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# Dynamics for Mechatronics Engineers,

## DR. OSAMA M. AL -HABAHBEH , MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT, THE UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN
COPYRIGHT 2017
Chapter 1:
introduction

## Dynamic is concerned with bodies having acceleration motion. It is

divided into two parts: KINEMATICS, which deals only with the
geometry of motion, and KINETICS, which deals with the forces that
cause the motion.

## Dr. Osama M. Al-Habahbeh, Mechatronics Engineering Department, The University of Jordan

Copyright 2017
Chapter 2:
Kinematics of Particles

A particle has a mass but negligible size and shape this type of
approach is used when the dimensions of the object are negligible.
Examples of particles are rockets and chicles provided that only
motion of mass center is considered and any rotation is neglected.
Rectilinear Motion

## particle moves along a straight-line path. The kinematics of the

particle involves the position, velocity, and the acceleration.
P
o
. s
s

Position

## A single coordinate axis s describes the straight line path of the

particle. The origin o is a fixed point. The position is a vector. The
magnitude of the vector is the distance between zero and P. the
direction of the vector is determined using the sign of s, (+ or -)
Dispalacement

The displace,ent is the change of the particle's position ,when the particle moves from " p " to " p' ".
The displacememnt =
When moving to the right .

But while moving to the left .

. ,
Positive.
Velocity

Vavg=\
:
:
Vins= lim \=ds\dt
0
:
The sign of (V)carresponds to the sign of ds(to the right is always +ve,to the left always -ve)
V:Is the vector with it's magnitude called speed.
Acceleration

Acc(avg)= \
:
:
Acceleration
Instantaneous Acceleration:

lim = = = .

2
= = =
2

If:
= 0
> 0
< 0
Constant Acceleration
Constant Acceleration:
Velocity as function of time, can be obtained by integration:

= = , = = 0

=
=
0
] = ]0

= 0 = = +

## Position as function of time, can be obtained by integration:

= = + , = = 0

2
= 0
+ = 0 + ( 0)
2
1
= + + 2
2
Constant Acceleration
Constant Acceleration:
Velocity as function of position, :
= , = 0 = = = _
1

=

2 2 =
2

2 2 = 2 2 = = + ( )

## Acceleration as function of time, = can be obtained by:

= ==
= 0
= + 0

To obtain Position:

v = =
= 0
= + 0

Acceleration
Acceleration as function of velocity, a = :

= ==
= 0
=
()

## Acceleration as function of displacement, a = :

= =
=
2 = 2 + 2

= = ()
= 0
= ()
()

Plane Curvilinear Motion
Describes the motion of a particle along a curved path that lies in a single
plane.
Where:

=
=

=

= lim = =
0

Speed = = =

= lim = =
0
Rectangular coordination

= +
= = +
= = = +
From the figure:-

= +
= +

tan =

= +

= +
If x= & =
Projectile motion
Rectangular coordination are used for the trajectory analysis of a projectile motion.
= = ( )
= Integration Integration
= ( )

X= + ( ) t = ( ) ( )

Y= + ( ) +

t: tangent , n: normal
Normal and tangential coordinates
ds = df

V= =

=V t
= t
( t )
= = = v (et)`+(v)` et

Direction of det is given by en :
et
det=en d =en

=( )en (t)` = en

V= =v (et)`+(v)` et
v (et)`=v ( en)

=

2
V( n)= en

2
= en + t

Page 9 :

2
2
v v
an p p v
2

p p
at v s
a an at
2 2
Circular motion

v = v
2 2
v
ar r
.
v
n

at v r
Ex :
problem 2/3 page 27
3
Velocity of a particle is given by : v 2 4t 5t 2

Evaluate : position
( s ) ?

v?

a ?
at
t 3s
when
t 0 s s0 3m
5
2 2
3 4t 16t
s 2 vdt (2 4t 5t )dt 2t
2
c
2 8
5
s (t ) 2t 2t 2t
2 2
c
s (0) c s0 3m
5
s (3) 2(3) 2(3) 2(3)
2 2
3
6 18 31.2 3 22.2m
3
v(3) 2 4(3) 5(3) 2
15.98m / s
dv 3 1 2 15 1
a 4 (5)( )t (t ) 2 4
dt 2 2
15 1
a (3) (3) 2 4 8.99m / s
2
Example 2-15. Page 29#
A particle is fired vertically with = m/s. What is the max altitude h reached by the projectile and
the time after firing for it to return to ground. Neglect air drag and take g as constant at 9.81 m/ .
Sol:

= + +

= + + = + + .

, = , = + = = + .
= .

= . . . =

= = .
Example 2-25. Page 30#
Distance s, when he overtake the blue car? M C
= = /
= / =
= /

Sol:

= + + = . + +

2 = 0 2 +2am( Sm1 Sm1 )

(1501000m)=0+2(6
6060
m/ 2 )(Sm1-0)=(12 m/ 2 ) Sm1

Sm1=(1736/12)=144.7m

Sm2=Sm1+Vm1 t2=144.7+41.7(t-6.9 s)

V=V+at t= tm1=

41.70
tm1= = 6.94 s
6
Sm1=41.7t-144.7m=Sc=(33.3)t+66.7m
t(8.4)-211.4=0 t=22.5 sec
Sc=(33.3)(25.2)+66.7=905.9m
Sm2=(41.7)(25.2)-144.7=906.1m
Relative motion (translating axes)
Fixed reference axes absolute coordinates
Morning reference axes relative motion
Translation of axes will be discussed for plane motion:
RELATIVE-MOTION OF TWO PARTICLES (CONTINUED)

## CONSTRAINED MOTION OF CONNECTED PARTICLES

The motion of particles are interrelated by the constraints of
interconnecting members
Example:

## x and y are position coordinates

CONSTRAINED MOTION OF CONNECTED PARTICLES
(CONTINUED)

## It is a one degree of freedom system because one variable (x or y) is

enough to specify the positions of all parts of the system
1- polar coordinates (r-)
2-cylindrical coordinates (r- - z)
3-spherical coordinates ( r - - )
Example problem ( plane curvilinear motion )

## What is min horizontal velocity ( u ) of a rock to clear obstruction B?

14
Solution :
Ax=0 Ay=-g
Vx=(vx) u=constant
Vy=(vy) -gt = 0 gt = -gt
X= X + (vx) t
Y= y + (vy) t- 2 gt
Vy=(vy)-2g(y-y)
= 0 +2(9.81m \ s)+(10m + 0 )
= 196.2m\s vy =14 m\s
14\s
T= = = 1.43sec
9.81\s
X = 0 + u (1.43sec) = 40 m u=27.97 m\s
U28 m\s 14
Example:
A race car C travels around the horizontal circular track that has a radius
of 300 ft , if the car increases its speed at a constant rate of 7 ft/s,
starting from rest ,
Determine :
*the time needed for it to reach an acceleration of 8 ft/s .
*what is its speed at this instant .
Solution :
a = ( at + an )

at = 7 ft/s
an = v/ ** hint :- v = v+(at)c .t **
an = ( 7t )/ 300 = 0.163t ft/s

## Time needed to reach 8 ft/s :-

a = ( at + an ) 8 = ( 7 +(0.163t) ) 0.163t = (8+ 7)

t= 4.87 sec

## V= 7t = 7*( 4.87 ) = 34.1 ft/s

EX:
The motion of a particle is defined by the position vector r=A(cost+tsint)i+A(sint+tcost)j
t in sec
Determine the value of t for which and are :
a)Perpendicular b)parallel
Soln: =A(cost+tsint)i+A(sint-tcost)j

= =A(-sint+sint+tcost)i+A(cost-cost+tsint) =A(tcost)i+A(tsint)j

= =A(cost-tsint)i+A(sint+tcost)j

## (a) & are perpendicular . =0

A[(cost+tsint)i+(sint-tcost)j] . A[(cost-tsint)i+(sint+tcos)]=0
=2 [(cost+tsint)(cost-tsint)+(sint-tcost)(sint+tcost)]=0
( 2 t- 2 si2 t)+(si2 t- 2 2 t)=0
1- 2 =0 t=1 s

## (b) & are parallel X =0

A[(cost+tsint)i+(sint-tcost)j] X A[(cost-tsint)i+(sint-tcost)j]=0
2 [(cost+tsint)(sint+tcost)-(sint-tcost)(cost-tsint)] k=0
Polar coordinates (r )/Radial and transverse coordinates.

r = r er

= (r er)
Radial & Transverse (r - ) coordinates cont.

velocity should be
expressed in terms of
er and e.

= = (r+r )=

=+ ++ +

=er+e+2e+re+r

=e+r +[2+r]

Example:
The park ride shown consists of a chair that
is rotating in a horizontal circular path of
radius r such that the arm OB has an
angular velocity and angular
acceleration ,determine the radial and
transverse components of velocity and
acceleration of the passenger .
Solution :
r=r =0 =0
Space curvilinear motion

Cylindrical coordinates (r , , z)
Spherical coordinates(R ,,):
R=R*eR.
V=R'* eR+R*'*cos()* e + R*'* e .
a=aR* eR +a* e +a* e
aR=R''-R*'-R*'*cos().
a=cos()/R *d/dt(R^2*'(-2*R* '*'*sin().
a= 1/R * d/dt(R^2*'(+R* '*sin()*cos().
Kinetic of particles:
-Kinetic is the study of the relations between
unbalanced forces and the changes in motion they
produce.
-Kinetic problem can be solved using three
approaches:
Newton's 2nd low (F=m*a).
Work & Energy.
Impulse & Momentum.
Newtons 2nd law:
F=m*a
F :is the magnitude of the resultant force acting on
the particle.
m: is a quantitative measure of inertia (mass) of the
particle.
a:is the magnitude of the resulting acceleration of
the particle.
There are two types of motion; constrained such as
atrain or unconstrained such as airplane.
Motion in space has a three degrees of
freedom(DOF).
Motion in a plane has a 2 DOF.
Motion in a linear path has 1 DOF.
DOF : is the #coordinates needed to describe
the position in vector newton F=m*a.
Construction of a free body diagram (FBD) is
an important step in the solution of mechanics
problems. The +ve sign directions should be
indicated cleary.
For rectilinear motion in the x-direction:
Fx = m*a.
Fy=0.
Fz=0.
The three components of equation motion are:-

when
EXAMPLE
75 KG man stands in an elevator.during the 1st 3 sec of motion from rest,tention (T)in the cable is 8300
N and the upward velocity V of the elevator at the end of the 3 sec total mass of elevator man and scale is
750k

Solution
Since F=ma m is the coust during the 3 sec F=T = 8300 N =constant a is also
constant .. For elevator scale and man the FBD gives :

8300-7360=750 ay . ay=1257 m/ 2
Equ of motion for man

R-763=75*1257 R=830 N

## V(3)=3*a .=3*1257 =377 m/s

Curvlinear motion (kinetics)
In rectangular coordinates :

Example:

## A rod OA is rotating in the horizontal plane such that = 3 rad.

At the same time , the rollar B is sliding out word along oA so that
= 100 2 mm , if in both cases t is in seconds , determine the velocity and acceleration of the
roller when t= 1s
Solution :
= 100 2 |@t = 1s = 100 mm .
= 3 |@t= 1s = 1 rad = 57.3.
=200t |@t=1s =200 mm\s.
= 3 2 |@t= 1s = 3 rad\s.
r**= 200|@t=1s = 200mm\s .
= 6t |@t=1s = 6 rad\s .
= + r = 200 + 100 (3) = 200 + 300 mm\s
= 2002 + 3002 = 361 mm\s
300
=tan1 = 56.3
200
+ 56.3 = 114
Acceleration:
= r2 + r + 2
= (200 100 (32 )) + (100 (6) + 2 (200) 3) .
= 7002 + 18002 =1930 mm\ 2 .
1800
= tan1 = 68.7
700
(180 ) + 56.3= 169

Example:
Passengers of plane A observe plane B passing
under plane A in a horizontal flight. Plane B apears
to the passengers in plane A as moving away from A
at . Find ( Velocity of plane B).

Solution:

2) Trigonometric method:

=
sin 60 sin 75
sin
= = /
sin

## 3) Vector algebra method:

= /
Moving net axes attached to A = cos + sin
/ = cos + sin
= + /
Direction = + /
Magnitude ? cos =

sin = sin
1) Graphical method:
/ = / = /
D.O.Maaitah 27
Example:

## Plane A is flying straight, while plane B

flies in circular path as shown in the
figure.

= /
= /
Find / , / .

Solution:

1. Velocity
(+) = / +
= + /

/ = =

2. Acceleration
( /) = + /
( ) = =

= / To be continued..

D.O.Maaitah 28
(continued)

## 900i 100j =50j + aB/A (aB)n= 900 /2

aB/A = { 900i 150j } /2

1 150
= tan ( ) = 9.46
900 150/2
example

## Q: Car A and car B travelling at

VA=18 m/s
VB=12 m/s
Car A speed is decreasing by 2 / 2
Car B speed is increasing by 3 / 2 +
y
Find VB/A and aB/A ?

x
60
Example solution :

aA=2 /
VB = VA + VB/A
60
-12 j =(-18cos 60 18 sin 60) + VB/A aB=3 /
VB/A ={9i + 3.588j} m/s VA
|VB/A|= 92 + 3.5882 = 9.69 m/s
/ 3.588
tan = =
/ 9 VB
So = 21.7
-Acceleration :
2
= +

6 2
2
= + = 2 +
28.28
= 2 + 1.273 m/ 2
2 2
= 2 + 1.273 = 2.37 2

1 2
= tan = 57.5
1.273
57.5 45 = 12.5
= 2.37 / 2

12.5

A disk rotates about z with w= =3 rad/sec, Arm OB is elevated
2
at = 3
at t=0 : =0 and =0
P slides along the rod according to
R(in mm)= 50 + 200 2
Find:
1
, , at t= ?
2
Solution:
= = 400|=1 = 200 mm/s = 0.2 m/s
2
=
= 0.5 = 50 + 200 0.5 2 = 100 = 0.1
2
(t=0.5)= (0.5)( ) =
3 3

V = 0.1 cos = 0.052 m/s
3 3
V = = 0.1 = 0.209 m/s
3

V = 2 + 2 + 2
= 0.2 2 + 0.052 2 + 0.209 2 = 0.294 m/s
aR = Rcos
= 400 mm = 0.4m
2 34
2 2 2
= 0.4 0.1 0.1 cos( )
3 3 3
= 0.4 0.44 0.0274 = 0.0674 \ 2
cos
= 2 + 2 2 sin

cos 3 2
= 0.1 2 0 + 2 0.1 0.2 2 0.1 sin( )
0.1 3 3 3 3
= 8.66 0.042 0.38 = 0.0163 \ 2
1 2
= + 2 + 2 sin cos

1 2
2 2
= 0.1 0 + 2 0.1 0.2 + 0.1 sin cos
0.1 3 3 3 3
= 0.84 + 0.0475 = 0.887\ 2

## = 2 + 2 + 2 = 0.0674 2 + 0.0163 2 + 0.887 2

= 0.9\ 2
Any questions on the exam material?
= 10 = 20 = 2 \ = 0.2
33
Find when A has moved 4 meters. Take = 10 \ 2
Solution: FBD for A:

= =

= 0 = =

= = = 10
(0.2)(10) 2000
= = = =

FBD for B: = = 2 + = 2 + = 2
+ 20 = 2 + 20000
2 + 20000
=

10000
= = = = 1000
10 \ 2
20000
= = = = 2000
10 \ 2
2000
= = 2
1000 1000

2 + 20,000 2 20,000
= = + = + 10
2000 2000 2000 1000

Let L= , = 2 , = + 10
1000
= 2 = + 2 = 0 = 2
2 = 2 + 10 = 2 + 20 = 2
2 1 = 2 + 20 = = 18
, T = 1000L = 1000 18 = 18000
= 2 = 18 2 = 16 / 2
2 = . 2 + 2 . = (2 /)2 +2(16/ 2 ) *(4m)
= 4 2 / 2 +128 2 / 2 = 132 2 / 2 = 11.5/

35
EX:
Find min stopping distance S from a speed of (70 Km/h)
with constant deceleration if the box is not to slip ..

SOL: = 0.3
. = 70 Km/h a= constant =
= = =
2 2 , 2
. = 2 = 2 = 2
(70Km/h)2
S= = 64.2
20.39.81 / 2

36
37
= 40
= 0.4
= ?
(Neglect masses of pulleys)
Solution:

= 0

+ 2 30 = 0
= 2 30
= 40 Kg 9.81/ 2 2 100N 0.5
= 292.4

2 30 =
2 100 cos 30 (292.4)(0.4)
= = 1.406 / 2
40
Work and energy 38
Work:

## dr is differential displacement ,Work done by force F during dr is = F. dr = . cos()

,is angle between F and dr.
= , is force component along the displacement.
cos , is displacement component along the force.
= F does no work.
=
If is in the direction of the displacement
Work is +ve
If is in the opposite direction of the displacement
Work is -ve
Work is a scalar quantity

= F. dr = + + =
Spring-Mass System :-

Tension Compression

=
. = work done on the body by the spring.

[Work done is negative because the direction of force is opposite to the displacement]

. =
. = k [ () () ] = Area Under The Curve

Work done on the body by the spring would be positive if the directions of force and displacement are the
same (e.g: relaxing tension or compression).

F=k x is a linear static relationship which holds when the mass of the spring itself is relatively small and not
accounted for.
Work done on a particle:

Work done by
F during a finite
movement of
the particle from
1 to 2 is :
2 S2 Final point

## U1-2 = F .dr = Ftds

1 S1
Initial point

Substitute F = m a
2 2
U1-2 = ma.dr =

1
m a tds

1
ds dv
Recall that v and a
dt dt
dv ds
v av a vdv = ads = atds
dt dt
2
v1
U1-2 = matds = mvdv= m(v 2-v12)
2
v2
1
Kinetic energy (T):
T=1
2
mv^ 2

## its the total work required to bring the particle

from rest to velocity v . its a scalar and always
+ve !(why)?
V1-2=T2-T1= T
Work Energy equ. For a particle
total work done on the particle= corresponding
change in kinetic energy of the particle.
could be +ve , -ve , or zero.
with enrgy approach , no need to calculate
acceleration.
power (p):
its the time rate of doing work . its a scalar quantity
dv F .dr dr
p= F. p= F.V
dt dt dt

Efficiency (em):
Mechanical Efficiency (em) is the ratio of the work
done by a machine to the work done on the machine
Poutput
em= em 1
Pinput

## because of friction loss

ee is electrical efficiency electrical energy
loss
et is thermal efficiency thermal loss
e is total efficiency
e= em + ee + et
Example:-
A Satellite of mass (M) is orbiting the earth at A where h1= 500
Km, v1=30000 Km/h ,and h2= 1200 Km , Find v2 .
Solution:-
r2
V = -F.dr = -m.g.R dr/r
1-2
r1
r2
= -mgR(-1/r) =m.g. R(1/r2-1/r1)
r1
V1-2=T = 2mg R(1/r2-1/r1)= 0.5.m(V2-V1)
V2=V1 + 2g R(1/r2-1/r1)-
3
(30,000/3.6)+2(9.81).[(6,371)*10 ]
= 58.73*10 m/s
V2= 7663 m/s = 27,590 Km/h
Sketch in next slide
Potential Energy :-
1. Gravitational Potential Energy :- it is the work against the gravitational field to elevate the particle a distance
(h) above an arbitrary reference plane
Vg=m.g.h
Going from (h1) level to a higher level (h2)
Vg=mg(h2-h1) = mg h
The earths gravitational force is (mgR/r) , therefore the earths
gravitational potential energy Vg = - (mgR/r) (R:- earths radius ,
r:- distance from earth center)
the change in Vg from r1 to r2 is equal to
Vg = mgR(1/r1-1/r2)
2. Elastic Potential Energy :- Work done to deform an elastic body such
as a spring is stored in the body and is called its elastic potential energy (Ve)
x
Ve = kx.dx = 0.5 *k*x , For a deformation of x
0
Going from (h1) level to a higher level (h2)
Vg = mg(h2 h1) = mg h
The earths gravitational force is

## therefore, the Earths gravitational potential

energy is:

R: Earths Radius
r: Distance from Earths center
Vg: for large altitudes
The change in Vg from r1 to r2 is:
B) Elastic Potential Energy:
Work done to deform an elastic body such as
a spring is stored in the body and is called its
elastic potential energy Ve .

## The change in Ve from x1 to x2 is:

C) Work Energy Equation:
Recall that:

## U1-2 = is the work of all external forces.

For gravitational and elastic energies the path
is not important. Only the end points (start
and end) are important.
In the mass-spring system it is hard to
evaluate U1-2 Therefore, it is easier to use the
previous equ.

where

## Total mechanical Energy Of the particle and the

spring
The net work done on the system by all forces
except gravitational and elastic forces equals the
change in the total mechanical energy of the
system
Example :

## Slider :A: moves up the guide

M= 10 Kg ;
and neglect friction;
and the spring
stiffness = 60 N/m
*******************
Spring is stretched
0.6 M in position A neglect pulley resistance at
B find V of the slider at C ?
**********************
Note : slider released from rest at A
ve = K(X2 X1) =
(60 N/m)([1.2m+0.6m] [0.6m] )= 86.4 J
Alternative work-energy equ:

150J=5V+58.9J+86.4J
V=0.974 m/s
Impulse And Momentum
The equs of impulse and momentum are obtained by integrating
the equ of motion wrt time ,whereas, the work-energy equ
were obtained by integrating the equ of motion wrt
displacement.
Impulse and momentum equs are used to solve problems in
which forces act over specified periods of time
Linear Impulse And Linear Momentum
47

## -The basic equation of motion for the particle is :-

F = mv = d/dt(mV) = G F = G

## -G is the linear momentum , G=mV

The resultant of all forces acting on a particle equals its time rate of change of linear
momentum unit of G is kg.m/s N.s

-The resultant force F and G directions coincide with the direction of acceleration
F , G and (V=a) have the same direction scalar equations of G
47

Fx = Gx Fy = Gy Fz = Gz

-To find the effect of F over a fiuire period of time , integrate F = G wrt time .

F = d/dt (G ) F dt = dG

F dt = dG = G1 G2 = G
G2 = G1 + F dt

G2 G2
= mV2
= mV2 G1 G1
= mV1
= mV1

-Linear Impulse is determined as the product of force and time . The total linear impulse on an m
equals the corresponding change in linear momentum of m .
-The scalar equations of G = F dt are :- 48

Fx dt = (mVx)2 - (mVx)1

## Fy dt = (mVy)2 - (mVy)1 These Impusle Momentum equations are

independent
Fz dt = (mVz)2 - (mVz)1

48

## (Ga + Gb) = 0 Gtot

G tot= =0 0 G1 = G2
Solution :-
a) Skip reverse direction when V=0
Assume that V=0 , at t=4 +t
Use Impulse-Momentum equation
1
0
dt = m

## =2*0.5*4*600+2*600*t -150*9.81*cos 60 *(4+ t)

=150(0-(-4)) => 464 t = 1143 => t=2.46s

t1=4+2.46 = 6.46s

8
b) 0 = m => 2*0.5*4*600+2*(8-4)*600-150*9.81*cos 60*8
=150(v (-4)) =>
150 v =714 => V=4.76 m/s

8
1
= m => (2*600*(8-6.46)-150*9.81* cos 60 *(8-6.46)) =>
150(v-0)=150v {same result }
=
=m

Linear Momentum
The angular momentum
is defined as the
moment of the linear
momentum m

For particle P: =

Cross product
is a vector perpendicular
to plane A , right hand rule is
used to determine
the sense of
= = m (x + y + z)*( x + y + z)
= m [x x +y + z ]

= > = m

= ( ) = ( )
= ( )
0 = X =Xm =(Xm)

0 =X :: 0 = X + X

= X

Acceleration
The moment of all forces equals the rate of change of angular momentum:

Scalar components:
= = =

## For a period of time integrate the equation:

2 2

= = = = = 2 1 =
1 1

1 = 1 1 2 = 2 2
Angular impulse (N.m.s):
The total angular impulse equal the change in angular momentum:

2 2
2 = 1 + 2 1 =
1 1
Constant Acceleration
X- component equation:

=

=

For the figure in page (51)
2 2
1
. = H.2 H.1 1
= mv2 d2 mv1d1

## Conservation of Angular Momentum :

If the resultant moment M.=0 during t M.=H.=0 H. = Constant
Angular momentum is conserved.
H. Could be conserved about one axis. But not about another axis.
For two particles a & b, with interactive forces F and F between them ;
Moment of unbalanced forces

M.=0 Ma =-Mb
The principle of conservation of angular momentum :
2
Ha = Ha2 Ha1 = 1
add the two equations to get
2
Hb = Hb2 Hb1 = 1
Ha + Hb =
2
1
+
2
1
= 0
(Ma = -Mb )
Ha + Hb = 0

H. = 0 H.1 = H.2
total
Kinetics of Particles
Special Applications
Impact
It refers to the collision between two bodies .
a) Direct central impact :

Before Impact

Maximum deformation
During impact

After Impact
Apply the law of conservation of linear momentum :
m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2

e=

## total time of contact

(1) 0
m [ v1 (v0) ]
1 v0 v1
For Particle 1 = 0 = =
0
m [ v0 (v1) ]
1 v1 v0
Deformation time

Deformation period
0 0

m1 m2 Restoration period

FOR PARTICLE 2 : 1 2

0
. 2 2 0 2 0
= 0 = =
. 2 0 2 0 2
0

The change of momentum (and hence V) should be in the same direction as the impulse (and hence the force)

0 1 2 0 0 1 + 2 0 2 1
= (2) = = =
1 0 0 2 1 0 + 0 2 1 2

2 1
= =
1 2

## If e = 1 elastic impact no energy loss

If e = 0 inelastic(plastic) impact max energy loss (particles cling together after impact)
Coefficient of restitution :
(b) Oblique central Impact :
the initial and final velocities are not parallel

Impact force

( 1) n 1sin 1 ( 1) n 1cos 1

## ( 2) n 2 sin 2 ( 2)t 2 cos 2

Given :
m 1,m 2,( 1) n ,( 1)t ,( 2) n ,( 2)t

Unknowns:
( 1 ) n ,( 1 )t ,( 2) n ,( 2 )t

Equs:
Conservation of momentum in the n-direction

m 1( 1) n m 2( 2) n m 1( 1 ) n m 2( 2) n
Conservation of momentum in the (t) direction
1 1 = 1 1
2 2 = 2 2

## Coefficient of restitution (e)

2 (1 ) * Note : Finally ( 1 & 2 )
e= are found using the velocity
2 (1 ) components.

Relative motion
* Its the consideration of a moving reference system*

## Equations of relative motion:

= + /
= m *
= m * ( + / )
Problem 3/74
The cars of an amusements park have a speed ( A = 22m/s)
at A, and a speed ( B =12 m/s ) at B. If a ( 75-kg ) rider sits
on a spring scale (which registers the normal force exerted on
it). Determine the scale readings as the car passes points A and
B, assume that the persons arms and legs do not support
appreciable forces.

Solution :
At point A : At point B :

=m* =m*
75(9.81)N 75(9.81)N

222 122
75(9.81) = 75 + 75(9.81) = 75
t(s)
40 t(s)
20
= 1643 (N) = 195.8 (N)

NA NB

Note: static normal force equals the weight (75).(9.81) and it equals 736(N)
Problem 3/129 :

The ball is released from position A with a velocity of (3 m/s) and swings in a vertical plane at the bottom
position , the cord strikes the fixed bar at B , and the ball continues to swing in the dashed arc .
Calculate the velocity Vc of the ball as it passes position C.

Solution :

U1-2 = T ;

## 9.81 (0.2) = 0.5 (Vc - 9) ;

Vc = 12.92 ;

Vc = 3.59 m/s .
Problem 3/123:

A (40 Kg ) boy starts from rest at the bottom A of a 10 percent incline and increases his speed at a constant rate to 8
km/h as he passes B , 15m along the incline from A .
Determine his power output as he approaches B .
Solution :

VB = VA + 2a X
= 0 +2a X

## = tan (0.1) = 5.71

F = ma
F 40 (9.81) sin (5.71) = 40 (0.1646)
F = 45.6 N

P = FV = 45.6 (2.22)
P = 101.4 W
Problem 3/150 :

The springs are undeformed in the position shown . If the 6 Kg collar is released from rest in the position where the lowest
spring is compressed 125 mm .
Determine the maximum compression XB of the upper spring .
Solution :

## stablish datum at release point

250mm
1750 N/m
TA + VA = TB + VB ;
0 + 0.5(KA.XA) = 0 + 0.5(KB.XB) + mg (XA+d+XB) ;
500mm 6Kg 150mm
0.5(8500)(0.125) = 0.5(1750)XB + 6 (9.81)(0.125+0.5-0.15+XB)

XB = 0.1766m = 176.6 mm
250mm 8400 N/m

## (The collar moves a distance of 0.5 0.15 = 0.35 m )

Problem 3/216 :

The 3 Kg sphere moves in the x-y plane and has the indicated velocity at a particular instant .
Determine its:- (a) linear moment .
(b) angular momentum about point O.
(c) kinetic energy .
Solution :

(a) G = m v
= 3.4 (cos(45)i + sin (45)j )
= 8.49i 8.49j Kg.

(b) H = r * m v = r * G
= 2(cos(60)i + sin(60)j ) x (8.49i - 8.49j )
= 2 [ -4.25 k - 7.35 k ]
= -23.2 Kg.m/s

## (c) T = 0.5 m v = 0.5(3)(4)

= 24 J
*Problem 3/250 *

The steel ball strikes the heavy steel plate with a velocity v.= 24 m/s at angle of 60* with the
horizontal . If the coefficient of restitution is e=0.8 . Compute the velocity v and its direction 0
with which the ball rebounds from the plate .

*Solution*

## *during impact so no change in X

velocity .

*component.

In y - diriction
#chapter 4
(Kinetics of systems of particles)
*the principles applied to a single particle will be extended to a system of participles.

*A rigid body is defined as a solid system of particles , where in the distance between participles
remain unchanged .

## -example of rigid-body problems:

Machines , land & aircraft , rockets , and space-craft.

*A non-rigid body could be a solid body which changes shape with time due to deformation . It
could also be a liquid or gas.

magnetic .

* external
mi
Pi * internal

G > Envelope of
mass system
ri

System
boundary
0

where

## *total system mass they are n particles.

Applying Newtons 2nd law to the system :
F1 + F2 + F3 + . + f1 + f2 + f3 + .. = Acceleration of mi

## For all particles : = 0 (internal forces cancel out )

+ =
External Internal

Since = =
Total mass Position vector of Position vector of
Mass of particle
the center of mass particle

## Generalized Newtons 2nd law of motion

= = for a mass system . Or equation of
motion of m . Or principle of motion of
Acceleration of the
center of mass of the the mass center
system
Component form:

= = =

Work Energy :

2
12 = 1
2

## Work done on mi by external forces only

For the entire system : =1 12 = =1
Work done by internal forces is zero because it cancels out .
If gravity and elastic energy is included [non-rigid body]:

12 = + +

## 12 : work done on a non-rigid system.

:kinetic energy .
: gravitational potential energy
: elastic potential energy .

+ +

E
E:chang in mechanical energy .

OR

12 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 2 + 2 + 2
Kinetic energy revisited :
From relative motion:

= +

: velocity of mass center
: velocity w. r. t G

since 2 = . 1
= 2
2
1 1
= . = ( + )( + )
2 2
2
1 1
= + ||2 +
2 2

= = = 0

= 0 : measured form mass center

1 2 1
= + ||2
2 2

1 1
= 2 + ||2
2 2

1 1
2: T of the mass center G
2
||2 : energy of particles relative to mass center.
2
Kinetics of system of particles cont
Impulse-Momentum
(a) Linear momentum (G)

## velocity of center of mass G

total mass
time rate of change of G of the system

## (b) Angular Momentum (Ho) Ho about O:

for external forces,Mo of internal forces cancel out
Ho about G (mass center) HG

## Absolute angular momentum because is used.

Relative angular momentum because is used.
Since

Parallel=0
H about P (arbitrary point)
H P Pi mi ri ( P Pi ) mi ri
H P P mi ri Pi mi ri
H p P mi vi H G P mv H G
H p H G P mv
H G Pi mi ri

M M
P G P F
M H
P G P ma
When a point P whose acceleration is known
is used as a moment center ;

P
M (
H P ) relative P maP

M P ( H P ) rel If :- 1. aP 0
2. P 0
3. P and a P are parallel
Conservation of Energy and Momentum

## Conservation of Energy (for a system)

If there is no energy loss due to friction or dissipation ; Then
theres No net change in Mech. Energy (E=0)
T+Vg+Ve=0 or

## T1 + Vg1 + Ve1 = T2 +Vg2 + Ve2 (no work U1 - U2 = 0)

Law of conservation of dynamical energy

## (b) conservation of Momentum (for a system )

Since if =0
G1 = G2 principle of conservation of Linear Momentum for a mass system (no linear
Impulse)

since if

## (H0)1=(H0)2 or (HG)1 =(HG)2

Principle of conservation of angular moment for General mass system (no angular Impulse)
EX
Rigid equiangular frame of negligible mass ,
resting on a horizontal surface
F is suddenly applied

Find
A- a0

B-
Solu

a) F1= 3m = a0 =

b) v = r H0= HG = 3r m v = 3 r m (r ) =3 m
Chapter - 5

## Plane kinematics of rigid bodies

Types of rigid-body plane motion

a) Rectilinear translation :

## Example : Rocket test sled

b) Curvilinear translation :

## Example : Parallel-link swinging plate

c) Fixed-axis rotation :

## Example : Compound pendulum

d) General plane motion :
translation + rotation

## Example : Connecting rod in a reciprocating engine

Rotation
A) Angular motion relations

d
w
dt
dw
w
dt
d d d 2
( ) 2
dt dt dt
d d
w dt
dt w
dw dw d dw
dt
dt w
wdw d d d
For constant :

w wo t
w w 2 ( o ) at t=0
2 2
o

1 2
o wot t
2
B) Rotation about a fixed axis
v rw
v 2 r 2 w2
an rw2 vw
r r
at r
In vector form :

v w r

an w ( w r )

at r
Example :-
A right-angled bar ; if :
4 rad s 2
2 rad s
Find :-
vA ?

aA ?
Solution :-

2k rad s

4 rad s 2 k

4k rad s 2

v r

v 2k 0.4i 0.3 j 0.6i 0.8 j m s

a A an at

an r

an k 0.6i 0.8 j 1.2i 1.6 j m s
2

at r

at 4k 0.4i 0.3 j 1.2i 1.6 j m s 2

a A 2.8i 0.4 j m s 2
v (0.6) 2 (0.8) 2 1 m s

a 2.8 0.4
2 2
2.83 m s 2
Absolute Motion
The use of geometric relations which define the
configuration of the body to derive velocities and
acceleration.

Example :-
Equilateral triangular plate ABC is controlled by hydraulic
cylinder D.
Find :-
1. v and a of the center of B
2. and of the edge CB
Solution:-

v A y 0.3 m s
a A y 0
From the geometry;
x2 y 2 b2
d
( x2 y 2 b2 )
dt
2 xx 2 yy 0
xx yy 0
yy y
x y
x x
d
( xx yy 0) xx xx yy y y xx x 2 yy y 2 0
dt
x 2 yy y 2 x 2 y 2 y
x y
x x x
But

y b sin
x b cos
y 0
y b sin
vB x y vA
x b cos
vB v A tan
(v A tan ) 2 0 v A2 v A2 tan 2 v A2
aB x
b cos b cos
v A (tan 1) v A (sec ) v A sec
2 2 2 2 2 3
aB
b cos b cos b
with
v A 0.3 m s
and
30
1
A 0.3 tan(30) 0.3( ) 0.173m / s ()
3

## (0.3) 2 sec3 (30)

aB 0.693m / s 2 ()
0.2

## To find angular motion of CB , differentiate ;

y b sin( ) y b (cos )
y 0.3
w

A sec sec(30) 1.73rad / s (ccw )
b cos( ) b 0.2

A A A
w sec tan sec tan [ sec ]
b b b

A2 0.32
2 sec tan
2
2
sec 2 (30) tan(30)
b 0.2
0.32 2 1
( ) 1.73rad / s 2
(ccw )
0.22 3 3
Relative Velocity ( of rigid body )

A B A / B OR A / B A B

For a rigid body , A / B rw

In vector form A / B r w
Power screw
EX: The power screw gives the collar C a velocity of
Vc=0.25m/s find w of the arm when =30.
VB=Vc
VA=VB cos = 0.25 cos 30=0.217 m/s
V=wr w=v/r = =0.417 rad/ccw
Instantaneous Center of zero velocity
(ICZV)
It is a unique reference point which momentarily has a zero
velocity.
VA=w rA VB=w rB

## w= VA/rA VB= (VA/rA) rB

VB= (rB/rA) VA
EX .. The wheel rolls to the right without slipping.
Locate the 1 czv ? find VA ?
Solu: A
0 = 200
30 = 3/
o

= = R=200m

3
= = = 10
0.3
= 0.32 + 0.22 2(0.3)(0.2)120

= 0.436
A
= = (10)(0.436) = 4.36
.3 m

c
No velocity point (1czv)
Relative Acceleration (of a rigid body)

aA

aB

## In vector form : (aA/B)t

(aA/B)n=
(aA/B)t =
EX:
6 3
= 2 , = 7 , = 7 , =?, =?

Solution:
= + (/ ) +(/ )
= +
3 3 3 2
= 100 + 100 = 100 100 / 2
7 9 7

= + = 0 + 2 2 75 = 300 2
6 6 6 2
= ( ) = 7 7 175 + 50 = (175 50)

7 2

= = 175 + 50 = 50 175

2

100 = 429 50
18.37 = 36.7 175

= 0.1050 ( ( )) & = 4.34
2 2
Motion Relative to Rotating Axes:

,,

## (d) Is small change in ,

[d = d ]

Wx=w
Wx=-w

=w =wx
and
Relative velocity:

rotating axes

## Transformation of the time derivative of the position

vector between rotating and non rotating axes
This equation can be generalized for any vector quantity (V)
Transformation of a time derivative:
Relative
Acceleration
= + +
= + + +
= + + +
Using previous relations and manipulation:

= + + + 2 +

Coriolis Acceleration
acceleration of relative to
rotates axis

General vector expression for the absolute acceleration of a particle A in terms of its
acceleration measured relative to a moving coordinate system which rotates with an
angular velocity w and angular acceleration
Coriolis Acceleration
It equal 2 .
It represent the difference between the acceleration
of A as measured from non-rotating axes and from
rotating axes
If P is a coincident point with A on a rigid body. We can wrtie
the following relation:

= + 2 +
Example: Determine the velocity of a pin A (VA) and the velocity of A relative to the
rotating slot in OD (VA/P slop) .

## Use X-Y as rotating axis attached to OD:

Solution:
Origin is fixed at O (Vz=0)

2 equs 2 unknowns
Solution:
= 4 ;
= = 450 2 ;
= = 225 4 = 900 ;
= = 225 2 2 = 450 2 ;
/ = = 450 2 ;
Check :
/ =

450 2 = 900 450 2

900 = 2 450 2 = 900
Should add vectors and not magnitudes.
CHAPTER 16
Plane Kinetics Of Rigid Bodies
Force , Mass and Acceleration

## ** General Equations Of Motion

=
Where :

=

1
4

G G
a

2

Kinetic Diagram
3
FBD Equivalent force-
couple system
y
1 w =

Position vector
G x
= ( )

2
4
2 =
2
3
=
Mass moment
= of inertia
=

= = =

( = )
Ch-6 plane kinetics of Rigid Bodies
Force, Mass and Acceleration
General Eqns of Motion

## Alternative moment equ.

In terms of Ip (moment of inertia a bout p):

## If P is a fixed point () with = 0

For a system of interconnected bodies:

Fixed-Axis Rotation
Q is called 'center of percussion.

Because
As the resultant force pass through it
General plane motion
f = ma
MG = I
MP = I+mad

Ex.
Metal hoop is released from rest find and time to move 3 m ,
Assume the hoop rolls without slipping.

solu
a = r
fx = max
mg sin 20 f = ma
N mg cos 20 = 0
Fr = mr^2 f= mr^2/r = mr
fy = may =0
MG = I
f = mg sin 20 ma m(g sin 20 a) = mr
a= g sin 20 r = g sin 20 a 2 a = g sin 20
a= (g sin 20)/2 = (9.81/2)(0.342) = 1.678 /s^2
= a/r = (1.678 m/s^2)/(150*10^-3 m) = 11.2 tad/s^2
x = (a t^2) t= (2x/a)^1/2 = (2(3m)/1.678 m/s^2)^1/2 = 1.89 s
Work and Energy./Rigid bodies.
Work Energy Relations
(a) Work of forces and couples:

U F .dr F cos .ds Force in the direction of displacement.

U M .d
Couple

## (b) Kinetic Energy T mv

1
2
2
Translation

T Iow
Fixed- axis rotation: 1
2
2

2
General plane Motion: T 1 mv 1 Iw
2
2 2 Angular velocity

## Velocity of the Center Moment of inertia about

of mass G Mass center G
Also T 12 I c w2
Moment of inertia about C (Instantaneous center of zero velocity).

## (c) Potential Energy

work-energy equation: U '12 T Vg Ve
Work Kinetic Potential energy Elastic potential energy usually
Due to zero for rigid body.
gravity
(d) Power:

P F .V dV
dt
180

181

182

Fixed-axis Rotation

## Instantaneous center of zero velocity (not acceleration)!

183

Parallel velocities
184

## Author: Dr. Osama M. Al-Habahbeh

University of Jordan
Email: o.habahbeh@ju.edu.jo
hapapar@yahoo.com