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Anda di halaman 1dari 184

DEPARTMENT, THE UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN

COPYRIGHT 2017

Chapter 1:

introduction

divided into two parts: KINEMATICS, which deals only with the

geometry of motion, and KINETICS, which deals with the forces that

cause the motion.

Copyright 2017

Chapter 2:

Kinematics of Particles

A particle has a mass but negligible size and shape this type of

approach is used when the dimensions of the object are negligible.

Examples of particles are rockets and chicles provided that only

motion of mass center is considered and any rotation is neglected.

Rectilinear Motion

particle involves the position, velocity, and the acceleration.

P

o

. s

s

Position

particle. The origin o is a fixed point. The position is a vector. The

magnitude of the vector is the distance between zero and P. the

direction of the vector is determined using the sign of s, (+ or -)

Dispalacement

The displace,ent is the change of the particle's position ,when the particle moves from " p " to " p' ".

The displacememnt =

When moving to the right .

But while moving to the left .

. ,

Positive.

Velocity

Vavg=\

:

:

Vins= lim \=ds\dt

0

:

The sign of (V)carresponds to the sign of ds(to the right is always +ve,to the left always -ve)

V:Is the vector with it's magnitude called speed.

Acceleration

Acc(avg)= \

:

:

Acceleration

Instantaneous Acceleration:

lim = = = .

2

= = =

2

If:

= 0

> 0

< 0

Constant Acceleration

Constant Acceleration:

Velocity as function of time, can be obtained by integration:

= = , = = 0

=

=

0

] = ]0

= 0 = = +

= = + , = = 0

2

= 0

+ = 0 + ( 0)

2

1

= + + 2

2

Constant Acceleration

Constant Acceleration:

Velocity as function of position, :

= , = 0 = = = _

1

=

2 2 =

2

2 2 = 2 2 = = + ( )

= ==

= 0

= + 0

To obtain Position:

v = =

= 0

= + 0

Acceleration

Acceleration as function of velocity, a = :

= ==

= 0

=

()

= =

=

2 = 2 + 2

= = ()

= 0

= ()

()

Plane Curvilinear Motion

Describes the motion of a particle along a curved path that lies in a single

plane.

Where:

=

=

=

= lim = =

0

Speed = = =

= lim = =

0

Rectangular coordination

= +

= = +

= = = +

From the figure:-

= +

= +

tan =

= +

= +

If x= & =

Projectile motion

Rectangular coordination are used for the trajectory analysis of a projectile motion.

= = ( )

= Integration Integration

= ( )

X= + ( ) t = ( ) ( )

Y= + ( ) +

t: tangent , n: normal

Normal and tangential coordinates

ds = df

V= =

=V t

= t

( t )

= = = v (et)`+(v)` et

Direction of det is given by en :

et

det=en d =en

=( )en (t)` = en

V= =v (et)`+(v)` et

v (et)`=v ( en)

=

2

V( n)= en

2

= en + t

Page 9 :

2

2

v v

an p p v

2

p p

at v s

a an at

2 2

Circular motion

v = v

2 2

v

ar r

.

v

n

at v r

Ex :

problem 2/3 page 27

3

Velocity of a particle is given by : v 2 4t 5t 2

Evaluate : position

( s ) ?

v?

a ?

at

t 3s

when

t 0 s s0 3m

5

2 2

3 4t 16t

s 2 vdt (2 4t 5t )dt 2t

2

c

2 8

5

s (t ) 2t 2t 2t

2 2

c

s (0) c s0 3m

5

s (3) 2(3) 2(3) 2(3)

2 2

3

6 18 31.2 3 22.2m

3

v(3) 2 4(3) 5(3) 2

15.98m / s

dv 3 1 2 15 1

a 4 (5)( )t (t ) 2 4

dt 2 2

15 1

a (3) (3) 2 4 8.99m / s

2

Example 2-15. Page 29#

A particle is fired vertically with = m/s. What is the max altitude h reached by the projectile and

the time after firing for it to return to ground. Neglect air drag and take g as constant at 9.81 m/ .

Sol:

= + +

= + + = + + .

, = , = + = = + .

= .

= . . . =

= = .

Example 2-25. Page 30#

Distance s, when he overtake the blue car? M C

= = /

= / =

= /

Sol:

= + + = . + +

2 = 0 2 +2am( Sm1 Sm1 )

(1501000m)=0+2(6

6060

m/ 2 )(Sm1-0)=(12 m/ 2 ) Sm1

Sm1=(1736/12)=144.7m

Sm2=Sm1+Vm1 t2=144.7+41.7(t-6.9 s)

V=V+at t= tm1=

41.70

tm1= = 6.94 s

6

Sm1=41.7t-144.7m=Sc=(33.3)t+66.7m

t(8.4)-211.4=0 t=22.5 sec

Sc=(33.3)(25.2)+66.7=905.9m

Sm2=(41.7)(25.2)-144.7=906.1m

Relative motion (translating axes)

Fixed reference axes absolute coordinates

Morning reference axes relative motion

Translation of axes will be discussed for plane motion:

RELATIVE-MOTION OF TWO PARTICLES (CONTINUED)

The motion of particles are interrelated by the constraints of

interconnecting members

Example:

CONSTRAINED MOTION OF CONNECTED PARTICLES

(CONTINUED)

enough to specify the positions of all parts of the system

1- polar coordinates (r-)

2-cylindrical coordinates (r- - z)

3-spherical coordinates ( r - - )

Example problem ( plane curvilinear motion )

14

Solution :

Ax=0 Ay=-g

Vx=(vx) u=constant

Vy=(vy) -gt = 0 gt = -gt

X= X + (vx) t

Y= y + (vy) t- 2 gt

Vy=(vy)-2g(y-y)

= 0 +2(9.81m \ s)+(10m + 0 )

= 196.2m\s vy =14 m\s

14\s

T= = = 1.43sec

9.81\s

X = 0 + u (1.43sec) = 40 m u=27.97 m\s

U28 m\s 14

Example:

A race car C travels around the horizontal circular track that has a radius

of 300 ft , if the car increases its speed at a constant rate of 7 ft/s,

starting from rest ,

Determine :

*the time needed for it to reach an acceleration of 8 ft/s .

*what is its speed at this instant .

Solution :

a = ( at + an )

at = 7 ft/s

an = v/ ** hint :- v = v+(at)c .t **

an = ( 7t )/ 300 = 0.163t ft/s

a = ( at + an ) 8 = ( 7 +(0.163t) ) 0.163t = (8+ 7)

t= 4.87 sec

EX:

The motion of a particle is defined by the position vector r=A(cost+tsint)i+A(sint+tcost)j

t in sec

Determine the value of t for which and are :

a)Perpendicular b)parallel

Soln: =A(cost+tsint)i+A(sint-tcost)j

= =A(-sint+sint+tcost)i+A(cost-cost+tsint) =A(tcost)i+A(tsint)j

= =A(cost-tsint)i+A(sint+tcost)j

A[(cost+tsint)i+(sint-tcost)j] . A[(cost-tsint)i+(sint+tcos)]=0

=2 [(cost+tsint)(cost-tsint)+(sint-tcost)(sint+tcost)]=0

( 2 t- 2 si2 t)+(si2 t- 2 2 t)=0

1- 2 =0 t=1 s

A[(cost+tsint)i+(sint-tcost)j] X A[(cost-tsint)i+(sint-tcost)j]=0

2 [(cost+tsint)(sint+tcost)-(sint-tcost)(cost-tsint)] k=0

Polar coordinates (r )/Radial and transverse coordinates.

r = r er

= (r er)

Radial & Transverse (r - ) coordinates cont.

velocity should be

expressed in terms of

er and e.

= = (r+r )=

=+ ++ +

=er+e+2e+re+r

=e+r +[2+r]

Example:

The park ride shown consists of a chair that

is rotating in a horizontal circular path of

radius r such that the arm OB has an

angular velocity and angular

acceleration ,determine the radial and

transverse components of velocity and

acceleration of the passenger .

Solution :

r=r =0 =0

Space curvilinear motion

Cylindrical coordinates (r , , z)

Spherical coordinates(R ,,):

R=R*eR.

V=R'* eR+R*'*cos()* e + R*'* e .

a=aR* eR +a* e +a* e

aR=R''-R*'-R*'*cos().

a=cos()/R *d/dt(R^2*'(-2*R* '*'*sin().

a= 1/R * d/dt(R^2*'(+R* '*sin()*cos().

Kinetic of particles:

-Kinetic is the study of the relations between

unbalanced forces and the changes in motion they

produce.

-Kinetic problem can be solved using three

approaches:

Newton's 2nd low (F=m*a).

Work & Energy.

Impulse & Momentum.

Newtons 2nd law:

F=m*a

F :is the magnitude of the resultant force acting on

the particle.

m: is a quantitative measure of inertia (mass) of the

particle.

a:is the magnitude of the resulting acceleration of

the particle.

There are two types of motion; constrained such as

atrain or unconstrained such as airplane.

Motion in space has a three degrees of

freedom(DOF).

Motion in a plane has a 2 DOF.

Motion in a linear path has 1 DOF.

DOF : is the #coordinates needed to describe

the position in vector newton F=m*a.

Construction of a free body diagram (FBD) is

an important step in the solution of mechanics

problems. The +ve sign directions should be

indicated cleary.

For rectilinear motion in the x-direction:

Fx = m*a.

Fy=0.

Fz=0.

The three components of equation motion are:-

when

EXAMPLE

75 KG man stands in an elevator.during the 1st 3 sec of motion from rest,tention (T)in the cable is 8300

N and the upward velocity V of the elevator at the end of the 3 sec total mass of elevator man and scale is

750k

Solution

Since F=ma m is the coust during the 3 sec F=T = 8300 N =constant a is also

constant .. For elevator scale and man the FBD gives :

8300-7360=750 ay . ay=1257 m/ 2

Equ of motion for man

R-763=75*1257 R=830 N

Curvlinear motion (kinetics)

In rectangular coordinates :

Example:

At the same time , the rollar B is sliding out word along oA so that

= 100 2 mm , if in both cases t is in seconds , determine the velocity and acceleration of the

roller when t= 1s

Solution :

= 100 2 |@t = 1s = 100 mm .

= 3 |@t= 1s = 1 rad = 57.3.

=200t |@t=1s =200 mm\s.

= 3 2 |@t= 1s = 3 rad\s.

r**= 200|@t=1s = 200mm\s .

= 6t |@t=1s = 6 rad\s .

= + r = 200 + 100 (3) = 200 + 300 mm\s

= 2002 + 3002 = 361 mm\s

300

=tan1 = 56.3

200

+ 56.3 = 114

Acceleration:

= r2 + r + 2

= (200 100 (32 )) + (100 (6) + 2 (200) 3) .

= 7002 + 18002 =1930 mm\ 2 .

1800

= tan1 = 68.7

700

(180 ) + 56.3= 169

Example:

Passengers of plane A observe plane B passing

under plane A in a horizontal flight. Plane B apears

to the passengers in plane A as moving away from A

at . Find ( Velocity of plane B).

Solution:

2) Trigonometric method:

=

sin 60 sin 75

sin

= = /

sin

= /

Moving net axes attached to A = cos + sin

/ = cos + sin

= + /

Direction = + /

Magnitude ? cos =

sin = sin

1) Graphical method:

/ = / = /

D.O.Maaitah 27

Example:

flies in circular path as shown in the

figure.

= /

= /

Find / , / .

Solution:

1. Velocity

(+) = / +

= + /

/ = =

2. Acceleration

( /) = + /

( ) = =

= / To be continued..

D.O.Maaitah 28

(continued)

aB/A = { 900i 150j } /2

1 150

= tan ( ) = 9.46

900 150/2

example

VA=18 m/s

VB=12 m/s

Car A speed is decreasing by 2 / 2

Car B speed is increasing by 3 / 2 +

y

Find VB/A and aB/A ?

x

60

Example solution :

aA=2 /

VB = VA + VB/A

60

-12 j =(-18cos 60 18 sin 60) + VB/A aB=3 /

VB/A ={9i + 3.588j} m/s VA

|VB/A|= 92 + 3.5882 = 9.69 m/s

/ 3.588

tan = =

/ 9 VB

So = 21.7

-Acceleration :

2

= +

6 2

2

= + = 2 +

28.28

= 2 + 1.273 m/ 2

2 2

= 2 + 1.273 = 2.37 2

1 2

= tan = 57.5

1.273

57.5 45 = 12.5

= 2.37 / 2

12.5

A disk rotates about z with w= =3 rad/sec, Arm OB is elevated

2

at = 3

at t=0 : =0 and =0

P slides along the rod according to

R(in mm)= 50 + 200 2

Find:

1

, , at t= ?

2

Solution:

= = 400|=1 = 200 mm/s = 0.2 m/s

2

=

= 0.5 = 50 + 200 0.5 2 = 100 = 0.1

2

(t=0.5)= (0.5)( ) =

3 3

V = 0.1 cos = 0.052 m/s

3 3

V = = 0.1 = 0.209 m/s

3

V = 2 + 2 + 2

= 0.2 2 + 0.052 2 + 0.209 2 = 0.294 m/s

aR = Rcos

= 400 mm = 0.4m

2 34

2 2 2

= 0.4 0.1 0.1 cos( )

3 3 3

= 0.4 0.44 0.0274 = 0.0674 \ 2

cos

= 2 + 2 2 sin

cos 3 2

= 0.1 2 0 + 2 0.1 0.2 2 0.1 sin( )

0.1 3 3 3 3

= 8.66 0.042 0.38 = 0.0163 \ 2

1 2

= + 2 + 2 sin cos

1 2

2 2

= 0.1 0 + 2 0.1 0.2 + 0.1 sin cos

0.1 3 3 3 3

= 0.84 + 0.0475 = 0.887\ 2

= 0.9\ 2

Any questions on the exam material?

= 10 = 20 = 2 \ = 0.2

33

Find when A has moved 4 meters. Take = 10 \ 2

Solution: FBD for A:

= =

= 0 = =

= = = 10

(0.2)(10) 2000

= = = =

FBD for B: = = 2 + = 2 + = 2

+ 20 = 2 + 20000

2 + 20000

=

10000

= = = = 1000

10 \ 2

20000

= = = = 2000

10 \ 2

2000

= = 2

1000 1000

2 + 20,000 2 20,000

= = + = + 10

2000 2000 2000 1000

Let L= , = 2 , = + 10

1000

= 2 = + 2 = 0 = 2

2 = 2 + 10 = 2 + 20 = 2

2 1 = 2 + 20 = = 18

, T = 1000L = 1000 18 = 18000

= 2 = 18 2 = 16 / 2

2 = . 2 + 2 . = (2 /)2 +2(16/ 2 ) *(4m)

= 4 2 / 2 +128 2 / 2 = 132 2 / 2 = 11.5/

35

EX:

Find min stopping distance S from a speed of (70 Km/h)

with constant deceleration if the box is not to slip ..

SOL: = 0.3

. = 70 Km/h a= constant =

= = =

2 2 , 2

. = 2 = 2 = 2

(70Km/h)2

S= = 64.2

20.39.81 / 2

36

37

= 40

= 0.4

= ?

(Neglect masses of pulleys)

Solution:

= 0

+ 2 30 = 0

= 2 30

= 40 Kg 9.81/ 2 2 100N 0.5

= 292.4

2 30 =

2 100 cos 30 (292.4)(0.4)

= = 1.406 / 2

40

Work and energy 38

Work:

,is angle between F and dr.

= , is force component along the displacement.

cos , is displacement component along the force.

= F does no work.

=

If is in the direction of the displacement

Work is +ve

If is in the opposite direction of the displacement

Work is -ve

Work is a scalar quantity

= F. dr = + + =

Spring-Mass System :-

Tension Compression

=

. = work done on the body by the spring.

[Work done is negative because the direction of force is opposite to the displacement]

. =

. = k [ () () ] = Area Under The Curve

Work done on the body by the spring would be positive if the directions of force and displacement are the

same (e.g: relaxing tension or compression).

F=k x is a linear static relationship which holds when the mass of the spring itself is relatively small and not

accounted for.

Work done on a particle:

Work done by

F during a finite

movement of

the particle from

1 to 2 is :

2 S2 Final point

1 S1

Initial point

Substitute F = m a

2 2

U1-2 = ma.dr =

1

m a tds

1

ds dv

Recall that v and a

dt dt

dv ds

v av a vdv = ads = atds

dt dt

2

v1

U1-2 = matds = mvdv= m(v 2-v12)

2

v2

1

Kinetic energy (T):

T=1

2

mv^ 2

from rest to velocity v . its a scalar and always

+ve !(why)?

V1-2=T2-T1= T

Work Energy equ. For a particle

total work done on the particle= corresponding

change in kinetic energy of the particle.

could be +ve , -ve , or zero.

with enrgy approach , no need to calculate

acceleration.

power (p):

its the time rate of doing work . its a scalar quantity

dv F .dr dr

p= F. p= F.V

dt dt dt

Efficiency (em):

Mechanical Efficiency (em) is the ratio of the work

done by a machine to the work done on the machine

Poutput

em= em 1

Pinput

ee is electrical efficiency electrical energy

loss

et is thermal efficiency thermal loss

e is total efficiency

e= em + ee + et

Example:-

A Satellite of mass (M) is orbiting the earth at A where h1= 500

Km, v1=30000 Km/h ,and h2= 1200 Km , Find v2 .

Solution:-

r2

V = -F.dr = -m.g.R dr/r

1-2

r1

r2

= -mgR(-1/r) =m.g. R(1/r2-1/r1)

r1

V1-2=T = 2mg R(1/r2-1/r1)= 0.5.m(V2-V1)

V2=V1 + 2g R(1/r2-1/r1)-

3

(30,000/3.6)+2(9.81).[(6,371)*10 ]

= 58.73*10 m/s

V2= 7663 m/s = 27,590 Km/h

Sketch in next slide

Potential Energy :-

1. Gravitational Potential Energy :- it is the work against the gravitational field to elevate the particle a distance

(h) above an arbitrary reference plane

Vg=m.g.h

Going from (h1) level to a higher level (h2)

Vg=mg(h2-h1) = mg h

The earths gravitational force is (mgR/r) , therefore the earths

gravitational potential energy Vg = - (mgR/r) (R:- earths radius ,

r:- distance from earth center)

the change in Vg from r1 to r2 is equal to

Vg = mgR(1/r1-1/r2)

2. Elastic Potential Energy :- Work done to deform an elastic body such

as a spring is stored in the body and is called its elastic potential energy (Ve)

x

Ve = kx.dx = 0.5 *k*x , For a deformation of x

0

Going from (h1) level to a higher level (h2)

Vg = mg(h2 h1) = mg h

The earths gravitational force is

energy is:

R: Earths Radius

r: Distance from Earths center

Vg: for large altitudes

The change in Vg from r1 to r2 is:

B) Elastic Potential Energy:

Work done to deform an elastic body such as

a spring is stored in the body and is called its

elastic potential energy Ve .

C) Work Energy Equation:

Recall that:

For gravitational and elastic energies the path

is not important. Only the end points (start

and end) are important.

In the mass-spring system it is hard to

evaluate U1-2 Therefore, it is easier to use the

previous equ.

where

spring

The net work done on the system by all forces

except gravitational and elastic forces equals the

change in the total mechanical energy of the

system

Example :

M= 10 Kg ;

and neglect friction;

and the spring

stiffness = 60 N/m

*******************

Spring is stretched

0.6 M in position A neglect pulley resistance at

B find V of the slider at C ?

**********************

Note : slider released from rest at A

ve = K(X2 X1) =

(60 N/m)([1.2m+0.6m] [0.6m] )= 86.4 J

Alternative work-energy equ:

150J=5V+58.9J+86.4J

V=0.974 m/s

Impulse And Momentum

The equs of impulse and momentum are obtained by integrating

the equ of motion wrt time ,whereas, the work-energy equ

were obtained by integrating the equ of motion wrt

displacement.

Impulse and momentum equs are used to solve problems in

which forces act over specified periods of time

Linear Impulse And Linear Momentum

47

F = mv = d/dt(mV) = G F = G

The resultant of all forces acting on a particle equals its time rate of change of linear

momentum unit of G is kg.m/s N.s

-The resultant force F and G directions coincide with the direction of acceleration

F , G and (V=a) have the same direction scalar equations of G

47

Fx = Gx Fy = Gy Fz = Gz

-To find the effect of F over a fiuire period of time , integrate F = G wrt time .

F = d/dt (G ) F dt = dG

F dt = dG = G1 G2 = G

G2 = G1 + F dt

G2 G2

= mV2

= mV2 G1 G1

= mV1

= mV1

-Linear Impulse is determined as the product of force and time . The total linear impulse on an m

equals the corresponding change in linear momentum of m .

-The scalar equations of G = F dt are :- 48

Fx dt = (mVx)2 - (mVx)1

independent

Fz dt = (mVz)2 - (mVz)1

48

G tot= =0 0 G1 = G2

Solution :-

a) Skip reverse direction when V=0

Assume that V=0 , at t=4 +t

Use Impulse-Momentum equation

1

0

dt = m

=150(0-(-4)) => 464 t = 1143 => t=2.46s

t1=4+2.46 = 6.46s

8

b) 0 = m => 2*0.5*4*600+2*(8-4)*600-150*9.81*cos 60*8

=150(v (-4)) =>

150 v =714 => V=4.76 m/s

8

1

= m => (2*600*(8-6.46)-150*9.81* cos 60 *(8-6.46)) =>

150(v-0)=150v {same result }

=

=m

Linear Momentum

The angular momentum

is defined as the

moment of the linear

momentum m

For particle P: =

Cross product

is a vector perpendicular

to plane A , right hand rule is

used to determine

the sense of

= = m (x + y + z)*( x + y + z)

= m [x x +y + z ]

= > = m

= ( ) = ( )

= ( )

0 = X =Xm =(Xm)

0 =X :: 0 = X + X

= X

Acceleration

The moment of all forces equals the rate of change of angular momentum:

Scalar components:

= = =

2 2

= = = = = 2 1 =

1 1

1 = 1 1 2 = 2 2

Angular impulse (N.m.s):

The total angular impulse equal the change in angular momentum:

2 2

2 = 1 + 2 1 =

1 1

Constant Acceleration

X- component equation:

=

=

For the figure in page (51)

2 2

1

. = H.2 H.1 1

= mv2 d2 mv1d1

If the resultant moment M.=0 during t M.=H.=0 H. = Constant

Angular momentum is conserved.

H. Could be conserved about one axis. But not about another axis.

For two particles a & b, with interactive forces F and F between them ;

Moment of unbalanced forces

M.=0 Ma =-Mb

The principle of conservation of angular momentum :

2

Ha = Ha2 Ha1 = 1

add the two equations to get

2

Hb = Hb2 Hb1 = 1

Ha + Hb =

2

1

+

2

1

= 0

(Ma = -Mb )

Ha + Hb = 0

H. = 0 H.1 = H.2

total

Kinetics of Particles

Special Applications

Impact

It refers to the collision between two bodies .

a) Direct central impact :

Before Impact

Maximum deformation

During impact

After Impact

Apply the law of conservation of linear momentum :

m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2

e=

(1) 0

m [ v1 (v0) ]

1 v0 v1

For Particle 1 = 0 = =

0

m [ v0 (v1) ]

1 v1 v0

Deformation time

Deformation period

0 0

m1 m2 Restoration period

FOR PARTICLE 2 : 1 2

0

. 2 2 0 2 0

= 0 = =

. 2 0 2 0 2

0

The change of momentum (and hence V) should be in the same direction as the impulse (and hence the force)

0 1 2 0 0 1 + 2 0 2 1

= (2) = = =

1 0 0 2 1 0 + 0 2 1 2

2 1

= =

1 2

If e = 0 inelastic(plastic) impact max energy loss (particles cling together after impact)

Coefficient of restitution :

(b) Oblique central Impact :

the initial and final velocities are not parallel

Impact force

( 1) n 1sin 1 ( 1) n 1cos 1

Given :

m 1,m 2,( 1) n ,( 1)t ,( 2) n ,( 2)t

Unknowns:

( 1 ) n ,( 1 )t ,( 2) n ,( 2 )t

Equs:

Conservation of momentum in the n-direction

m 1( 1) n m 2( 2) n m 1( 1 ) n m 2( 2) n

Conservation of momentum in the (t) direction

1 1 = 1 1

2 2 = 2 2

2 (1 ) * Note : Finally ( 1 & 2 )

e= are found using the velocity

2 (1 ) components.

Relative motion

* Its the consideration of a moving reference system*

= + /

= m *

= m * ( + / )

Problem 3/74

The cars of an amusements park have a speed ( A = 22m/s)

at A, and a speed ( B =12 m/s ) at B. If a ( 75-kg ) rider sits

on a spring scale (which registers the normal force exerted on

it). Determine the scale readings as the car passes points A and

B, assume that the persons arms and legs do not support

appreciable forces.

Solution :

At point A : At point B :

=m* =m*

75(9.81)N 75(9.81)N

222 122

75(9.81) = 75 + 75(9.81) = 75

t(s)

40 t(s)

20

= 1643 (N) = 195.8 (N)

NA NB

Note: static normal force equals the weight (75).(9.81) and it equals 736(N)

Problem 3/129 :

The ball is released from position A with a velocity of (3 m/s) and swings in a vertical plane at the bottom

position , the cord strikes the fixed bar at B , and the ball continues to swing in the dashed arc .

Calculate the velocity Vc of the ball as it passes position C.

Solution :

U1-2 = T ;

Vc = 12.92 ;

Vc = 3.59 m/s .

Problem 3/123:

A (40 Kg ) boy starts from rest at the bottom A of a 10 percent incline and increases his speed at a constant rate to 8

km/h as he passes B , 15m along the incline from A .

Determine his power output as he approaches B .

Solution :

VB = VA + 2a X

= 0 +2a X

F = ma

F 40 (9.81) sin (5.71) = 40 (0.1646)

F = 45.6 N

P = FV = 45.6 (2.22)

P = 101.4 W

Problem 3/150 :

The springs are undeformed in the position shown . If the 6 Kg collar is released from rest in the position where the lowest

spring is compressed 125 mm .

Determine the maximum compression XB of the upper spring .

Solution :

250mm

1750 N/m

TA + VA = TB + VB ;

0 + 0.5(KA.XA) = 0 + 0.5(KB.XB) + mg (XA+d+XB) ;

500mm 6Kg 150mm

0.5(8500)(0.125) = 0.5(1750)XB + 6 (9.81)(0.125+0.5-0.15+XB)

XB = 0.1766m = 176.6 mm

250mm 8400 N/m

Problem 3/216 :

The 3 Kg sphere moves in the x-y plane and has the indicated velocity at a particular instant .

Determine its:- (a) linear moment .

(b) angular momentum about point O.

(c) kinetic energy .

Solution :

(a) G = m v

= 3.4 (cos(45)i + sin (45)j )

= 8.49i 8.49j Kg.

(b) H = r * m v = r * G

= 2(cos(60)i + sin(60)j ) x (8.49i - 8.49j )

= 2 [ -4.25 k - 7.35 k ]

= -23.2 Kg.m/s

= 24 J

*Problem 3/250 *

The steel ball strikes the heavy steel plate with a velocity v.= 24 m/s at angle of 60* with the

horizontal . If the coefficient of restitution is e=0.8 . Compute the velocity v and its direction 0

with which the ball rebounds from the plate .

*Solution*

velocity .

*component.

In y - diriction

#chapter 4

(Kinetics of systems of particles)

*the principles applied to a single particle will be extended to a system of participles.

*A rigid body is defined as a solid system of particles , where in the distance between participles

remain unchanged .

Machines , land & aircraft , rockets , and space-craft.

*A non-rigid body could be a solid body which changes shape with time due to deformation . It

could also be a liquid or gas.

magnetic .

* external

mi

Pi * internal

G > Envelope of

mass system

ri

System

boundary

0

where

Applying Newtons 2nd law to the system :

F1 + F2 + F3 + . + f1 + f2 + f3 + .. = Acceleration of mi

+ =

External Internal

Since = =

Total mass Position vector of Position vector of

Mass of particle

the center of mass particle

= = for a mass system . Or equation of

motion of m . Or principle of motion of

Acceleration of the

center of mass of the the mass center

system

Component form:

= = =

Work Energy :

2

12 = 1

2

For the entire system : =1 12 = =1

Work done by internal forces is zero because it cancels out .

If gravity and elastic energy is included [non-rigid body]:

12 = + +

:kinetic energy .

: gravitational potential energy

: elastic potential energy .

+ +

E

E:chang in mechanical energy .

OR

12 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 2 + 2 + 2

Kinetic energy revisited :

From relative motion:

= +

: velocity of mass center

: velocity w. r. t G

since 2 = . 1

= 2

2

1 1

= . = ( + )( + )

2 2

2

1 1

= + ||2 +

2 2

= = = 0

= 0 : measured form mass center

1 2 1

= + ||2

2 2

1 1

= 2 + ||2

2 2

1 1

2: T of the mass center G

2

||2 : energy of particles relative to mass center.

2

Kinetics of system of particles cont

Impulse-Momentum

(a) Linear momentum (G)

total mass

time rate of change of G of the system

for external forces,Mo of internal forces cancel out

Ho about G (mass center) HG

Relative angular momentum because is used.

Since

Parallel=0

H about P (arbitrary point)

H P Pi mi ri ( P Pi ) mi ri

H P P mi ri Pi mi ri

H p P mi vi H G P mv H G

H p H G P mv

H G Pi mi ri

M M

P G P F

M H

P G P ma

When a point P whose acceleration is known

is used as a moment center ;

P

M (

H P ) relative P maP

M P ( H P ) rel If :- 1. aP 0

2. P 0

3. P and a P are parallel

Conservation of Energy and Momentum

If there is no energy loss due to friction or dissipation ; Then

theres No net change in Mech. Energy (E=0)

T+Vg+Ve=0 or

Law of conservation of dynamical energy

Since if =0

G1 = G2 principle of conservation of Linear Momentum for a mass system (no linear

Impulse)

since if

Principle of conservation of angular moment for General mass system (no angular Impulse)

EX

Rigid equiangular frame of negligible mass ,

resting on a horizontal surface

F is suddenly applied

Find

A- a0

B-

Solu

a) F1= 3m = a0 =

b) v = r H0= HG = 3r m v = 3 r m (r ) =3 m

Chapter - 5

Types of rigid-body plane motion

a) Rectilinear translation :

b) Curvilinear translation :

c) Fixed-axis rotation :

d) General plane motion :

translation + rotation

Rotation

A) Angular motion relations

d

w

dt

dw

w

dt

d d d 2

( ) 2

dt dt dt

d d

w dt

dt w

dw dw d dw

dt

dt w

wdw d d d

For constant :

w wo t

w w 2 ( o ) at t=0

2 2

o

1 2

o wot t

2

B) Rotation about a fixed axis

v rw

v 2 r 2 w2

an rw2 vw

r r

at r

In vector form :

v w r

an w ( w r )

at r

Example :-

A right-angled bar ; if :

4 rad s 2

2 rad s

Find :-

vA ?

aA ?

Solution :-

2k rad s

4 rad s 2 k

4k rad s 2

v r

v 2k 0.4i 0.3 j 0.6i 0.8 j m s

a A an at

an r

an k 0.6i 0.8 j 1.2i 1.6 j m s

2

at r

at 4k 0.4i 0.3 j 1.2i 1.6 j m s 2

a A 2.8i 0.4 j m s 2

v (0.6) 2 (0.8) 2 1 m s

a 2.8 0.4

2 2

2.83 m s 2

Absolute Motion

The use of geometric relations which define the

configuration of the body to derive velocities and

acceleration.

Example :-

Equilateral triangular plate ABC is controlled by hydraulic

cylinder D.

Find :-

1. v and a of the center of B

2. and of the edge CB

Solution:-

v A y 0.3 m s

a A y 0

From the geometry;

x2 y 2 b2

d

( x2 y 2 b2 )

dt

2 xx 2 yy 0

xx yy 0

yy y

x y

x x

d

( xx yy 0) xx xx yy y y xx x 2 yy y 2 0

dt

x 2 yy y 2 x 2 y 2 y

x y

x x x

But

y b sin

x b cos

y 0

y b sin

vB x y vA

x b cos

vB v A tan

(v A tan ) 2 0 v A2 v A2 tan 2 v A2

aB x

b cos b cos

v A (tan 1) v A (sec ) v A sec

2 2 2 2 2 3

aB

b cos b cos b

with

v A 0.3 m s

and

30

1

A 0.3 tan(30) 0.3( ) 0.173m / s ()

3

aB 0.693m / s 2 ()

0.2

y b sin( ) y b (cos )

y 0.3

w

A sec sec(30) 1.73rad / s (ccw )

b cos( ) b 0.2

A A A

w sec tan sec tan [ sec ]

b b b

A2 0.32

2 sec tan

2

2

sec 2 (30) tan(30)

b 0.2

0.32 2 1

( ) 1.73rad / s 2

(ccw )

0.22 3 3

Relative Velocity ( of rigid body )

A B A / B OR A / B A B

For a rigid body , A / B rw

In vector form A / B r w

Power screw

EX: The power screw gives the collar C a velocity of

Vc=0.25m/s find w of the arm when =30.

VB=Vc

VA=VB cos = 0.25 cos 30=0.217 m/s

V=wr w=v/r = =0.417 rad/ccw

Instantaneous Center of zero velocity

(ICZV)

It is a unique reference point which momentarily has a zero

velocity.

VA=w rA VB=w rB

VB= (rB/rA) VA

EX .. The wheel rolls to the right without slipping.

Locate the 1 czv ? find VA ?

Solu: A

0 = 200

30 = 3/

o

= = R=200m

3

= = = 10

0.3

= 0.32 + 0.22 2(0.3)(0.2)120

= 0.436

A

= = (10)(0.436) = 4.36

.3 m

c

No velocity point (1czv)

Relative Acceleration (of a rigid body)

aA

aB

(aA/B)n=

(aA/B)t =

EX:

6 3

= 2 , = 7 , = 7 , =?, =?

Solution:

= + (/ ) +(/ )

= +

3 3 3 2

= 100 + 100 = 100 100 / 2

7 9 7

= + = 0 + 2 2 75 = 300 2

6 6 6 2

= ( ) = 7 7 175 + 50 = (175 50)

7 2

= = 175 + 50 = 50 175

2

100 = 429 50

18.37 = 36.7 175

= 0.1050 ( ( )) & = 4.34

2 2

Motion Relative to Rotating Axes:

,,

[d = d ]

Wx=w

Wx=-w

=w =wx

and

Relative velocity:

rotating axes

vector between rotating and non rotating axes

This equation can be generalized for any vector quantity (V)

Transformation of a time derivative:

Relative

Acceleration

= + +

= + + +

= + + +

Using previous relations and manipulation:

= + + + 2 +

Coriolis Acceleration

acceleration of relative to

rotates axis

General vector expression for the absolute acceleration of a particle A in terms of its

acceleration measured relative to a moving coordinate system which rotates with an

angular velocity w and angular acceleration

Coriolis Acceleration

It equal 2 .

It represent the difference between the acceleration

of A as measured from non-rotating axes and from

rotating axes

If P is a coincident point with A on a rigid body. We can wrtie

the following relation:

= + 2 +

Example: Determine the velocity of a pin A (VA) and the velocity of A relative to the

rotating slot in OD (VA/P slop) .

Solution:

Origin is fixed at O (Vz=0)

2 equs 2 unknowns

Solution:

= 4 ;

= = 450 2 ;

= = 225 4 = 900 ;

= = 225 2 2 = 450 2 ;

/ = = 450 2 ;

Check :

/ =

450 2 = 900 450 2

900 = 2 450 2 = 900

Should add vectors and not magnitudes.

CHAPTER 16

Plane Kinetics Of Rigid Bodies

Force , Mass and Acceleration

=

Where :

=

1

4

G G

a

2

Kinetic Diagram

3

FBD Equivalent force-

couple system

y

1 w =

Position vector

G x

= ( )

2

4

2 =

2

3

=

Mass moment

= of inertia

=

= = =

( = )

Ch-6 plane kinetics of Rigid Bodies

Force, Mass and Acceleration

General Eqns of Motion

In terms of Ip (moment of inertia a bout p):

For a system of interconnected bodies:

Fixed-Axis Rotation

Q is called 'center of percussion.

Because

As the resultant force pass through it

General plane motion

f = ma

MG = I

MP = I+mad

Ex.

Metal hoop is released from rest find and time to move 3 m ,

Assume the hoop rolls without slipping.

solu

a = r

fx = max

mg sin 20 f = ma

N mg cos 20 = 0

Fr = mr^2 f= mr^2/r = mr

fy = may =0

MG = I

f = mg sin 20 ma m(g sin 20 a) = mr

a= g sin 20 r = g sin 20 a 2 a = g sin 20

a= (g sin 20)/2 = (9.81/2)(0.342) = 1.678 /s^2

= a/r = (1.678 m/s^2)/(150*10^-3 m) = 11.2 tad/s^2

x = (a t^2) t= (2x/a)^1/2 = (2(3m)/1.678 m/s^2)^1/2 = 1.89 s

Work and Energy./Rigid bodies.

Work Energy Relations

(a) Work of forces and couples:

U F .dr F cos .ds Force in the direction of displacement.

U M .d

Couple

1

2

2

Translation

T Iow

Fixed- axis rotation: 1

2

2

2

General plane Motion: T 1 mv 1 Iw

2

2 2 Angular velocity

of mass G Mass center G

Also T 12 I c w2

Moment of inertia about C (Instantaneous center of zero velocity).

work-energy equation: U '12 T Vg Ve

Work Kinetic Potential energy Elastic potential energy usually

Due to zero for rigid body.

gravity

(d) Power:

P F .V dV

dt

180

181

182

Fixed-axis Rotation

183

Parallel velocities

184

University of Jordan

Email: o.habahbeh@ju.edu.jo

hapapar@yahoo.com

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