std. Dev. .0168614
75% .0325356 .1203643
90% .0439758 .1203921 Variance .0002843
95% .0560185 .1203921 Skewness 1.180501
99% .0744282 .1203921 Kurtosis 4.812031

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 9

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************


158

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Variable radio is not balanced in block 4

Variable karaoke is not balanced in block 6

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 11,125 44 | 11,169
.00625 | 9,849 90 | 9,939
.0125 | 9,975 161 | 10,136
.01875 | 9,237 186 | 9,423
.025 | 4,953 129 | 5,082
.03125 | 5,633 201 | 5,834
.0375 | 6,123 304 | 6,427
.05 | 4,059 258 | 4,317
.1 | 61 11 | 72
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 61,015 1,384 | 62,399

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


159

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet tv cd stereo ref lpg washing microwave computer in
> ternet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal, p
> score(myscore3) blockid(myblock3) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 61,615 97.80 97.80
1 | 1,384 2.20 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 62,999 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -6652.9923


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -6324.5412
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -6253.4346
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -6247.5677
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -6247.3381
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -6247.3373

Logistic regression Number of obs = 62999


LR chi2(20) = 811.31
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -6247.3373 Pseudo R2 = 0.0610

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3426723 .0762537 4.49 0.000 .1932179 .4921267
toilet | -.0744703 .0391644 -1.90 0.057 -.1512311 .0022904
tv | .4636932 .0913335 5.08 0.000 .2846828 .6427036
cd | .4293352 .0663272 6.47 0.000 .2993363 .559334
stereo | .0405224 .0864134 0.47 0.639 -.1288448 .2098895
ref | -.8984769 .0820207 -10.95 0.000 -1.059235 -.7377193
lpg | -.5498878 .0639492 -8.60 0.000 -.6752259 -.4245498
washing | .2204903 .0716222 3.08 0.002 .0801133 .3608673
microwave | -.5172484 .1910421 -2.71 0.007 -.8916841 -.1428127
computer | -.7028529 .1635722 -4.30 0.000 -1.023448 -.3822574
internet | -.1393667 .1786245 -0.78 0.435 -.4894643 .2107309
cellphone | -.4646912 .0699992 -6.64 0.000 -.6018871 -.3274953
landline | -.4153992 .1678812 -2.47 0.013 -.7444403 -.0863581


160

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

aircon | -.9195157 .2436769 -3.77 0.000 -1.397114 -.4419178


sewing | .2593021 .2363959 1.10 0.273 -.2040254 .7226296
carjeep | .2812109 .2197898 1.28 0.201 -.1495691 .711991
tricyclemo~r | .1422905 .1193411 1.19 0.233 -.0916139 .3761948
land | .1384861 .143766 0.96 0.335 -.1432902 .4202624
sex | -.4498312 .077661 -5.79 0.000 -.6020439 -.2976185
educal | .0087403 .0035807 2.44 0.015 .0017222 .0157585
_cons | -3.442589 .1725072 -19.96 0.000 -3.780697 -3.104481
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00092401, .11647302]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0012086 .000924
5% .0021008 .0009245
10% .0035351 .0009247 Obs 62435
25% .0089551 .0009251 Sum of Wgt. 62435

50% .0188659 Mean .0221508


Largest Std. Dev. .0168295
75% .0326274 .116473
90% .0436166 .116473 Variance .0002832
95% .0555808 .116473 Skewness 1.168332
99% .0741308 .116473 Kurtosis 4.749929

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 8

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************


161

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

The balancing property is satisfied

This table shows the inferior bound, the number of treated


and the number of controls for each block

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
.000924 | 11,195 45 | 11,240
.00625 | 9,789 86 | 9,875
.0125 | 19,521 356 | 19,877
.025 | 4,590 125 | 4,715
.03125 | 5,969 218 | 6,187
.0375 | 5,839 283 | 6,122
.05 | 4,097 258 | 4,355
.1 | 51 13 | 64
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 61,051 1,384 | 62,435

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


162

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 2. Propensity Score Algorithm for Visayas

. pscore pantawid wall roof educal regvotind jobind sex toilet tenure welec radio
> tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellp
> hone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricycle land, pscore(myscore) blockid(myblo
> ck) comsup logit
****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 12,299 91.00 91.00
1 | 1,217 9.00 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 13,516 100.00
Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -4090.3024


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -3607.2684
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -3496.3648
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -3477.6432
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -3473.8439
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -3473.446
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -3473.439
Iteration 7: log likelihood = -3473.439

Logistic regression Number of obs = 13515


LR chi2(28) = 1233.73
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -3473.439 Pseudo R2 = 0.1508

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
wall | -.0225442 .0180188 -1.25 0.211 -.0578603 .012772
roof | -.1829281 .0210636 -8.68 0.000 -.2242121 -.1416441
educal | .0094714 .0046401 2.04 0.041 .000377 .0185659
regvotind | .8369512 .2008987 4.17 0.000 .4431969 1.230705
jobind | .5518577 .0851294 6.48 0.000 .3850072 .7187081
sex | -.3149291 .085983 -3.66 0.000 -.4834528 -.1464055
toilet | -.0338456 .0277096 -1.22 0.222 -.0881555 .0204643
tenure | -.0709395 .020878 -3.40 0.001 -.1118596 -.0300194
welec | .2209462 .1804713 1.22 0.221 -.132771 .5746634
radio | -.1437303 .0657545 -2.19 0.029 -.2726066 -.0148539
cd | .4133172 .0673043 6.14 0.000 .2814031 .5452313
stereo | .0507218 .0911114 0.56 0.578 -.1278532 .2292969
karaoke | .0317857 .1203016 0.26 0.792 -.2040011 .2675725
ref | -.8917433 .083139 -10.73 0.000 -1.054693 -.7287938
electricfan | 1.1121 .1732446 6.42 0.000 .7725463 1.451653
iron | .1124907 .0710881 1.58 0.114 -.0268393 .2518207


163

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

toilet | -.0338456 .0277096 -1.22 0.222 -.0881555 .0204643


tenure | -.0709395 .020878 -3.40 0.001 -.1118596 -.0300194
welec | .2209462 .1804713 1.22 0.221 -.132771 .5746634
radio | -.1437303 .0657545 -2.19 0.029 -.2726066 -.0148539
tv | .0234037 .0897787 0.26 0.794 -.1525593 .1993668
cd | .318595 .0737369 4.32 0.000 .1740733 .4631167
karaoke | -.3175255 .1810143 -1.75 0.079 -.6723069 .0372559
ref | -.7217986 .1025819 -7.04 0.000 -.9228553 -.5207418
electricfan | -.364875 .0714363 -5.11 0.000 -.5048876 -.2248623
iron | -.1799345 .0975302 -1.84 0.065 -.3710902 .0112213
lpg | -.8785186 .2059384 -4.27 0.000 -1.28215 -.4748867
washing | -.2881791 .1326986 -2.17 0.030 -.5482635 -.0280947
microwave | -.7967308 .5210812 -1.53 0.126 -1.818031 .2245695
computer | -.8935141 .2711094 -3.30 0.001 -1.424879 -.3621493
internet | .1145483 .4139209 0.28 0.782 -.6967217 .9258183
cellphone | .1419612 .0763579 1.86 0.063 -.0076976 .2916199
landline | -.4081105 .4720776 -0.86 0.387 -1.333366 .5171446
aircon | -.2325998 .5279148 -0.44 0.660 -1.267294 .8020942
sewing | -.2927303 .3546867 -0.83 0.409 -.9879034 .4024428
carjeep | -1.300066 .515939 -2.52 0.012 -2.311288 -.2888445
tricycle | -.2336463 .0889524 -2.63 0.009 -.4079899 -.0593027
land | .4754341 .0867059 5.48 0.000 .3054936 .6453746
_cons | -2.547907 .2911288 -8.75 0.000 -3.118509 -1.977306
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00231043, .47762138]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0026871 .0023104
5% .0046447 .0023127
10% .007864 .0023198 Obs 12353
25% .0249166 .002323 Sum of Wgt. 12353

50% .0765872 Mean .0984256


Largest Std. Dev. .0848263
75% .154992 .4365371
90% .2263527 .4407931 Variance .0071955
95% .2619931 .4664117 Skewness .8642832
99% .3219777 .4776214 Kurtosis 2.944091


164

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach


******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 8

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score
is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable tricycle is not balanced in block 7

The balancing property is not satisfied


Try a different specification of the propensity score
Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 3,065 34 | 3,099
.025 | 1,604 56 | 1,660
.05 | 1,267 84 | 1,351
.075 | 1,094 120 | 1,214
.1 | 1,590 201 | 1,791
.15 | 1,134 244 | 1,378
.2 | 1,377 475 | 1,852
.4 | 5 3 | 8
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 11,136 1,217 | 12,353

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


165

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid wall roof educal regvotind jobind sex toilet tenure welec radio
> tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
cellp
> hone landline aircon sewing carjeep land, pscore(myscore1) blockid(myblock1)
com
> sup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 12,299 91.00 91.00
1 | 1,217 9.00 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 13,516 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -4090.3024


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -3610.2432
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -3500.1196
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -3481.224
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -3477.3888
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -3476.9891
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -3476.9821
Iteration 7: log likelihood = -3476.9821

Logistic regression Number of obs = 13515


LR chi2(27) = 1226.64
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -3476.9821 Pseudo R2 = 0.1499

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
wall | -.02274 .0180096 -1.26 0.207 -.0580382 .0125581
roof | -.1842964 .0210496 -8.76 0.000 -.2255529 -.14304
educal | .0093007 .0046336 2.01 0.045 .0002191 .0183824
regvotind | .8247158 .2008259 4.11 0.000 .4311044 1.218327
jobind | .5479803 .0851763 6.43 0.000 .3810378 .7149228
sex | -.3016093 .085902 -3.51 0.000 -.4699742 -.1332445
toilet | -.0345642 .0277103 -1.25 0.212 -.0888754 .0197471
tenure | -.0721957 .0208847 -3.46 0.001 -.113129 -.0312624


166

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

welec | .2183526 .1804183 1.21 0.226 -.1352607 .5719659


radio | -.1428602 .0657199 -2.17 0.030 -.2716688 -.0140517
tv | .0164353 .0897142 0.18 0.855 -.1594012 .1922718
cd | .304363 .0735141 4.14 0.000 .160278 .448448
karaoke | -.3173555 .180816 -1.76 0.079 -.6717483 .0370373
ref | -.7543754 .1017534 -7.41 0.000 -.9538085 -.5549424
electricfan | -.3783478 .0712553 -5.31 0.000 -.5180057 -.23869
iron | -.2005557 .0971905 -2.06 0.039 -.3910455 -.0100658
lpg | -.8930002 .2055578 -4.34 0.000 -1.295886 -.4901143
washing | -.3154492 .1321455 -2.39 0.017 -.5744496 -.0564489
microwave | -.7897874 .5210434 -1.52 0.130 -1.811014 .2314389
computer | -.9261406 .2704035 -3.43 0.001 -1.456122 -.3961594
internet | .109328 .4138384 0.26 0.792 -.7017803 .9204364
cellphone | .1229698 .0760738 1.62 0.106 -.0261321 .2720717
landline | -.4167544 .4720084 -0.88 0.377 -1.341874 .5083651
aircon | -.2247824 .5277961 -0.43 0.670 -1.259244 .809679
sewing | -.3004926 .3543512 -0.85 0.396 -.9950082 .394023
carjeep | -1.295223 .5156621 -2.51 0.012 -2.305902 -.2845442
land | .4669951 .0865942 5.39 0.000 .2972735 .6367167
_cons | -2.521678 .290847 -8.67 0.000 -3.091728 -1.951629
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00204728, .46561938]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .00241 .0020473
5% .0043246 .0020534
10% .0073553 .0020535 Obs 12424
25% .0243112 .0020568 Sum of Wgt. 12424

50% .0768979 Mean .0978777


Largest Std. Dev. .0843842
75% .1554793 .4281944
90% .2251929 .4285694 Variance .0071207
95% .2583892 .4537503 Skewness .8450311
99% .3194682 .4656194 Kurtosis 2.895628


167

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 7

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

The balancing property is satisfied

This table shows the inferior bound, the number of treated


and the number of controls for each block

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
.0020473 | 3,139 32 | 3,171
.025 | 1,594 56 | 1,650
.05 | 2,354 204 | 2,558
.1 | 1,578 212 | 1,790
.15 | 1,141 241 | 1,382
.2 | 1,396 470 | 1,866
.4 | 5 2 | 7
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 11,207 1,217 | 12,424

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


168

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 03. Algorithm in Propensity Score Estimation: Mindanao

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd stereo karaoke
> ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline
> aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore) blockid(myb
> lock) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 4,345 68.76 68.76
1 | 1,974 31.24 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 6,319 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -3921.7749


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -3789.8735
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -3787.7816
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -3787.7756
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -3787.7756

Logistic regression Number of obs = 6317


LR chi2(28) = 268.00
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -3787.7756 Pseudo R2 = 0.0342

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .1099349 .0730339 1.51 0.132 -.0332089 .2530787
toilet | .056448 .0342535 1.65 0.099 -.0106877 .1235838
tenure | -.0666396 .021596 -3.09 0.002 -.1089669 -.0243123
welec | .3381708 .0968291 3.49 0.000 .1483894 .5279523
wall | -.0358432 .0171694 -2.09 0.037 -.0694946 -.0021917
roof | -.1062817 .016851 -6.31 0.000 -.139309 -.0732544
radio | -.2261456 .0666131 -3.39 0.001 -.3567049 -.0955864
tv | .0496722 .0615433 0.81 0.420 -.0709503 .1702948
cd | .1733053 .0675618 2.57 0.010 .0408866 .305724


169

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

stereo | -.0920591 .0961015 -0.96 0.338 -.2804145 .0962963


karaoke | -.2051615 .0952479 -2.15 0.031 -.3918439 -.018479
ref | -.0870855 .088707 -0.98 0.326 -.2609481 .086777
electricfan | -.2281282 .0820181 -2.78 0.005 -.3888807 -.0673756
iron | -.0240608 .0898794 -0.27 0.789 -.2002213 .1520997
lpg | -.3830403 .1215845 -3.15 0.002 -.6213416 -.144739
washing | .1361914 .1115701 1.22 0.222 -.0824819 .3548647
microwave | .2654356 .2079015 1.28 0.202 -.1420439 .6729152
computer | -.0337816 .1734808 -0.19 0.846 -.3737979 .3062346
internet | .0726917 .2513681 0.29 0.772 -.4199806 .5653641
cellphone | -.0567176 .0625097 -0.91 0.364 -.1792344 .0657992
landline | .4140058 .3567471 1.16 0.246 -.2852057 1.113217
aircon | -.2357335 .2304296 -1.02 0.306 -.6873672 .2159002
sewing | -.3332698 .241193 -1.38 0.167 -.8059993 .1394597
carjeep | -.1891666 .2426442 -0.78 0.436 -.6647405 .2864073
tricyclemo~r | .0207001 .0977861 0.21 0.832 -.1709571 .2123573
land | -.0049266 .0810601 -0.06 0.952 -.1638015 .1539483
sex | -.0951755 .0853973 -1.11 0.265 -.2625511 .0722001
educal | .0032346 .0042972 0.75 0.452 -.0051877 .0116569
_cons | -.5844065 .173607 -3.37 0.001 -.9246699 -.244143
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.08970075, .57006998]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .1111321 .0897008
5% .1586512 .0907873
10% .1908222 .0913396 Obs 6296
25% .2443214 .091662 Sum of Wgt. 6296

50% .3118588 Mean .3129521


Largest Std. Dev. .0929639
75% .3878352 .5601541
90% .4360835 .5602941 Variance .0086423
95% .4570915 .5665574 Skewness -.0624906
99% .4981069 .57007 Kurtosis 2.242295


170

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 4

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score
is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 1

Variable roof is not balanced in block 1


Variable tv is not balanced in block 1

Variable tv is not balanced in block 2

Variable tv is not balanced in block 4

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score


Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 635 119 | 754
.2 | 1,646 519 | 2,165
.3 | 1,261 781 | 2,042
.4 | 782 553 | 1,335
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 4,324 1,972 | 6,296

Note: the common support option has been selected


*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


171

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet welec wall radio cd stereo karaoke ref
electricfan
> iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing
c
> arjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore1) blockid(myblock1) comsup
> logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 4,345 68.76 68.76
1 | 1,974 31.24 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 6,319 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -3921.7749


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -3816.9818
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -3815.294
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -3815.2888
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -3815.2888

Logistic regression Number of obs = 6317


LR chi2(25) = 212.97
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -3815.2888 Pseudo R2 = 0.0272

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .1187023 .0726583 1.63 0.102 -.0237053 .2611099
toilet | .0333718 .0339647 0.98 0.326 -.0331977 .0999413
welec | .2884251 .094984 3.04 0.002 .1022598 .4745904
wall | -.1106225 .0133755 -8.27 0.000 -.1368381 -.0844069
radio | -.2183448 .0661658 -3.30 0.001 -.3480274 -.0886621
cd | .1713924 .0665405 2.58 0.010 .0409755 .3018094
stereo | -.1059795 .095645 -1.11 0.268 -.2934403 .0814813
karaoke | -.2068287 .0948049 -2.18 0.029 -.392643 -.0210145
ref | -.1116142 .0880493 -1.27 0.205 -.2841876 .0609592


172

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

electricfan | -.2281925 .081614 -2.80 0.005 -.3881531 -.0682319


iron | -.0245506 .089417 -0.27 0.784 -.1998048 .1507035
lpg | -.3989847 .1209297 -3.30 0.001 -.6360025 -.1619668
washing | .1519163 .1108813 1.37 0.171 -.0654071 .3692396
microwave | .3113589 .2067651 1.51 0.132 -.0938933 .716611
computer | -.0421292 .1726411 -0.24 0.807 -.3804995 .2962411
internet | .0637446 .249915 0.26 0.799 -.4260798 .553569
cellphone | -.0565431 .0620539 -0.91 0.362 -.1781665 .0650804
landline | .3873469 .3552475 1.09 0.276 -.3089255 1.083619
aircon | -.2606207 .2296105 -1.14 0.256 -.7106491 .1894076
sewing | -.365685 .2404438 -1.52 0.128 -.8369462 .1055761
carjeep | -.1940192 .2419515 -0.80 0.423 -.6682353 .280197
tricyclemo~r | .0153116 .0973951 0.16 0.875 -.1755792 .2062024
land | -.0318604 .0804855 -0.40 0.692 -.189609 .1258882
sex | -.1057053 .0849514 -1.24 0.213 -.272207 .0607965
educal | .0030789 .0042736 0.72 0.471 -.0052973 .0114551
_cons | -.8388269 .1428827 -5.87 0.000 -1.118872 -.558782
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.09041664, .54920001]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .1186729 .0904166
5% .1681943 .0908764
10% .1994906 .0911086 Obs 6300
25% .2548786 .092195 Sum of Wgt. 6300

50% .3153174 Mean .3127289


Largest Std. Dev. .0825242
75% .3780719 .5161173
90% .4178552 .517013 Variance .0068102
95% .4335482 .5368415 Skewness -.2612657
99% .4664051 .5492 Kurtosis 2.46494


173

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 4

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable wall is not balanced in block 1

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 535 101 | 636
.2 | 1,593 531 | 2,124
.3 | 1,570 876 | 2,446
.4 | 630 464 | 1,094
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 4,328 1,972 | 6,300

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


174

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet welec radio cd stereo karaoke ref electricfan
iron
> lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing
carjee
> p tricyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore2) blockid(myblock2) comsup
logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 4,345 68.76 68.76
1 | 1,974 31.24 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 6,319 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -3924.1026


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -3853.8081
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -3852.4935
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -3852.4893
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -3852.4893

Logistic regression Number of obs = 6319


LR chi2(24) = 143.23
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -3852.4893 Pseudo R2 = 0.0182

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .1167444 .0722827 1.62 0.106 -.024927 .2584159
toilet | -.0093791 .0336907 -0.28 0.781 -.0754116 .0566534
welec | .1770098 .094035 1.88 0.060 -.0072954 .361315
radio | -.2405502 .0656982 -3.66 0.000 -.3693163 -.1117841
cd | .1726776 .0660631 2.61 0.009 .0431963 .302159
stereo | -.1217576 .0950995 -1.28 0.200 -.3081491 .064634
karaoke | -.2216728 .0942579 -2.35 0.019 -.4064149 -.0369308
ref | -.1531607 .087384 -1.75 0.080 -.3244302 .0181088
electricfan | -.2627412 .081017 -3.24 0.001 -.4215316 -.1039509
iron | -.0248268 .0887736 -0.28 0.780 -.1988199 .1491664
lpg | -.3947823 .1203024 -3.28 0.001 -.6305706 -.158994


175

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

washing | .1468004 .1103314 1.33 0.183 -.0694452 .363046


microwave | .3482891 .2057532 1.69 0.091 -.0549797 .7515578
computer | -.0495376 .172093 -0.29 0.773 -.3868338 .2877585
internet | .0899832 .2482349 0.36 0.717 -.3965484 .5765147
cellphone | -.0558587 .061617 -0.91 0.365 -.1766258 .0649084
landline | .4110028 .3526133 1.17 0.244 -.2801066 1.102112
aircon | -.3051488 .229169 -1.33 0.183 -.7543117 .1440141
sewing | -.4090144 .2392485 -1.71 0.087 -.8779328 .059904
carjeep | -.2361803 .2409496 -0.98 0.327 -.7084328 .2360722
tricyclemo~r | .0156336 .0969011 0.16 0.872 -.1742891 .2055562
land | -.0548317 .0799346 -0.69 0.493 -.2115007 .1018373
sex | -.1160528 .0845602 -1.37 0.170 -.2817878 .0496822
educal | .0048084 .0042428 1.13 0.257 -.0035073 .0131241
_cons | -.8583474 .142173 -6.04 0.000 -1.137001 -.5796935
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.10418664, .52764273]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .1317661 .1041866
5% .1787762 .1042556
10% .2132896 .1051518 Obs 6296
25% .278416 .1051568 Sum of Wgt. 6296

50% .3246891 Mean .3132136


Largest Std. Dev. .0664081
75% .3630759 .5143666
90% .3796222 .5157674 Variance .00441
95% .4011155 .5202511 Skewness -.8205214
99% .4209006 .5276427 Kurtosis 3.323626

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 5

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


176

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable welec is not balanced in block 2

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 402 100 | 502
.2 | 463 97 | 560
.25 | 807 298 | 1,105
.3 | 2,468 1,339 | 3,807
.4 | 182 140 | 322
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 4,322 1,974 | 6,296

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


177

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet radio cd stereo karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg w
> ashing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tric
> yclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore3) blockid(myblock3) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 4,345 68.76 68.76
1 | 1,974 31.24 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 6,319 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -3924.1026


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -3855.591
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -3854.2917
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -3854.2875
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -3854.2875

Logistic regression Number of obs = 6319


LR chi2(23) = 139.63
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -3854.2875 Pseudo R2 = 0.0178

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .1181615 .0722484 1.64 0.102 -.0234426 .2597657
toilet | .008412 .0323447 0.26 0.795 -.0549824 .0718064
radio | -.2318992 .0655309 -3.54 0.000 -.3603374 -.103461
cd | .1782358 .0659956 2.70 0.007 .0488868 .3075847
stereo | -.1212558 .0950747 -1.28 0.202 -.3075989 .0650872
karaoke | -.2206423 .0942419 -2.34 0.019 -.405353 -.0359316
ref | -.1514697 .0873756 -1.73 0.083 -.3227227 .0197833
electricfan | -.2612348 .0810148 -3.22 0.001 -.420021 -.1024486
iron | -.0257702 .0887556 -0.29 0.772 -.199728 .1481875
lpg | -.3955805 .1202932 -3.29 0.001 -.6313509 -.1598101
washing | .1494038 .1103258 1.35 0.176 -.0668308 .3656384
microwave | .3437969 .205665 1.67 0.095 -.059299 .7468929


178

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

computer | -.0516771 .1719873 -0.30 0.764 -.388766 .2854119


internet | .1022466 .2480934 0.41 0.680 -.3840075 .5885006
cellphone | -.0506521 .0615493 -0.82 0.411 -.1712864 .0699823
landline | .4153327 .3526501 1.18 0.239 -.2758489 1.106514
aircon | -.3073471 .2290502 -1.34 0.180 -.7562772 .1415831
sewing | -.409931 .2391993 -1.71 0.087 -.8787531 .058891
carjeep | -.2394744 .2408205 -0.99 0.320 -.7114739 .2325252
tricyclemo~r | .0167315 .0968771 0.17 0.863 -.1731441 .2066071
land | -.0519596 .0799034 -0.65 0.516 -.2085674 .1046481
sex | -.1181928 .0845191 -1.40 0.162 -.2838471 .0474616
educal | .0046011 .0042404 1.09 0.278 -.0037099 .0129121
_cons | -.7544457 .1305611 -5.78 0.000 -1.010341 -.4985507
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.10412214, .51557496]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .1322043 .1041221
5% .1799856 .1045543
10% .2140939 .105306 Obs 6295
25% .2794128 .1055536 Sum of Wgt. 6295

50% .3259422 Mean .313248


Largest Std. Dev. .0654279
75% .3613203 .5079865
90% .3753729 .5110411 Variance .0042808
95% .3982862 .515211 Skewness -.8698081
99% .4167356 .515575 Kurtosis 3.398117


179

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 5

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable cd is not balanced in block 3

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 401 98 | 499
.2 | 451 92 | 543
.25 | 773 307 | 1,080
.3 | 2,522 1,348 | 3,870
.4 | 174 129 | 303
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 4,321 1,974 | 6,295

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


180

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet radio stereo karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg
wash
> ing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep
tricycl
> emotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore4) blockid(myblock4) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************
The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 4,345 68.76 68.76
1 | 1,974 31.24 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 6,319 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -3924.1026


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -3859.1729
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -3857.9347
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -3857.9308
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -3857.9308

Logistic regression Number of obs = 6319


LR chi2(22) = 132.34
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -3857.9308 Pseudo R2 = 0.0169

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .1220244 .0722082 1.69 0.091 -.019501 .2635499
toilet | .0079453 .0323283 0.25 0.806 -.0554171 .0713077
radio | -.2319659 .0654923 -3.54 0.000 -.3603285 -.1036034
stereo | -.0608903 .0925264 -0.66 0.510 -.2422386 .1204581
karaoke | -.175286 .0927407 -1.89 0.059 -.3570543 .0064824
ref | -.1326402 .0871277 -1.52 0.128 -.3034073 .0381268
electricfan | -.2286389 .0802169 -2.85 0.004 -.3858611 -.0714166
iron | -.0059319 .0885079 -0.07 0.947 -.1794042 .1675404
lpg | -.4029719 .1202447 -3.35 0.001 -.6386472 -.1672966
washing | .1509755 .1102666 1.37 0.171 -.0651431 .3670942
microwave | .3404602 .2054733 1.66 0.098 -.0622601 .7431806
computer | -.0681619 .171729 -0.40 0.691 -.4047446 .2684208
internet | .1239646 .2476848 0.50 0.617 -.3614887 .6094178


181

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

cellphone | -.0196344 .0604297 -0.32 0.745 -.1380745 .0988056


landline | .4478205 .3519341 1.27 0.203 -.2419577 1.137599
aircon | -.3129938 .2287747 -1.37 0.171 -.761384 .1353963
sewing | -.4074449 .2390686 -1.70 0.088 -.8760107 .0611209
carjeep | -.2477798 .2406514 -1.03 0.303 -.7194478 .2238882
tricyclemo~r | .0259381 .0967868 0.27 0.789 -.1637605 .2156368
land | -.0485054 .0798362 -0.61 0.543 -.2049814 .1079706
sex | -.1205082 .0844818 -1.43 0.154 -.2860894 .045073
educal | .0049043 .0042376 1.16 0.247 -.0034013 .0132099
_cons | -.726401 .1300685 -5.58 0.000 -.9813307 -.4714713
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.10328081, .49210252]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .1314655 .1032808
5% .1801708 .1039181
10% .2149162 .1040033 Obs 6301
25% .2790509 .1042029 Sum of Wgt. 6301

50% .3253813 Mean .3130433


Largest Std. Dev. .0638537
75% .3667401 .4876659
90% .3782026 .488597 Variance .0040773
95% .3807937 .4886345 Skewness -.9940174
99% .3930555 .4921025 Kurtosis 3.472887

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 6

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


182

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 4. Propensity Score Algorithm for Luzon-Visayas

. pscore islandgroup jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd karaoke ref
electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
> cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricycle land sex educal,
pscore(myscore) blockid(myblock) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,217 45.41 45.41
1 | 1,463 54.59 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 2,680 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -1846.3282


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -831.58799
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -646.69617
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -593.70194
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -584.9987
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -584.61542
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -584.61431

Logistic regression Number of obs = 2680


LR chi2(27) = 2523.43
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -584.61431 Pseudo R2 = 0.6834

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3623401 .2188475 1.66 0.098 -.066593 .7912733
toilet | .5495627 .0800656 6.86 0.000 .3926369 .7064884
tenure | .2912549 .0451571 6.45 0.000 .2027486 .3797612
welec | -2.701255 .3721182 -7.26 0.000 -3.430593 -1.971917
wall | .0824548 .0519762 1.59 0.113 -.0194166 .1843262
roof | .6149698 .0540209 11.38 0.000 .5090907 .7208488
radio | -1.192283 .1685685 -7.07 0.000 -1.522671 -.8618948
tv | -.5196336 .2269465 -2.29 0.022 -.9644405 -.0748268
cd | .3982435 .1775183 2.24 0.025 .050314 .7461729
karaoke | .1966346 .380014 0.52 0.605 -.5481791 .9414483
ref | -1.109093 .2663646 -4.16 0.000 -1.631158 -.5870277


183

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach


184

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

electricfan | 3.226688 .2729148 11.82 0.000 2.691785 3.761591


iron | 1.29819 .1891417 6.86 0.000 .927479 1.668901
lpg | 3.274547 .2897915 11.30 0.000 2.706566 3.842528
washing | .7376466 .2657644 2.78 0.006 .2167579 1.258535
microwave | 1.644717 .8116914 2.03 0.043 .0538312 3.235603
computer | -.6146878 .5263051 -1.17 0.243 -1.646227 .4168511
internet | -.7545772 .6201924 -1.22 0.224 -1.970132 .4609776
cellphone | -1.211709 .1889927 -6.41 0.000 -1.582128 -.8412903
landline | 1.38379 .8189211 1.69 0.091 -.2212658 2.988846
aircon | -1.195301 .9816377 -1.22 0.223 -3.119275 .7286736
sewing | -.2845561 .7367423 -0.39 0.699 -1.728544 1.159432
carjeep | .9558555 .9092804 1.05 0.293 -.8263014 2.738012
tricyclemo~r | -2.372047 .2931345 -8.09 0.000 -2.94658 -1.797514
land | -2.173307 .2772572 -7.84 0.000 -2.716721 -1.629893
sex | .248864 .2227827 1.12 0.264 -.1877822 .6855101
educal | -.013727 .0104698 -1.31 0.190 -.0342474 .0067935
_cons | -3.701467 .492392 -7.52 0.000 -4.666537 -2.736396
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00107183, .99994717]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0013353 .0010718
5% .0031567 .0010809
10% .0074513 .0010873 Obs 2579
25% .0563515 .0010898 Sum of Wgt. 2579

50% .7557138 Mean .567255


Largest Std. Dev. .4212363
75% .9830403 .9998711
90% .9973708 .9998785 Variance .17744
95% .9987982 .9999393 Skewness -.2852428
99% .9996506 .9999472 Kurtosis 1.279208


185

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 4. Propensity Score Algorithm for Luzon-Visayas

. pscore islandgroup jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd karaoke ref
electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
> cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricycle land sex educal,
pscore(myscore) blockid(myblock) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,217 45.41 45.41
1 | 1,463 54.59 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 2,680 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -1846.3282


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -831.58799
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -646.69617
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -593.70194
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -584.9987
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -584.61542
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -584.61431

Logistic regression Number of obs = 2680


LR chi2(27) = 2523.43
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -584.61431 Pseudo R2 = 0.6834

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3623401 .2188475 1.66 0.098 -.066593 .7912733
toilet | .5495627 .0800656 6.86 0.000 .3926369 .7064884
tenure | .2912549 .0451571 6.45 0.000 .2027486 .3797612
welec | -2.701255 .3721182 -7.26 0.000 -3.430593 -1.971917
wall | .0824548 .0519762 1.59 0.113 -.0194166 .1843262
roof | .6149698 .0540209 11.38 0.000 .5090907 .7208488
radio | -1.192283 .1685685 -7.07 0.000 -1.522671 -.8618948
tv | -.5196336 .2269465 -2.29 0.022 -.9644405 -.0748268
cd | .3982435 .1775183 2.24 0.025 .050314 .7461729
karaoke | .1966346 .380014 0.52 0.605 -.5481791 .9414483
ref | -1.109093 .2663646 -4.16 0.000 -1.631158 -.5870277


186

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

electricfan | 3.226688 .2729148 11.82 0.000 2.691785 3.761591


iron | 1.29819 .1891417 6.86 0.000 .927479 1.668901
lpg | 3.274547 .2897915 11.30 0.000 2.706566 3.842528
washing | .7376466 .2657644 2.78 0.006 .2167579 1.258535
microwave | 1.644717 .8116914 2.03 0.043 .0538312 3.235603
computer | -.6146878 .5263051 -1.17 0.243 -1.646227 .4168511
internet | -.7545772 .6201924 -1.22 0.224 -1.970132 .4609776
cellphone | -1.211709 .1889927 -6.41 0.000 -1.582128 -.8412903
landline | 1.38379 .8189211 1.69 0.091 -.2212658 2.988846
aircon | -1.195301 .9816377 -1.22 0.223 -3.119275 .7286736
sewing | -.2845561 .7367423 -0.39 0.699 -1.728544 1.159432
carjeep | .9558555 .9092804 1.05 0.293 -.8263014 2.738012
tricyclemo~r | -2.372047 .2931345 -8.09 0.000 -2.94658 -1.797514
land | -2.173307 .2772572 -7.84 0.000 -2.716721 -1.629893
sex | .248864 .2227827 1.12 0.264 -.1877822 .6855101
educal | -.013727 .0104698 -1.31 0.190 -.0342474 .0067935
_cons | -3.701467 .492392 -7.52 0.000 -4.666537 -2.736396
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00107183, .99994717]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0013353 .0010718
5% .0031567 .0010809
10% .0074513 .0010873 Obs 2579
25% .0563515 .0010898 Sum of Wgt. 2579

50% .7557138 Mean .567255


Largest Std. Dev. .4212363
75% .9830403 .9998711
90% .9973708 .9998785 Variance .17744
95% .9987982 .9999393 Skewness -.2852428
99% .9996506 .9999472 Kurtosis 1.279208


187

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

electricfan | 3.226688 .2729148 11.82 0.000 2.691785 3.761591


iron | 1.29819 .1891417 6.86 0.000 .927479 1.668901
lpg | 3.274547 .2897915 11.30 0.000 2.706566 3.842528
washing | .7376466 .2657644 2.78 0.006 .2167579 1.258535
microwave | 1.644717 .8116914 2.03 0.043 .0538312 3.235603
computer | -.6146878 .5263051 -1.17 0.243 -1.646227 .4168511
internet | -.7545772 .6201924 -1.22 0.224 -1.970132 .4609776
cellphone | -1.211709 .1889927 -6.41 0.000 -1.582128 -.8412903
landline | 1.38379 .8189211 1.69 0.091 -.2212658 2.988846
aircon | -1.195301 .9816377 -1.22 0.223 -3.119275 .7286736
sewing | -.2845561 .7367423 -0.39 0.699 -1.728544 1.159432
carjeep | .9558555 .9092804 1.05 0.293 -.8263014 2.738012
tricyclemo~r | -2.372047 .2931345 -8.09 0.000 -2.94658 -1.797514
land | -2.173307 .2772572 -7.84 0.000 -2.716721 -1.629893
sex | .248864 .2227827 1.12 0.264 -.1877822 .6855101
educal | -.013727 .0104698 -1.31 0.190 -.0342474 .0067935
_cons | -3.701467 .492392 -7.52 0.000 -4.666537 -2.736396
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00107183, .99994717]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0013353 .0010718
5% .0031567 .0010809
10% .0074513 .0010873 Obs 2579
25% .0563515 .0010898 Sum of Wgt. 2579

50% .7557138 Mean .567255


Largest Std. Dev. .4212363
75% .9830403 .9998711
90% .9973708 .9998785 Variance .17744
95% .9987982 .9999393 Skewness -.2852428
99% .9996506 .9999472 Kurtosis 1.279208


188

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 11

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable roof is not balanced in block 1

Variable ref is not balanced in block 1

Variable radio is not balanced in block 3

Variable internet is not balanced in block 3

Variable landline is not balanced in block 3

Variable computer is not balanced in block 8

Variable wall is not balanced in block 11

Variable roof is not balanced in block 11

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score


189

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 608 8 | 616
.05 | 128 11 | 139
.1 | 115 16 | 131
.2 | 110 35 | 145
.4 | 56 60 | 116
.6 | 47 153 | 200
.8 | 25 134 | 159
.9 | 13 164 | 177
.95 | 7 169 | 176
.975 | 5 137 | 142
.9875 | 2 576 | 578
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,116 1,463 | 2,579

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


190

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup jobind toilet tenure welec tv cd karaoke electricfan iron


lpg washing microwave cellphone aircon sewing carjeep tricyc
> le land sex educal, pscore(myscore1) blockid(myblock1) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************
The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,217 45.41 45.41
1 | 1,463 54.59 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 2,680 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -1846.3282


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -981.92267
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -839.33102
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -808.0494
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -805.06485
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -805.01615
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -805.01613

Logistic regression Number of obs = 2680


LR chi2(20) = 2082.62
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -805.01613 Pseudo R2 = 0.5640

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .2124502 .1816804 1.17 0.242 -.1436369 .5685373
toilet | .7168464 .0704344 10.18 0.000 .5787976 .8548953
tenure | .3144648 .0385191 8.16 0.000 .2389688 .3899608
welec | -2.766405 .3227853 -8.57 0.000 -3.399053 -2.133758
tv | -.5171061 .1902947 -2.72 0.007 -.8900768 -.1441353
cd | .4678109 .1444349 3.24 0.001 .1847238 .7508981
karaoke | -.1018817 .3447392 -0.30 0.768 -.7775581 .5737947
electricfan | 3.318309 .2326866 14.26 0.000 2.862252 3.774366
iron | 1.291481 .1551331 8.32 0.000 .9874261 1.595537
lpg | 3.346311 .2451636 13.65 0.000 2.865799 3.826823
washing | .3983673 .2212147 1.80 0.072 -.0352055 .8319401
microwave | .4022499 .71516 0.56 0.574 -.9994379 1.803938


191

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

cellphone | -1.21826 .1581842 -7.70 0.000 -1.528295 -.9082243


aircon | -.5754128 .9025816 -0.64 0.524 -2.34444 1.193615
sewing | -.4303428 .6168844 -0.70 0.485 -1.639414 .7787283
carjeep | 1.208662 .8545399 1.41 0.157 -.4662057 2.883529
tricyclemo~r | -2.387919 .2500335 -9.55 0.000 -2.877976 -1.897862
land | -1.934991 .2259574 -8.56 0.000 -2.377859 -1.492122
sex | .1240082 .1839488 0.67 0.500 -.2365247 .4845412
educal | -.0242644 .0086523 -2.80 0.005 -.0412227 -.0073061
_cons | -2.907344 .4159438 -6.99 0.000 -3.722579 -2.092109
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00083383, .99985339]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0020552 .0008338
5% .0067531 .0009148
10% .0149799 .0009809 Obs 2656
25% .112913 .0009993 Sum of Wgt. 2656

50% .6416385 Mean .5508245


Largest Std. Dev. .3904828
75% .9650809 .9993454
90% .9928343 .9995252 Variance .1524769
95% .9959181 .9995674 Skewness -.2060678
99% .9982642 .9998534 Kurtosis 1.371272


192

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 10

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable microwave is not balanced in block 1

Variable electricfan is not balanced in block 5

Variable tv is not balanced in block 10

Variable lpg is not balanced in block 10

Variable cellphone is not balanced in block 10

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 475 8 | 483
.05 | 132 14 | 146
.1 | 157 31 | 188
.2 | 110 21 | 131
.3 | 86 38 | 124
.4 | 93 108 | 201
.6 | 92 227 | 319
.8 | 29 172 | 201
.9 | 11 132 | 143
.95 | 8 712 | 720
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,193 1,463 | 2,656

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


193

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup jobind toilet tenure welec cd karaoke iron washing aircon
sewing carjeep tricycle land sex educal, pscore(myscore2) blockid(myblock2)
comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,217 45.41 45.41
1 | 1,463 54.59 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 2,680 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -1846.3282


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1248.9656
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -1188.9531
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -1184.1504
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -1184.0956
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -1184.0956

Logistic regression Number of obs = 2680


LR chi2(15) = 1324.47
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -1184.0956 Pseudo R2 = 0.3587

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .207312 .1470725 1.41 0.159 -.0809449 .4955688
toilet | .7201948 .0602008 11.96 0.000 .6022033 .8381863
tenure | .3595316 .0311406 11.55 0.000 .2984972 .420566
welec | -1.287046 .2322283 -5.54 0.000 -1.742205 -.8318872
cd | .6149026 .1109681 5.54 0.000 .397409 .8323961
karaoke | .056645 .2847341 0.20 0.842 -.5014235 .6147135
iron | 2.18745 .1263516 17.31 0.000 1.939805 2.435094
washing | 1.088516 .1767164 6.16 0.000 .7421582 1.434874
aircon | .4561137 .8378248 0.54 0.586 -1.185993 2.09822
sewing | -.2201142 .5236208 -0.42 0.674 -1.246392 .8061637
carjeep | 1.05767 .6689345 1.58 0.114 -.2534174 2.368758
tricyclemo~r | -2.102261 .1937525 -10.85 0.000 -2.482009 -1.722513
land | -2.003669 .1933877 -10.36 0.000 -2.382702 -1.624636
sex | .0819776 .1517023 0.54 0.589 -.2153534 .3793086
educal | -.01752 .0070613 -2.48 0.013 -.0313598 -.0036802
_cons | -3.113397 .3540183 -8.79 0.000 -3.80726 -2.419534
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


194

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

sex | .0819776 .1517023 0.54 0.589 -.2153534 .3793086


educal | -.01752 .0070613 -2.48 0.013 -.0313598 -.0036802
_cons | -3.113397 .3540183 -8.79 0.000 -3.80726 -2.419534
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.01075425, .99571146]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0185021 .0107543
5% .05921 .0108142
10% .1001634 .0110033 Obs 2649
25% .2468127 .0111345 Sum of Wgt. 2649

50% .5679799 Mean .5522038


Largest Std. Dev. .3194107
75% .8733092 .9931528
90% .9564424 .9947889 Variance .1020232
95% .9743893 .9956674 Skewness -.1561572
99% .9881608 .9957115 Kurtosis 1.612061

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 9

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 1

Variable karaoke is not balanced in block 1

Variable sex is not balanced in block 2

Variable jobind is not balanced in block 3

Variable welec is not balanced in block 3

Variable sex is not balanced in block 3



195

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Variable jobind is not balanced in block 3

Variable welec is not balanced in block 3

Variable sex is not balanced in block 3

Variable educal is not balanced in block 3

Variable educal is not balanced in block 4

Variable jobind is not balanced in block 6

Variable aircon is not balanced in block 8

Variable tricyclemotor is not balanced in block 8

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 245 19 | 264
.1 | 250 45 | 295
.2 | 310 100 | 410
.4 | 205 224 | 429
.6 | 104 276 | 380
.8 | 41 264 | 305
.9 | 18 87 | 105
.925 | 5 156 | 161
.95 | 8 292 | 300
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,186 1,463 | 2,649

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


196

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. . pscore islandgroup electricfan sewing carjeep land, pscore(myscore2)


blockid(myblock2) com
> sup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,217 45.41 45.41
1 | 1,463 54.59 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 2,680 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -1846.3282


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1419.1446
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -1400.2585
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -1399.7893
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -1399.7887

Logistic regression Number of obs = 2680


LR chi2(4) = 893.08
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -1399.7887 Pseudo R2 = 0.2419

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
electricfan | 2.947365 .1350829 21.82 0.000 2.682607 3.212122
sewing | .1982324 .4493483 0.44 0.659 -.6824741 1.078939
carjeep | 1.22933 .5816212 2.11 0.035 .0893729 2.369286
land | -1.84984 .1642807 -11.26 0.000 -2.171824 -1.527855
_cons | -1.964954 .1249611 -15.72 0.000 -2.209874 -1.720035
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.02156687, .91758458]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support


197

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0215669 .0215669
5% .1229319 .0215669
10% .1229319 .0215669 Obs 2680
25% .2957895 .0215669 Sum of Wgt. 2680

50% .7275862 Mean .5458955


Largest Std. Dev. .2749428
75% .7275862 .9012988
90% .7275862 .9012988 Variance .0755936
95% .7275862 .9012988 Skewness -.8519495
99% .7650633 .9175846 Kurtosis 1.855912

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 5

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************
The balancing property is satisfied

This table shows the inferior bound, the number of treated


and the number of controls for each block

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
.0215669 | 593 73 | 666
.2 | 133 53 | 186
.4 | 0 1 | 1
.6 | 488 1,313 | 1,801
.8 | 3 23 | 26
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,217 1,463 | 2,680

Note: the common support option has been selected


*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


198

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 05. Propensity Score Algorithm for Visayas-Mindanao

. pscore islandgroup jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd karaoke ref
electricfan iron lpg washing microwave
> computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricycle land sex
educal, pscore(myscore) blockid(myblock)
> comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************
The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,971 61.83 61.83
1 | 1,217 38.17 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,188 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2118.7757


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1502.3827
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -1453.2149
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -1450.3544
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -1450.3309
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -1450.3309

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3186


LR chi2(27) = 1336.89
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -1450.3309 Pseudo R2 = 0.3155

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .0334404 .1308259 0.26 0.798 -.2229736 .2898545
toilet | .0450567 .046389 0.97 0.331 -.045864 .1359774
tenure | -.4759777 .0342469 -13.90 0.000 -.5431004 -.4088549
welec | .2803874 .199699 1.40 0.160 -.1110153 .6717902
wall | .0528939 .0262586 2.01 0.044 .001428 .1043598
roof | -.1924289 .0287511 -6.69 0.000 -.2487799 -.1360778
radio | 1.134506 .0976001 11.62 0.000 .9432135 1.325799
tv | 1.153172 .1073957 10.74 0.000 .9426804 1.363664
cd | -.9495315 .1091007 -8.70 0.000 -1.163365 -.735698


199

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

karaoke | -1.123837 .2278338 -4.93 0.000 -1.570383 -.6772908


ref | -.6927825 .1603485 -4.32 0.000 -1.00706 -.3785052
electricfan | 1.6644 .1178864 14.12 0.000 1.433347 1.895453
iron | -.451791 .1529598 -2.95 0.003 -.7515867 -.1519953
lpg | -1.023085 .267927 -3.82 0.000 -1.548212 -.4979579
washing | -.2986611 .2037946 -1.47 0.143 -.6980912 .1007691
microwave | -1.789886 .6044758 -2.96 0.003 -2.974637 -.605135
computer | -.1026489 .3664118 -0.28 0.779 -.8208027 .615505
internet | .5423502 .4919745 1.10 0.270 -.4219022 1.506603
cellphone | .5004783 .1028816 4.86 0.000 .2988341 .7021224
landline | -.0341831 .6550166 -0.05 0.958 -1.317992 1.249626
aircon | -.8238978 .7028084 -1.17 0.241 -2.201377 .5535813
sewing | .1401801 .5242456 0.27 0.789 -.8873224 1.167683
carjeep | -.732841 .7458127 -0.98 0.326 -2.194607 .7289251
tricycle | .6589798 .1557776 4.23 0.000 .3536613 .9642983
land | .55147 .131352 4.20 0.000 .2940249 .8089152
sex | .3039814 .1422422 2.14 0.033 .0251919 .5827709
educal | -.0045852 .0070877 -0.65 0.518 -.0184769 .0093065
_cons | -.0255885 .2977128 -0.09 0.932 -.6090949 .5579179
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.01374198, .99191015]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0192167 .013742
5% .0385217 .0139683
10% .0585627 .0139733 Obs 3135
25% .1247781 .0141206 Sum of Wgt. 3135

50% .3038132 Mean .388064


Largest Std. Dev. .295658
75% .6347331 .9872769
90% .8681692 .9881227 Variance .0874136
95% .9241044 .9917616 Skewness .5527758
99% .9743203 .9919102 Kurtosis 1.971363


200

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 11

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable welec is not balanced in block 1

Variable cd is not balanced in block 1

Variable iron is not balanced in block 1

Variable jobind is not balanced in block 3

Variable sewing is not balanced in block 3

Variable welec is not balanced in block 7

Variable welec is not balanced in block 9

Variable welec is not balanced in block 10

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score


201

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 591 41 | 632
.1 | 449 76 | 525
.2 | 159 40 | 199
.25 | 128 61 | 189
.3 | 201 102 | 303
.4 | 244 206 | 450
.6 | 55 136 | 191
.7 | 24 56 | 80
.75 | 17 86 | 103
.8 | 36 208 | 244
.9 | 14 205 | 219
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,918 1,217 | 3,135

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


202

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup toilet tenure wall roof radio tv karaoke ref electricfan lpg
washing microwave computer internet ce
> llphone landline aircon carjeep tricycle land sex educal, pscore(myscore1)
blockid(myblock1) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,971 61.83 61.83
1 | 1,217 38.17 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,188 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2118.7757


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1542.0667
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -1501.349
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -1499.2969
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -1499.2803
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -1499.2803

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3186


LR chi2(22) = 1238.99
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -1499.2803 Pseudo R2 = 0.2924

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
toilet | .0536189 .0450484 1.19 0.234 -.0346745 .1419122
tenure | -.4671911 .0333108 -14.03 0.000 -.5324792 -.4019031
wall | .0529599 .0257283 2.06 0.040 .0025333 .1033865
roof | -.1960233 .0283151 -6.92 0.000 -.25152 -.1405266
radio | 1.129754 .0953415 11.85 0.000 .9428879 1.31662
tv | .9871476 .0999574 9.88 0.000 .7912347 1.183061
karaoke | -1.39753 .2194522 -6.37 0.000 -1.827649 -.9674119
ref | -.8870923 .1544554 -5.74 0.000 -1.189819 -.5843653
electricfan | 1.468807 .1093045 13.44 0.000 1.254574 1.68304
lpg | -1.165745 .2592916 -4.50 0.000 -1.673947 -.6575427
washing | -.4111205 .1992437 -2.06 0.039 -.801631 -.02061
microwave | -1.811323 .6065243 -2.99 0.003 -3.000089 -.6225575


203

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

computer | -.1278496 .3604265 -0.35 0.723 -.8342725 .5785733


internet | .2859912 .4816344 0.59 0.553 -.6579948 1.229977
cellphone | .3498961 .0992528 3.53 0.000 .1553642 .544428
landline | -.1321876 .6185024 -0.21 0.831 -1.34443 1.080055
aircon | -.9035674 .688184 -1.31 0.189 -2.252383 .4452484
carjeep | -.8272169 .7249342 -1.14 0.254 -2.248062 .593628
tricycle | .5330341 .1516444 3.52 0.000 .2358165 .8302517
land | .4792846 .1286885 3.72 0.000 .2270597 .7315094
sex | .338946 .1281675 2.64 0.008 .0877423 .5901498
educal | -.0061753 .0069315 -0.89 0.373 -.0197608 .0074102
_cons | .1334214 .2268763 0.59 0.556 -.311248 .5780909
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.01341568, .98503046]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0206239 .0134157
5% .0435436 .0135317
10% .0665423 .013659 Obs 3153
25% .1388294 .0141034 Sum of Wgt. 3153

50% .3079727 Mean .3859024


Largest Std. Dev. .2861787
75% .6130645 .9826694
90% .8416927 .9830851 Variance .0818983
95% .9096607 .9845604 Skewness .5563572
99% .965387 .9850305 Kurtosis 2.011296


204

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 13

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 1

Variable wall is not balanced in block 6

Variable roof is not balanced in block 6

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 544 34 | 578
.1 | 462 81 | 543
.2 | 206 52 | 258
.25 | 109 51 | 160
.3 | 207 117 | 324
.4 | 146 111 | 257
.5 | 58 42 | 100
.55 | 27 25 | 52
.575 | 21 44 | 65
.6 | 36 45 | 81
.65 | 29 87 | 116
.7 | 52 152 | 204
.8 | 39 376 | 415
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,936 1,217 | 3,153

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


205

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup tenure radio tv karaoke ref electricfan lpg washing microwave
computer internet cellphone landline
> aircon carjeep tricycle land sex educal, pscore(myscore2) blockid(myblock2)
comsup logit
****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,971 61.83 61.83
1 | 1,217 38.17 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,188 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2119.7378


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1565.6312
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -1529.4305
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -1527.6886
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -1527.6724
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -1527.6724

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3188


LR chi2(19) = 1184.13
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -1527.6724 Pseudo R2 = 0.2793

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
tenure | -.4935061 .0325396 -15.17 0.000 -.5572826 -.4297296
radio | 1.122861 .0942051 11.92 0.000 .9382227 1.3075
tv | .9207161 .0981823 9.38 0.000 .7282823 1.11315
karaoke | -1.414039 .2178165 -6.49 0.000 -1.840951 -.9871262
ref | -.9246331 .1523456 -6.07 0.000 -1.223225 -.6260413
electricfan | 1.447907 .107508 13.47 0.000 1.237195 1.658619
lpg | -1.26315 .2591605 -4.87 0.000 -1.771096 -.755205
washing | -.4152843 .1969303 -2.11 0.035 -.8012606 -.0293081
microwave | -1.610383 .6110734 -2.64 0.008 -2.808065 -.4127011
computer | -.22319 .360759 -0.62 0.536 -.9302647 .4838848
internet | .1495177 .4809005 0.31 0.756 -.7930298 1.092065
cellphone | .3388176 .0980844 3.45 0.001 .1465757 .5310595
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


206

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

landline | -.2850818 .6313923 -0.45 0.652 -1.522588 .9524243


aircon | -1.005642 .7109378 -1.41 0.157 -2.399055 .3877702
carjeep | -.7724722 .7200138 -1.07 0.283 -2.183673 .638729
tricycle | .4882124 .1490998 3.27 0.001 .1959821 .7804426
land | .4690299 .1265783 3.71 0.000 .2209411 .7171187
sex | .3616393 .1258947 2.87 0.004 .1148903 .6083884
educal | -.005082 .0068249 -0.74 0.457 -.0184586 .0082946
_cons | .2818049 .1940852 1.45 0.147 -.0985951 .6622049
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.02270751, .98331686]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0326451 .0227075
5% .058088 .0227643
10% .080006 .0228069 Obs 3122
25% .1438475 .022995 Sum of Wgt. 3122

50% .3117756 Mean .3895223


Largest Std. Dev. .2791901
75% .6107741 .9796381
90% .8317904 .9799359 Variance .0779471
95% .8975868 .9816614 Skewness .5573034
99% .9587748 .9833169 Kurtosis 2.031553

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 9

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


207

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable ref is not balanced in block 3

Variable land is not balanced in block 3

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 6

Variable electricfan is not balanced in block 6

Variable tv is not balanced in block 7

Variable radio is not balanced in block 8

Variable computer is not balanced in block 8

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 1,012 108 | 1,120
.2 | 467 231 | 698
.4 | 74 23 | 97
.425 | 22 10 | 32
.4375 | 10 15 | 25
.45 | 55 43 | 98
.5 | 105 130 | 235
.6 | 125 281 | 406
.8 | 35 376 | 411
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,905 1,217 | 3,122

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


208

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup karaoke lpg washing microwave internet cellphone landline


aircon carjeep tricycle sex educal, pscor
> e(myscore3) blockid(myblock3) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,971 61.83 61.83
1 | 1,217 38.17 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,188 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2119.7378


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1984.9831
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -1979.6701
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -1979.4557
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -1979.4545
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -1979.4545

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3188


LR chi2(12) = 280.57
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -1979.4545 Pseudo R2 = 0.0662

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
karaoke | -1.301235 .1930893 -6.74 0.000 -1.679683 -.9227873
lpg | -1.182769 .224411 -5.27 0.000 -1.622606 -.742931
washing | -.315658 .1618565 -1.95 0.051 -.632891 .001575
microwave | -1.304338 .5645032 -2.31 0.021 -2.410744 -.1979324
internet | -.03894 .4438094 -0.09 0.930 -.9087904 .8309104
cellphone | .8585787 .0820474 10.46 0.000 .6977687 1.019389
landline | .0953012 .5567661 0.17 0.864 -.9959403 1.186543
aircon | -.800733 .597347 -1.34 0.180 -1.971512 .3700455
carjeep | -.7333185 .5872802 -1.25 0.212 -1.884367 .4177296
tricycle | .6644511 .1219079 5.45 0.000 .425516 .9033863
sex | .341855 .1058274 3.23 0.001 .1344371 .549273
educal | .0028228 .0058065 0.49 0.627 -.0085577 .0142034
_cons | -1.024222 .1084343 -9.45 0.000 -1.236749 -.8116947
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


209

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.03231091, .71267487]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0703166 .0323109
5% .165 .0332186
10% .2642058 .0334654 Obs 3168
25% .273079 .0467576 Sum of Wgt. 3168

50% .4073765 Mean .3840367


Largest Std. Dev. .1369739
75% .4727304 .7109377
90% .5565132 .7109377 Variance .0187619
95% .6294502 .7109377 Skewness -.0527238
99% .6420526 .7126749 Kurtosis 2.409573

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 5

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


210

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

The balancing property is satisfied

This table shows the inferior bound, the number of treated


and the number of controls for each block

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
.0323109 | 201 34 | 235
.2 | 972 375 | 1,347
.4 | 602 539 | 1,141
.5 | 104 130 | 234
.6 | 72 139 | 211
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,951 1,217 | 3,168

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


211

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 07. Propensity Score Algorithm for Luzon-Mindanao

. pscore islandgroup jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd karaoke ref
> electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline airc
> on sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore) blockid(myblock
> ) comsup logit
****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************
The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,974 57.43 57.43
1 | 1,463 42.57 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,437 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2343.1094


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1032.6543
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -809.22441
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -747.01161
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -737.84565
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -737.53435
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -737.53387

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3435


LR chi2(27) = 3211.15
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -737.53387 Pseudo R2 = 0.6852

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .59615 .1972197 3.02 0.003 .2096065 .9826936
toilet | .945524 .0949399 9.96 0.000 .7594453 1.131603
tenure | -.0989522 .0475901 -2.08 0.038 -.192227 -.0056773
welec | -2.499407 .2690867 -9.29 0.000 -3.026807 -1.972006
wall | .128703 .0452365 2.85 0.004 .0400412 .2173649
roof | .3698495 .0446273 8.29 0.000 .2823815 .4573174
radio | .4063461 .1578937 2.57 0.010 .0968801 .7158121
tv | .9551178 .1773742 5.38 0.000 .6074708 1.302765
cd | -1.016418 .1773557 -5.73 0.000 -1.364029 -.6688072
karaoke | -1.001871 .2486911 -4.03 0.000 -1.489297 -.5144459


212

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

tv | .9551178 .1773742 5.38 0.000 .6074708 1.302765


cd | -1.016418 .1773557 -5.73 0.000 -1.364029 -.6688072
karaoke | -1.001871 .2486911 -4.03 0.000 -1.489297 -.5144459
ref | -2.010154 .2062908 -9.74 0.000 -2.414477 -1.605832
electricfan | 4.519765 .2081044 21.72 0.000 4.111887 4.927642
iron | .9432189 .17462 5.40 0.000 .6009699 1.285468
lpg | 1.88923 .1988169 9.50 0.000 1.499556 2.278904
washing | .6286221 .2051146 3.06 0.002 .2266049 1.030639
microwave | -.4626092 .4013123 -1.15 0.249 -1.249167 .3239485
computer | -1.027709 .362548 -2.83 0.005 -1.73829 -.3171275
internet | 2.052223 .4782194 4.29 0.000 1.11493 2.989516
cellphone | -.770592 .1737794 -4.43 0.000 -1.111193 -.4299907
landline | .700143 .5087101 1.38 0.169 -.2969104 1.697196
aircon | -.8387292 .52617 -1.59 0.111 -1.870003 .192545
sewing | -.2344986 .5619806 -0.42 0.676 -1.33596 .8669632
carjeep | -.2952798 .530804 -0.56 0.578 -1.335637 .745077
tricyclemo~r | -1.215499 .2402836 -5.06 0.000 -1.686446 -.7445513
land | -2.236921 .2425619 -9.22 0.000 -2.712334 -1.761509
sex | .4834818 .2167362 2.23 0.026 .0586866 .908277
educal | -.0094538 .0096266 -0.98 0.326 -.0283215 .0094139
_cons | -5.080488 .4803547 -10.58 0.000 -6.021966 -4.13901
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00227274, .99986273]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0026833 .0022727
5% .0043406 .0022792
10% .0070211 .0022953 Obs 3089
25% .0236556 .0022983 Sum of Wgt. 3089

50% .3945894 Mean .4735179


Largest Std. Dev. .4229387
75% .9478317 .9995729
90% .9887963 .9997069 Variance .1788772
95% .9941832 .9997271 Skewness .0890715
99% .9980113 .9998627 Kurtosis 1.190318


213

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 9

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 1

Variable roof is not balanced in block 1

Variable ref is not balanced in block 1

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 2

Variable welec is not balanced in block 2

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 3

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 4

Variable cellphone is not balanced in block 5

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 6

Variable washing is not balanced in block 6

Variable roof is not balanced in block 7

Variable welec is not balanced in block 8

Variable welec is not balanced in block 9

Variable tv is not balanced in block 9

Variable cellphone is not balanced in block 9

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score


214

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 9

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 1

Variable roof is not balanced in block 1

Variable ref is not balanced in block 1

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 2

Variable welec is not balanced in block 2

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 3

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 4

Variable cellphone is not balanced in block 5

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 6

Variable washing is not balanced in block 6

Variable roof is not balanced in block 7

Variable welec is not balanced in block 8

Variable welec is not balanced in block 9

Variable tv is not balanced in block 9

Variable cellphone is not balanced in block 9

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score


215

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 9

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 1

Variable roof is not balanced in block 1

Variable ref is not balanced in block 1

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 2

Variable welec is not balanced in block 2

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 3

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 4

Variable cellphone is not balanced in block 5

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 6

Variable washing is not balanced in block 6

Variable roof is not balanced in block 7

Variable welec is not balanced in block 8

Variable welec is not balanced in block 9

Variable tv is not balanced in block 9

Variable cellphone is not balanced in block 9

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score


216

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 973 17 | 990
.05 | 190 14 | 204
.1 | 128 22 | 150
.2 | 146 58 | 204
.4 | 74 70 | 144
.6 | 56 142 | 198
.8 | 32 175 | 207
.9 | 18 216 | 234
.95 | 9 749 | 758
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,626 1,463 | 3,089

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


217

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup jobind tenure wall radio cd karaoke electricfan iron lpg micr
> owave computer internet landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex ed
> ucal, pscore(myscore1) blockid(myblock1) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,974 57.43 57.43
1 | 1,463 42.57 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,437 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2343.1094


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1143.6586
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -986.36447
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -958.44567
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -956.79101
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -956.78228

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3435


LR chi2(20) = 2772.65
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -956.78228 Pseudo R2 = 0.5917

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .5181435 .1671663 3.10 0.002 .1905035 .8457834
tenure | -.0743931 .0399663 -1.86 0.063 -.1527257 .0039395
wall | .3607345 .0301417 11.97 0.000 .3016579 .4198112
radio | .3585011 .1345485 2.66 0.008 .0947908 .6222114
cd | -1.071562 .1462034 -7.33 0.000 -1.358116 -.7850087
karaoke | -1.02464 .2149141 -4.77 0.000 -1.445864 -.6034162
electricfan | 4.100677 .1653715 24.80 0.000 3.776555 4.424799
iron | .5453676 .1437892 3.79 0.000 .2635458 .8271893
lpg | 1.690485 .1625438 10.40 0.000 1.371905 2.009066
microwave | -.9127422 .3699222 -2.47 0.014 -1.637776 -.1877081
computer | -1.436125 .3301982 -4.35 0.000 -2.083301 -.7889481


218

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

internet | 2.015859 .4300472 4.69 0.000 1.172982 2.858736


landline | .9933081 .5115659 1.94 0.052 -.0093426 1.995959
aircon | -.9157502 .496134 -1.85 0.065 -1.888155 .0566546
sewing | -.6247029 .5632435 -1.11 0.267 -1.72864 .479234
carjeep | -.7295454 .465089 -1.57 0.117 -1.641103 .1820123
tricyclemo~r | -1.363736 .2085109 -6.54 0.000 -1.77241 -.9550625
land | -2.088111 .2142595 -9.75 0.000 -2.508052 -1.66817
sex | .5863296 .1867526 3.14 0.002 .2203013 .952358
educal | -.0063276 .0083275 -0.76 0.447 -.0226492 .0099941
_cons | -3.770419 .3229295 -11.68 0.000 -4.403349 -3.137489
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.01035679, .99908846]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0122059 .0103568
5% .0167241 .0104273
10% .0221565 .0104768 Obs 3099
25% .0432151 .0104876 Sum of Wgt. 3099

50% .4902838 Mean .4715179


Largest Std. Dev. .3974107
75% .8927436 .9958651
90% .9648219 .9960307 Variance .1579353
95% .9778757 .9975866 Skewness .045564
99% .9907686 .9990885 Kurtosis 1.21566


219

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 11

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable wall is not balanced in block 1

Variable microwave is not balanced in block 1

Variable iron is not balanced in block 6

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 845 29 | 874
.05 | 193 23 | 216
.1 | 231 25 | 256
.2 | 59 9 | 68
.3 | 28 7 | 35
.35 | 15 18 | 33
.4 | 80 89 | 169
.6 | 101 245 | 346
.8 | 52 318 | 370
.9 | 25 260 | 285
.95 | 7 440 | 447
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,636 1,463 | 3,099

Note: the common support option has been selected


*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


220

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup jobind tenure radio cd karaoke electricfan lpg computer


inter
> net landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal,
pscore(myscore
> 2) blockid(myblock2) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,974 57.43 57.43
1 | 1,463 42.57 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,437 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2344.2189


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -1196.4326
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -1066.6489
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -1048.9842
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -1048.3593
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -1048.3581

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3437


LR chi2(17) = 2591.72
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -1048.3581 Pseudo R2 = 0.5528

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .4115721 .1591443 2.59 0.010 .0996551 .7234891
tenure | -.0739559 .0382648 -1.93 0.053 -.1489536 .0010419
radio | .4588794 .1277379 3.59 0.000 .2085177 .7092411
cd | -.9034602 .135272 -6.68 0.000 -1.168588 -.6383319
karaoke | -.953445 .2029785 -4.70 0.000 -1.351275 -.5556146
electricfan | 4.324132 .1573972 27.47 0.000 4.015639 4.632625
lpg | 1.759856 .1499997 11.73 0.000 1.465862 2.05385
computer | -1.289968 .3145469 -4.10 0.000 -1.906469 -.6734678
internet | 1.800331 .3906379 4.61 0.000 1.034695 2.565967
landline | 1.018705 .4606385 2.21 0.027 .1158697 1.92154
aircon | -.9647955 .4545667 -2.12 0.034 -1.85573 -.0738611


221

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

sewing | -.3292332 .4905706 -0.67 0.502 -1.290734 .6322675


carjeep | -.613683 .4362982 -1.41 0.160 -1.468812 .2414458
tricyclemo~r | -1.28338 .1940355 -6.61 0.000 -1.663683 -.9030776
land | -1.957913 .2010517 -9.74 0.000 -2.351967 -1.563859
sex | .5524774 .1795602 3.08 0.002 .2005459 .9044089
educal | -.0111417 .0078976 -1.41 0.158 -.0266207 .0043374
_cons | -2.734597 .2886373 -9.47 0.000 -3.300315 -2.168878
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.0049853, .99628644]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0069314 .0049853
5% .0137365 .0050161
10% .0226809 .0051425 Obs 3351
25% .0509997 .0052361 Sum of Wgt. 3351

50% .363418 Mean .4365162


Largest Std. Dev. .3910327
75% .8435955 .9878437
90% .9419465 .9920546 Variance .1529066
95% .9619904 .9948751 Skewness .1421143
99% .9784029 .9962864 Kurtosis 1.210381

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 13

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


222

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable electricfan is not balanced in block 1

Variable cd is not balanced in block 2

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 6

Variable educal is not balanced in block 7

Variable lpg is not balanced in block 9

Variable land is not balanced in block 9

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 1,513 81 | 1,594
.2 | 73 32 | 105
.4 | 25 16 | 41
.5 | 27 45 | 72
.6 | 35 31 | 66
.625 | 23 46 | 69
.65 | 31 32 | 63
.6750001 | 8 36 | 44
.7 | 65 199 | 264
.8 | 59 342 | 401
.9 | 18 142 | 160
.925 | 4 190 | 194
.95 | 7 271 | 278
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,888 1,463 | 3,351

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


223

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup jobind radio karaoke computer internet landline aircon


sewing
> carjeep tricyclemotor sex , pscore(myscore3) blockid(myblock3) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,974 57.43 57.43
1 | 1,463 42.57 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,437 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2344.2189


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -2236.7462
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -2235.7593
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -2235.7573

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3437


LR chi2(11) = 216.92
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -2235.7573 Pseudo R2 = 0.0463

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3972565 .1007428 3.94 0.000 .1998042 .5947089
radio | .8006855 .0789782 10.14 0.000 .6458911 .9554799
karaoke | -.4663479 .1394433 -3.34 0.001 -.7396518 -.193044
computer | .1299401 .2345986 0.55 0.580 -.3298646 .5897449
internet | 1.196988 .2913803 4.11 0.000 .6258928 1.768082
landline | 1.328762 .331559 4.01 0.000 .6789184 1.978606
aircon | -.6501702 .3714379 -1.75 0.080 -1.378175 .0778348
sewing | .2123024 .3418968 0.62 0.535 -.457803 .8824077
carjeep | .2608762 .3297556 0.79 0.429 -.3854329 .9071854
tricyclemo~r | -.7480445 .1438018 -5.20 0.000 -1.029891 -.4661981
sex | .2105185 .1099022 1.92 0.055 -.0048858 .4259229
_cons | -.843852 .1002073 -8.42 0.000 -1.040255 -.6474492
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


224

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.12923619, .953014]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .1596294 .1292362
5% .2324301 .1357262
10% .3007241 .1361401 Obs 3430
25% .3901705 .1361401 Sum of Wgt. 3430

50% .3901705 Mean .4263188


Largest Std. Dev. .1215779
75% .48921 .9443284
90% .587609 .953014 Variance .0147812
95% .6186991 .953014 Skewness .794525
99% .8250693 .953014 Kurtosis 4.151878

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 6

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable radio is not balanced in block 1

Variable computer is not balanced in block 4

Variable internet is not balanced in block 4

Variable computer is not balanced in block 5

Variable computer is not balanced in block 6

Variable landline is not balanced in block 6


225

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Variable computer is not balanced in block 6

Variable landline is not balanced in block 6

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 52 9 | 61
.2 | 208 52 | 260
.3 | 1,189 748 | 1,937
.4 | 470 518 | 988
.6 | 44 103 | 147
.8 | 4 33 | 37
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,967 1,463 | 3,430

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


226

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore islandgroup jobind karaoke aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor sex , psco
> re(myscore4) blockid(myblock4) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is islandgroup

islandgroup | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 1,974 57.43 57.43
1 | 1,463 42.57 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 3,437 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -2344.2189


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -2319.0586
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -2318.9679
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -2318.9679

Logistic regression Number of obs = 3437


LR chi2(7) = 50.50
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -2318.9679 Pseudo R2 = 0.0108

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
islandgroup | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .3867611 .0982287 3.94 0.000 .1942365 .5792857
karaoke | -.3238089 .1332849 -2.43 0.015 -.5850426 -.0625752
aircon | .1042862 .3127213 0.33 0.739 -.5086364 .7172087
sewing | .3611768 .3212007 1.12 0.261 -.268365 .9907186
carjeep | .5128846 .303198 1.69 0.091 -.0813726 1.107142
tricyclemo~r | -.6218185 .1361563 -4.57 0.000 -.8886799 -.3549572
sex | .2206203 .1070597 2.06 0.039 .0107872 .4304534
_cons | -.5842262 .095187 -6.14 0.000 -.7707892 -.3976632
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.19379027, .65482714]


227

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .241753 .1937903
5% .3059157 .1937903
10% .3579607 .2126152 Obs 3432
25% .410087 .2126152 Sum of Wgt. 3432

50% .4507935 Mean .4258814


Largest Std. Dev. .0583618
75% .4507935 .5949175
90% .4507935 .5949175 Variance .0034061
95% .5057885 .6034128 Skewness -1.235762
99% .5057885 .6548271 Kurtosis 4.763058

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 7

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

The balancing property is satisfied


228

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

This table shows the inferior bound, the number of treated


and the number of controls for each block

Inferior |
of block | islandgroup
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
.1937903 | 1 1 | 2
.2 | 93 28 | 121
.3 | 419 253 | 672
.4 | 142 78 | 220
.45 | 1,209 967 | 2,176
.5 | 105 134 | 239
.6 | 0 2 | 2
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 1,969 1,463 | 3,432

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


229

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 07. Propensity Score Algorithm for Luzon-Visayas-Mindanao

. pscore pantawid jobind toilet tenure welec wall roof radio tv cd karaoke ref ele
> ctricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon
> sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore) blockid(myblock) c
> omsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 85,655 94.85 94.85
1 | 4,654 5.15 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 90,309 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -18327.465


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -17880.84
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -15172.075
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -15101.998
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -15098.7
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -15098.661
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -15098.661

Logistic regression Number of obs = 90306


LR chi2(27) = 6457.61
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -15098.661 Pseudo R2 = 0.1762

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .2704837 .0422723 6.40 0.000 .1876316 .3533358
toilet | -.1668412 .0160058 -10.42 0.000 -.198212 -.1354705
tenure | -.0351317 .009312 -3.77 0.000 -.0533829 -.0168805
welec | .5055527 .070724 7.15 0.000 .3669361 .6441692
wall | -.1083514 .0107081 -10.12 0.000 -.1293389 -.0873638
roof | -.1180583 .0109781 -10.75 0.000 -.1395751 -.0965416
radio | -.1485396 .0352509 -4.21 0.000 -.21763 -.0794491
tv | .0843276 .043047 1.96 0.050 -.000043 .1686983


230

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

cd | .5166768 .0378995 13.63 0.000 .442395 .5909585


karaoke | .10236 .0654692 1.56 0.118 -.0259572 .2306772
ref | -.4115845 .0483902 -8.51 0.000 -.5064275 -.3167414
electricfan | -1.00881 .0408174 -24.72 0.000 -1.08881 -.928809
iron | -.0770187 .0457858 -1.68 0.093 -.1667572 .0127199
lpg | -.8514197 .0496457 -17.15 0.000 -.9487234 -.7541159
washing | .0782633 .0525843 1.49 0.137 -.0248 .1813267
microwave | -.17301 .1258038 -1.38 0.169 -.4195808 .0735609
computer | -.5451918 .1041943 -5.23 0.000 -.7494089 -.3409747
internet | -.4346499 .1308436 -3.32 0.001 -.6910987 -.1782011
cellphone | -.1395422 .0386168 -3.61 0.000 -.2152297 -.0638547
landline | -.6205756 .1379477 -4.50 0.000 -.8909482 -.3502031
aircon | -.4474325 .1515406 -2.95 0.003 -.7444466 -.1504184
sewing | .0945834 .1507228 0.63 0.530 -.2008278 .3899945
carjeep | -.0579499 .1498144 -0.39 0.699 -.3515807 .235681
tricyclemo~r | .1561281 .0542634 2.88 0.004 .0497737 .2624825
land | .5463049 .0525829 10.39 0.000 .4432444 .6493655
sex | -.4430464 .0451733 -9.81 0.000 -.5315846 -.3545083
educal | .0087294 .0022427 3.89 0.000 .0043338 .0131249
_cons | -1.157057 .0938107 -12.33 0.000 -1.340923 -.9731914
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00103869, .65126734]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0016422 .0010387
5% .0030389 .0010409
10% .0050549 .0010417 Obs 90107
25% .0120485 .0010419 Sum of Wgt. 90107

50% .0253133 Mean .0516031


Largest Std. Dev. .0712621
75% .0565486 .6379874
90% .1331496 .6474728 Variance .0050783
95% .2095191 .6506637 Skewness 2.819785
99% .3542512 .6512673 Kurtosis 12.37572


231

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************
The final number of blocks is 20

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable tv is not balanced in block 1

Variable welec is not balanced in block 2

Variable tricyclemotor is not balanced in block 2

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 3

Variable welec is not balanced in block 3

Variable wall is not balanced in block 3

Variable tricyclemotor is not balanced in block 3

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 4

Variable welec is not balanced in block 4

Variable wall is not balanced in block 4

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 5

Variable welec is not balanced in block 5

Variable radio is not balanced in block 5

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 6

Variable welec is not balanced in block 6

Variable roof is not balanced in block 6

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 7

Variable radio is not balanced in block 7

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 9


232

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 7

Variable radio is not balanced in block 7

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 9

Variable land is not balanced in block 9

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 10

Variable toilet is not balanced in block 11

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 13

Variable tenure is not balanced in block 14

Variable tricyclemotor is not balanced in block 17

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 11,279 38 | 11,317
.00625 | 11,926 102 | 12,028
.0125 | 11,719 170 | 11,889
.01875 | 9,283 204 | 9,487
.025 | 12,703 402 | 13,105
.0375 | 6,687 320 | 7,007
.05 | 4,591 253 | 4,844
.0625 | 3,006 230 | 3,236
.075 | 3,961 365 | 4,326
.1 | 2,759 339 | 3,098
.125 | 1,731 285 | 2,016
.15 | 1,322 281 | 1,603
.175 | 979 267 | 1,246
.2 | 755 213 | 968
.225 | 305 91 | 396
.2375 | 293 137 | 430

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************

.25 | 1,030 398 | 1,428


.3 | 848 400 | 1,248
.4 | 273 155 | 428
.6 | 5 2 | 7
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 85,455 4,652 | 90,107


233

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid jobind cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave
com
> puter internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep sex educal,
pscore(mysco
> re1) blockid(myblock1) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 85,655 94.85 94.85
1 | 4,654 5.15 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 90,309 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -18333.396


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -17697.259
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -15736.275
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -15654.888
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -15652.167
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -15652.141
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -15652.141

Logistic regression Number of obs = 90308


LR chi2(18) = 5362.51
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -15652.141 Pseudo R2 = 0.1462

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
jobind | .2481999 .0414615 5.99 0.000 .1669369 .3294629
cd | .5562239 .0359708 15.46 0.000 .4857224 .6267253
karaoke | .1108607 .0645247 1.72 0.086 -.0156055 .2373269
ref | -.3935492 .0472275 -8.33 0.000 -.4861134 -.3009851
electricfan | -1.231232 .0381577 -32.27 0.000 -1.30602 -1.156444
iron | -.1264915 .0449491 -2.81 0.005 -.2145902 -.0383928
lpg | -1.050779 .0483337 -21.74 0.000 -1.145512 -.9560469
washing | .065052 .0521515 1.25 0.212 -.0371632 .1672671
microwave | -.1776723 .1251462 -1.42 0.156 -.4229543 .0676098
computer | -.5688175 .1031983 -5.51 0.000 -.7710824 -.3665527
internet | -.5007174 .1301366 -3.85 0.000 -.7557804 -.2456543


234

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

cellphone | -.0964865 .0375311 -2.57 0.010 -.1700462 -.0229269


landline | -.6529191 .1368432 -4.77 0.000 -.9211268 -.3847114
aircon | -.5129258 .1500762 -3.42 0.001 -.8070698 -.2187818
sewing | .1936121 .1491028 1.30 0.194 -.098624 .4858482
carjeep | -.0076891 .1486363 -0.05 0.959 -.299011 .2836327
sex | -.4963513 .0444219 -11.17 0.000 -.5834166 -.4092859
educal | .0120363 .0021932 5.49 0.000 .0077377 .0163348
_cons | -1.787752 .056194 -31.81 0.000 -1.89789 -1.677614
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00118846, .34984833]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0017379 .0011885
5% .0030164 .0011885
10% .0052186 .0011908 Obs 90048
25% .0135446 .0011908 Sum of Wgt. 90048

50% .0275437 Mean .0516687


Largest Std. Dev. .061152
75% .0630464 .3498483
90% .1395238 .3498483 Variance .0037396
95% .2004832 .3498483 Skewness 2.077674
99% .2892407 .3498483 Kurtosis 7.175065

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 15

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


235

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00098993, .29202733]

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0018181 .0009899
5% .0031787 .0009899
10% .0057708 .0009899 Obs 90300
25% .015398 .0009899 Sum of Wgt. 90300

50% .0282254 Mean .0515326


Largest Std. Dev. .0587379
75% .0681833 .2920273
90% .1383776 .2920273 Variance .0034501
95% .2102446 .2920273 Skewness 1.880058
99% .2253074 .2920273 Kurtosis 5.676149

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 12

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks


236

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable karaoke is not balanced in block 1

Variable sex is not balanced in block 2

Variable internet is not balanced in block 9

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 9,743 36 | 9,779
.00625 | 8,590 79 | 8,669
.0125 | 20,560 376 | 20,936
.025 | 12,762 375 | 13,137
.03125 | 3,603 148 | 3,751
.0375 | 5,195 240 | 5,435
.05 | 9,088 665 | 9,753
.075 | 6,966 586 | 7,552
.1 | 943 95 | 1,038
.125 | 1,451 257 | 1,708
.15 | 1,926 454 | 2,380
.2 | 4,819 1,343 | 6,162
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 85,646 4,654 | 90,300

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


237

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 85,655 94.85 94.85
1 | 4,654 5.15 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 90,309 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -18333.396


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -17892.298
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -16032.3
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -15965.169
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -15963.57
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -15963.56
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -15963.56

Logistic regression Number of obs = 90308


LR chi2(9) = 4739.67
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -15963.56 Pseudo R2 = 0.1293

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
ref | -.4023672 .0460101 -8.75 0.000 -.4925455 -.312189
electricfan | -1.22237 .0350567 -34.87 0.000 -1.29108 -1.15366
lpg | -1.046548 .0444321 -23.55 0.000 -1.133633 -.9594627
washing | .0860037 .0513259 1.68 0.094 -.0145932 .1866007
landline | -.9122069 .1342853 -6.79 0.000 -1.175401 -.6490126
aircon | -.8365931 .1462849 -5.72 0.000 -1.123306 -.54988
sewing | .1015328 .147398 0.69 0.491 -.187362 .3904277
carjeep | -.1227762 .1468377 -0.84 0.403 -.4105728 .1650204
educal | .0133278 .0021917 6.08 0.000 .0090321 .0176235
_cons | -1.611525 .0397966 -40.49 0.000 -1.689525 -1.533525
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00230957, .24156771]


238

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0026733 .0023096
5% .0034507 .0023096
10% .0073534 .0023096 Obs 90288
25% .0171207 .0023096 Sum of Wgt. 90288

50% .0265825 Mean .0515457


Largest Std. Dev. .05677
75% .0661553 .2304711
90% .1739031 .2304711 Variance .0032228
95% .2002149 .2356287 Skewness 1.776235
99% .2088882 .2415677 Kurtosis 5.032267

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 28

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

Variable ref is not balanced in block 1

Variable educal is not balanced in block 3

Variable educal is not balanced in block 8

Variable educal is not balanced in block 21

Variable washing is not balanced in block 27

Variable educal is not balanced in block 27

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score


239

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

The balancing property is not satisfied

Try a different specification of the propensity score

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
0 | 6,078 20 | 6,098
.00625 | 6,453 60 | 6,513
.0125 | 14,022 197 | 14,219
.01875 | 8,618 161 | 8,779
.021875 | 6,785 186 | 6,971
.025 | 11,109 340 | 11,449
.0375 | 4,137 205 | 4,342
.05 | 19,341 1,339 | 20,680
.1 | 588 114 | 702
.15 | 261 44 | 305
.1625 | 3 0 | 3
.165625 | 239 34 | 273
.1671875 | 303 82 | 385
.16875 | 31 2 | 33
.171875 | 266 27 | 293
.1734375 | 407 154 | 561
.175 | 1,020 167 | 1,187
.1875 | 578 48 | 626
.19375 | 1,440 387 | 1,827
.196875 | 220 104 | 324
.2 | 1,134 407 | 1,541
.20625 | 406 141 | 547
.2085938 | 1,797 340 | 2,137
.2089844 | 0 2 | 2
.209375 | 115 43 | 158
.2125 | 272 48 | 320
.225 | 11 2 | 13
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 85,634 4,654 | 90,288

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


240

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

. pscore pantawid electricfan lpg landline aircon sewing carjeep,


pscore(myscore4)
> blockid(myblock4) comsup logit

****************************************************
Algorithm to estimate the propensity score
****************************************************

The treatment is pantawid

pantawid | Freq. Percent Cum.


------------+-----------------------------------
0 | 85,655 94.85 94.85
1 | 4,654 5.15 100.00
------------+-----------------------------------
Total | 90,309 100.00

Estimation of the propensity score

Iteration 0: log likelihood = -18333.396


Iteration 1: log likelihood = -17936.572
Iteration 2: log likelihood = -16091.866
Iteration 3: log likelihood = -16025.676
Iteration 4: log likelihood = -16024.032
Iteration 5: log likelihood = -16024.02
Iteration 6: log likelihood = -16024.02

Logistic regression Number of obs = 90308


LR chi2(6) = 4618.75
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000
Log likelihood = -16024.02 Pseudo R2 = 0.1260

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
pantawid | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
electricfan | -1.26042 .0347187 -36.30 0.000 -1.328468 -1.192373
lpg | -1.115076 .0412573 -27.03 0.000 -1.195938 -1.034213
landline | -.9968195 .1326316 -7.52 0.000 -1.256773 -.7368663
aircon | -.9614516 .1439346 -6.68 0.000 -1.243558 -.679345
sewing | .0328553 .1465011 0.22 0.823 -.2542816 .3199923
carjeep | -.244592 .1451927 -1.68 0.092 -.5291645 .0399805
_cons | -1.449776 .0237182 -61.13 0.000 -1.496263 -1.40329
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: the common support option has been selected


The region of common support is [.00240419, .19514472]


241

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Description of the estimated propensity score


in region of common support

Estimated propensity score


-------------------------------------------------------------
Percentiles Smallest
1% .0024042 .0024042
5% .0030683 .0024042
10% .0079856 .0024042 Obs 90308
25% .0213469 .0024042 Sum of Wgt. 90308

50% .0213469 Mean .0515347


Largest Std. Dev. .0559444
75% .0623744 .1951447
90% .190036 .1951447 Variance .0031298
95% .190036 .1951447 Skewness 1.736212
99% .190036 .1951447 Kurtosis 4.765317

******************************************************
Step 1: Identification of the optimal number of blocks
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
******************************************************

The final number of blocks is 6

This number of blocks ensures that the mean propensity score


is not different for treated and controls in each blocks

**********************************************************
Step 2: Test of balancing property of the propensity score
Use option detail if you want more detailed output
**********************************************************

The balancing property is satisfied


242

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

This table shows the inferior bound, the number of treated


and the number of controls for each block

Inferior |
of block | pantawid
of pscore | 0 1 | Total
-----------+----------------------+----------
.0024042 | 5,004 14 | 5,018
.00625 | 7,605 67 | 7,672
.0125 | 40,363 879 | 41,242
.025 | 370 12 | 382
.05 | 23,232 1,536 | 24,768
.1 | 9,080 2,146 | 11,226
-----------+----------------------+----------
Total | 85,654 4,654 | 90,308

Note: the common support option has been selected

*******************************************
End of the algorithm to estimate the pscore
*******************************************


243

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

V. Appendix E

Figure 1. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Voting in Luzon

. attnd voted pantawid jobind toilet tv cd stereo ref lpg washing microwave comput
> er internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educ
> al, pscore(myscore3) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1384 21271 0.014 0.006 2.223

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd voted pantawid jobind toilet tv cd stereo ref lpg washing micr
> owave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor l
> and sex educal , pscore(myscore3) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 62999


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 .0136434 -.0008011 .0059127 .0017613 .0255255 (N)
| .0004021 .0219068 (P)
| .0004021 .0219221 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


244

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1384 21271 0.014 0.006 2.307

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


245

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 2. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Organizational Membership in Luzon

. attnd orgind pantawid jobind toilet tv cd stereo ref lpg washing microwave compu
> ter internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor land sex edu
> cal, pscore(myscore3) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1384 21271 0.072 0.010 6.901

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd orgind pantawid jobind toilet tv cd stereo ref lpg washing mic
> rowave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor
> land sex educal , pscore(myscore3) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 62999


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 .0723258 -.0034434 .0119367 .0483381 .0963135 (N)
| .046489 .097245 (P)
| .0585637 .0984295 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


246

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1384 21271 0.072 0.012 6.059

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


247

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 03. Treatment Effect for the Treated: Voting in Visayas

. attnd voted pantawid wall roof educal regvotind jobind sex toilet tenure welec r
> adio tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
> cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep land, pscore(myscore1) comsup boot reps
> (50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1277 0.013 0.010 1.318

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matche

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd voted pantawid wall roof educal regvotind jobind sex toilet te
> nure welec radio tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave comput
> er internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep land , pscore(myscore1) com
> sup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 13516


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 .0134644 -.0031347 .0109979 -.0086368 .0355656 (N)
| -.0136872 .0315848 (P)
| -.0034811 .0437758 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


248

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1277 0.013 0.011 1.224

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


249

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 04. Treatment Effect for the Treated: Organizational Membership in Visayas

. attnd orgind pantawid wall roof educal regvotind jobind sex toilet tenure welec
> radio tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet
> cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep land, pscore(myscore1) comsup boot rep
> s(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1277 -0.007 0.008 -0.924

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd orgind pantawid wall roof educal regvotind jobind sex toilet t
> enure welec radio tv cd karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg washing microwave compu
> ter internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep land , pscore(myscore1) co
> msup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 13516


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 -.0074318 .0019655 .0088051 -.0251263 .0102628 (N)
| -.0244974 .01033 (P)
| -.0275494 .0025929 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


250

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1277 -0.007 0.009 -0.844

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


251

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 05. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Voting Turnout in Mindanao

. attnd voted pantawid jobind toilet radio stereo karaoke ref electricfan iron lpg
> washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep tr
> icyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore4) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1974 2433 0.011 0.008 1.336

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd voted pantawid jobind toilet radio stereo karaoke ref electric
> fan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewin
> g carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal , pscore(myscore4) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 6319


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 .010722 .0003763 .0088892 -.0071414 .0285855 (N)
| -.0070399 .0256459 (P)
| -.0084268 .0252376 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


252

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1974 2433 0.011 0.009 1.206

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


253

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 06. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Organizational Membership in Mindanao

. attnd orgind pantawid jobind toilet radio stereo karaoke ref electricfan iron
lp
> g washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon sewing carjeep
t
> ricyclemotor land sex educal, pscore(myscore4) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1974 2433 -0.004 0.016 -0.233

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd orgind pantawid jobind toilet radio stereo karaoke ref
electri
> cfan iron lpg washing microwave computer internet cellphone landline aircon
sewi
> ng carjeep tricyclemotor land sex educal , pscore(myscore4) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 6319


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 -.003766 .0008761 .015198 -.0343075 .0267755 (N)
| -.0304184 .0284726 (P)
| -.0313077 .0284726 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


254

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1974 2433 -0.004 0.015 -0.248

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


255

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 07. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Voting Behavior in Luzon-Visayas

. attnd voted islandgroup electricfan sewing carjeep land, pscore(myscore2) comsup


boot reps(5
> 0) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1212 -0.043 0.012 -3.588

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd voted islandgroup electricfan sewing carjeep land ,


pscore(myscore2) comsu
> p
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 2680


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 -.0430937 .0030401 .0108019 -.064801 -.0213864 (N)
| -.0591096 -.0190191 (P)
| -.067671 -.0191648 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


256

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1212 -0.043 0.011 -3.989

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


257

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 08. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Organization Membership in Luzon-Visayas

. attnd orgind islandgroup electricfan sewing carjeep land, pscore(myscore2) comsup


boot reps(
> 50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1212 0.134 0.012 11.208

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd orgind islandgroup electricfan sewing carjeep land ,


pscore(myscore2) coms
> up
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 2680


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 .1335275 .0013171 .0100107 .1134103 .1536446 (N)
| .1141391 .1545347 (P)
| .1130227 .1501465 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


258

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1212 0.134 0.010 13.339

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


259

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 09. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Voting Behavior in Visayas-Mindanao

. attnd voted islandgroup karaoke lpg washing microwave internet cellphone landline
aircon carjeep tricycle sex educal,
> pscore(myscore3) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1697 -0.004 0.010 -0.400

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd voted islandgroup karaoke lpg washing microwave internet


cellphone landline aircon carjeep tricycle
> sex educal , pscore(myscore3) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 3188


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 -.0040936 .002857 .0097309 -.0236487 .0154614 (N)
| -.0220183 .0171573 (P)
| -.0252738 .0171573 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


260

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1697 -0.004 0.010 -0.421

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


261

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 10. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Organization Membership in Visayas-
Mindanao

. attnd orgind islandgroup karaoke lpg washing microwave internet cellphone


landline aircon carjeep tricycle sex educal,
> pscore(myscore3) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1697 -0.330 0.018 -18.475

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd orgind islandgroup karaoke lpg washing microwave internet


cellphone landline aircon carjeep tricycle
> sex educal , pscore(myscore3) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 3188


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 -.3301127 -.006148 .0201098 -.3705249 -.2897005 (N)
| -.3710047 -.2944098 (P)
| -.3639704 -.2759639 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


262

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1217 1697 -0.330 0.020 -16.415

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


263

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 11. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Voting Behavior in Luzon-Mindanao

. attnd voted islandgroup jobind karaoke aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor sex
,
> pscore(myscore4) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1948 -0.040 0.009 -4.368

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd voted islandgroup jobind karaoke aircon sewing carjeep


tricycl
> emotor sex , pscore(myscore4) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 3437


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 -.0403476 -.0013871 .0072433 -.0549036 -.0257915 (N)
| -.056705 -.0289784 (P)
| -.0516408 -.0288071 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


264

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1948 -0.040 0.007 -5.570

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


265

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 12. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Organization Membership in Luzon-
Mindanao

. attnd orgind islandgroup jobind karaoke aircon sewing carjeep tricyclemotor sex
> , pscore(myscore4) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1948 -0.195 0.015 -13.152

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd orgind islandgroup jobind karaoke aircon sewing carjeep tricyc
> lemotor sex , pscore(myscore4) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 3437


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 -.1949179 -.0027556 .0155245 -.2261156 -.1637203 (N)
| -.2284666 -.1713981 (P)
| -.2284666 -.1670867 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


266

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

1463 1948 -0.195 0.016 -12.556

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


267

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 13. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Voting Behavior in Aggregate Country Level

. attnd voted pantawid electricfan lpg landline aircon sewing carjeep, pscore(mysc
> ore4) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

4654 85271 0.072 0.004 17.547

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd voted pantawid electricfan lpg landline aircon sewing carjeep
> , pscore(myscore4) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 90309


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 .0716715 .0010283 .0042785 .0630734 .0802695 (N)
| .0650448 .0809973 (P)
| .0641049 .0792557 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


268

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

4654 85271 0.072 0.004 16.751

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


269

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

Figure 14. Treatment Effects for the Treated: Organization Membership in Aggregate
Country Level

. attnd orgind pantawid electricfan lpg landline aircon sewing carjeep, pscore(mys
> core4) comsup boot reps(50) dots

The program is searching the nearest neighbor of each treated unit.


This operation may take a while.

ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method


(random draw version)
Analytical standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

4654 85271 0.093 0.006 15.055

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches

Bootstrapping of standard errors

command: attnd orgind pantawid electricfan lpg landline aircon sewing carjeep
> , pscore(myscore4) comsup
statistic: attnd = r(attnd)
..................................................

note: label truncated to 80 characters

Bootstrap statistics Number of obs = 90309


Replications = 50

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Reps Observed Bias Std. Err. [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
attnd | 50 .092552 .001681 .0053181 .0818649 .1032391 (N)
| .0854826 .1052077 (P)
| .0849419 .102801 (BC)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: N = normal
P = percentile
BC = bias-corrected


270

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach


ATT estimation with Nearest Neighbor Matching method
(random draw version)
Bootstrapped standard errors

---------------------------------------------------------
n. treat. n. contr. ATT Std. Err. t
---------------------------------------------------------

4654 85271 0.093 0.005 17.403

---------------------------------------------------------
Note: the numbers of treated and controls refer to actual
nearest neighbour matches


271

The Impact of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on Civic Engagement: A Propensity
Score Matching Approach

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