Anda di halaman 1dari 31

2/14/2014 1

BIOKIMIA
Prof. Dr. Dian Handayani, Apt
Fakultas Farmasi
Universitas Andalas
2/14/2014 2

Literatur
Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry (Murray, McGraw-Hill
Medical, 26th Ed, 2003)
Koolman, Color Atlas of Biochemistry, 2nd edition 2005
Thieme
Lehninger's Principles Of Biochemistry 4Th ed.
2/14/2014 3

Biochemistry can be defined as the science concerned


with the chemical basis of life (Gk bios life).

The cell is the structural unit of living systems. Thus,


biochemistry can also be described as the science
concerned with the chemical constituents of living cells and
with the reactions and processes they undergo.

By this definition, biochemistry encompasses large areas of


cell biology, of molecular biology, and of molecular
genetics
2/14/2014 4

Deskripsi Mata Kuliah


Mata kuliah biokimia berisi pokok-pokok bahasan biomolekul dan
hirarki organisasi molekular sel, lipid, karbohidrat, asam amino dan
protein, teknik pemurnian protein, enzim dan kinetika enzim, vitamin
sebagai kofaktor, bioenergetika, metabolisme karbohidrat,
metabolisme lipid, metabolisme protein, asam nukleat, RNA dan DNA

Selain itu dibahas berbagai penyakit yang terjadi berkaitan dengan


kelainan kelainan metabolisme , fungsi hati , fungsiginjal serta hasil
pemeriksaan laboratorium, diagnosa dan contoh obat-obat yang dapat
digunakan untuk mengatasi penyakit tersebut

Praktikum biokimia berisi pokok-pokok bahasan pemeriksaan kualitatif


/kuwantitatif berupa reaksi-reaksi umum untuk lipid, karbohidrat,
asam amino dan protein, elektroforesis protein, analisis urin dan
analisa darah fungsi ginjal fungsi hati, serta pemeriksaan kuantitatif
untuk uji aktivitas enzim
2/14/2014 5

Tujuan Instruksional Umum


Mahasiswa dapat memahami sifat-sifat biomolekul
lipid, karbohidrat, asam amino, protein, asam nukleat,
DNA dan RNA serta fungsi atau peranannya dalam
kehidupan. Mahasiswa mengetahui konsep dasar
bionergetika, metabolisme karbohidrat, lipid, protein dan
penyakit-penyakit akibat gangguan metabolisme, peran
vitamin sebagai kofaktor serta memahami sifat dan fungsi
enzim sebagai katalis.
Dengan mengikuti praktikum, mahasiswa mampu
melakukan percobaan kualitatif-kuantitatif dan
mengetahui reaksi-reaksi umum untuk identifikasi asam
amino, protein, lipid, karbohidrat, enzim, pemurnian
potein, analisis urin dan fungsi ginjal, aktivitas antioksidan
vitamin, aktivitas enzim dan analisa darah, dan fungsi hati
.
2/14/2014 6

Silabus
Pendahuluan
Karbohidrat
Asam Amino, Peptida dan Protein
Lipid
Enzim dan Koenzim
Asam Nukleat
Metabolisme Karbohidrat
Metabolisme Lipid
Metabolisme Senyawa Nitrogen
2/14/2014 7

Pendahuluan

Biokimia Fisiologi Kimia

Ilmu Genetika
Ilmu Kimia

Ilmu Kedokteran
2/14/2014 8

Apply Biochemical Understanding to:


advances in medicine and healthcare (gene
therapy, biopharmaceuticals, diagnostics)

explain the biological responses to environmental


signals (chemical toxicity, hormone action)

agricultural practices (crop protection, animal


husbandry)
2/14/2014 9

Apply Biochemical Understanding to:

industrial processes (cell culture, feedstock


production)

developing biomaterials for high-tech applications


(forensics and biosensors)

questions of biological evolution and origin


(classification by genotype vs. phenotype)
2/14/2014 10

Biokimia dan Ilmu Kesehatan


The two major concerns for workers in the health sciences
and particularly physicians:
the understanding and maintenance of health and
the understanding and effective treatment of diseases.
Biochemistry impacts enormously on both of these
fundamental concerns of medicine.
In fact, the interrelationship of biochemistry and medicine is
a wide, two-way street.
Biochemical studies have illuminated many aspects of
health and disease, and conversely, the study of various
aspects of health and disease has opened up new areas
of biochemistry.
2/14/2014 11
2/14/2014 12

Another example is the pioneering work of Archibald


Garrod, a physician in England during the early 1900s.
He studied patients with a number of relatively rare
disorders (alkaptonuria,albinism, cystinuria, and pentosuria;
these are described in later chapters) and established that
these conditions were genetically determined.
Garrod designated these conditions as inborn errors of
metabolism.
His insights provided a major foundation for the
development of the field of human biochemical genetics
2/14/2014 13

NORMAL BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ARE


THE BASIS OF HEALTH
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a
state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.

One major prerequisite for the maintenance of health is that


there be optimal dietary intake of a number of chemicals;
the chief of these are vitamins, certain amino acids,
certain fatty acids, various minerals, and water.
2/14/2014 14

Most & Perhaps All Disease Has


a Biochemical Basis

We believe that most if not all diseases are manifestations


of abnormalities of molecules, chemical reactions, or
biochemical processes.

The major factors responsible for causing diseases in


animals and humans are listed in Table 12. All of them
affect one or more critical chemical reactions or molecules
in the body.
2/14/2014 15
2/14/2014 16
2/14/2014 17
2/14/2014 18
2/14/2014 19
2/14/2014 20
2/14/2014 21
2/14/2014 22
2/14/2014 23
2/14/2014 24

Biomolecular building blocks are used to form biopolymers


(proteins, DNA, RNA, oligosaccharides)
2/14/2014 25
2/14/2014 26
2/14/2014 27
SUMMARY
Biochemistry is the science concerned with studying the various
molecules that occur in living cells and organisms and with their
chemical reactions. Because life depends on biochemical reactions,
biochemistry has become the basic language of all biologic sciences.
Biochemistry is concerned with the entire spectrum of life forms, from
relatively simple viruses and bacteria to complex human beings.
Biochemistry and medicine are intimately related. Health depends on
a harmonious balance of biochemical reactions occurring in the body,
and disease reflects abnormalities in biomolecules, biochemical
reactions, or biochemical processes.
Advances in biochemical knowledge have illuminated many areas of
medicine. Conversely, the study of diseases has often revealed
previously unsuspected aspects of biochemistry. The determination of
the sequence of the human genome, nearly complete, will have a great
impact on all areas of biology, including biochemistry, bioinformatics,
and biotechnology.
Biochemical approaches are often fundamental in illuminating the
causes of diseases and in designing appropriate therapies.
The judicious use of various biochemical laboratory tests is an integral
component of diagnosis and monitoring of treatment.
A sound knowledge of biochemistry and of other related basic
disciplines is essential for the rational practice of medical and related
health sciences.
2/14/2014 28

How does science describe


the living state?

atoms, subatomic
particlesthe undiscovered

smaller organic
molecules
2/14/2014 29
2/14/2014 30

amino acid structures


2/14/2014 31