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Global Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies Volume 4, Issue 3- 2015

ISSN (Online): 2277-6370 & ISSN (Print):2394-0921


M.Suudharshana1, S.Srivignesh2, Dr.R.Seyezhai3
1, 2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, India
Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, India.

Abstract: With increasing demand for data In this paper, the design of full-bridge DC-DC boost
management, there has been a spurt in energy converter which employs power devices switched at
consumption by data centres. Data centres consume high frequencies, seeks to implement the advantages of
about 3% of the global electricity produced and out of DC power distribution in a data center. Simulation is
this 10 to 15% is consumed by the servers itself. They used as a tool to obtain the waveforms of the proposed
prevalently use DC for power supply due to certain converter, which can be used as a graphical tool for
advantages such as improved efficiency, reduced size of analysis of voltage magnitudes and ripples in the
system which results in reduction of installation and waveform. To design the proposed converter,
maintenance cost. The energy efficiency of typical data consideration on converter topology, power devices
centres is less than 50%. To improve this scenario, this employed in the converter and switching loss of the
paper elucidates the design and simulation of a phase- devices has been carried out as a theoretical analysis.
shift full bridge isolated DC-DC converter for the High To verify the analysis, a simulation of the dc-dc
Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power supply system converter is performed and waveforms and simulation
in a data center. The proposed circuit is driven using results are discussed in this paper.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique at a
switching frequency of 25 kHz. Simulation studies are II. DESIGN OF A 350V/400V ISOLATED DC-DC
carried out using PSIM. The result is an isolated CONVERTER
350/400 DC-DC boost converter with an LC-filter The application of 350V/400V isolated dc-dc converter
designed to enhance the quality of the power output by in HVDC system data center is shown in Fig.1. An AC
minimizing ripple. source feeds power to IT racks of data center through a
Keywords: Full Bridge Converter, Switching loss power factor corrector (PFC) and 350V/400V isolated
dc-dc converter. In a data centres power supply
I. INTRODUCTION system, PFC and the dc-dc converter are combined and
The conventional use of AC in a data center has been called as rectifier unit. The role of the dc-dc converter
questioned recently due to the disadvantages associated is to present a galvanic isolation between power supply
with the use of AC. In a typical data center, power is and load and to regulate voltage in HVDC bus within a
delivered using alternating current (AC) that goes certain value. A number of rectifier units are paralleled
through multiple conversions between AC and direct in a rack of rectifier. The role of the dc-dc converter is
current (DC). Each conversion creates inefficiencies, to step up the voltage, provide galvanic isolation
which wastes energy and produces heat, thus between power supply and load and to regulate voltage
demanding higher efficiency of the centers cooling in HVDC bus within a certain value.
system. For every watt of power used to process data, The proposed converter circuit comprises of a full-
an average of approximately 0.9 watts is required to bridge inverter stage followed by the primary of the
support power conversion and between about 0.6 watts transformer as shown in Fig.2. The AC input voltage to
and 1 watt is needed to cool the power conversion the primary side of the transformer is given by the
equipment [1]. output of the inverter circuit. The primary voltage is
The energy efficiency of DC systems is a measurement stepped up and available across the secondary windings
of the end-to-end system efficiency, not merely a single of the transformer. This secondary voltage is the Ac
component within the system. Total energy savings can input required for the subsequent full-bridge diode
reach up to 30% for both mechanical and electrical rectifier. The diodes used in the rectifier circuit should
power savings. DC-powered servers exist in the same be capable of withstanding peak inverse voltages of
form factor as AC servers or can be built and operated magnitude 2Vinv/n, where Vinv is the primary voltage
from existing components with minimal effort. Thus, and n is the turns ratio of the step-up transformer. For
there are no technical obstacles to obtaining DC an input of 350V DC to the full-bridge inverter and a
equipment. DC-powered servers can provide the same duty cycle of 0.5, the diodes in the rectifier will be
level of functionality and computing performance when required to withstand voltages in the range of 600-800
compared to similarly configured and operating servers volts. Additionally, these diodes should have a low
containing AC power supplies [2]. forward voltage drop in order to be operated efficiently Page | 259
Global Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies Volume 4, Issue 3- 2015
ISSN (Online): 2277-6370 & ISSN (Print):2394-0921

at high switching frequencies. High switching III. SIMULATION RESULTS

frequencies are employed to decrease the volume of the The simulation of the proposed converter is simulated
magnetic components [3 -4]. using psim software and the simulation parameters are
The full-bridge diode rectifier stage in the converter tabulated below.
circuit is followed by an L-section LC filter. This LC Table 1: Simulation parameters
filter is used to reduce ripple in the output and improve NO RECTIFIER AND INVERTER
the quality of power output. The design equation used
1 Cool MOS 560V/21A
for the L section filter is
Ripple factor 2 Si-/ki/SBD 180V/30A
g = 1 / 6 2v LC2
3 SiC-SBD 1200V/2*15A
v = 2pf 4 Winding ratio 15:18
Here the ripple factor is assumed to be 2% and the 5 Leakage inductance(P) 2.5H
capacitor value is assumed to be 5F. The switching 6 Leakage inductance(S) 0.5H
frequency is 150 KHz so from this equation value of L SECTION FILTER
appropriate value of L is determined. This L section
filter helps in reducing the ripple value of the output 7 Filter Inductance 1H
voltage. 8 Filter Capacitance 5F
9 Input Voltage 350V
10 Input Current 4.62A
11 Input Voltage 1.617kW
The gating pulses for the Mos FET switch is shown in
Vg1 Vg2

Figure 1: Block diagram of power supply unit for Data

Center 1

0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
Time (ms)

Figure 3: Gating pattern for the switches

Figure 4 shows the inverter output voltage (transformer
primary voltage). The value of the transformer primary
voltage is found to be 350V.





Figure 2: Circuit diagram of a Full-bridge Phase Shift 0 0.05 0.1

Time (ms)
0.15 0.2 0.25

Figure 4: Output Voltage waveform of the transformer

primary Page | 260
Global Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies Volume 4, Issue 3- 2015
ISSN (Online): 2277-6370 & ISSN (Print):2394-0921

The stepped up voltage measured across the secondary sw

winding is 400V (peak value) as shown in Fig.5 1



400 0.6




0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
Time (s)

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Figure 8: Switching losses of Diode
Time (ms)

Figure 5: Output Voltage waveform of the transformer IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

secondary The power circuit comprises of an inverter and rectifier
The final rectified and filtered output is found out to be coupled through a 15:18 100 kHz transformers as
400V as shown in Fig.6 shown in Fig.9. Gate drive circuits are employed in the
Vout Vin given power circuit, for purposes of triggering the
power devices . The gate pulses are in the form of
400 square pulses generated by an IC555 timer operating in
the actable mode. A pulse train of 17kHz obtained at
300 pin 3 of the IC 555 is given as input to MCT2E
200 optocoupler IC as shown in Fig.10. The power supply
for the MCT2E is obtained using a voltage regulator IC.
100 This provides the required isolation between the power
0 circuit and the gate drive circuit. The opto coupler
output is then given as input to the gate terminal of the
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 power MOSFETs.
The input voltage to the inverter is 5V DC. The output
Time (ms) voltage obtained at the rectifier output terminals for the
Figure 6: Input and Output Voltage waveform above specified input was 6.4V DC which is shown in
Fig.11. Hence a boosted output is obtained. The
The switching losses of the MosFET and Diode are switches used in the power circuit are MOSFETs which
found to be 28.18W and 0.86W respectively (Fig.7 & are switched at 17kHz. The filter inductance and
Fig.8) capacitance used for the rectifier are 1uH and 5uF
Qsw respectively.






0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Time (s)

Figure 7: Switching losses of MOSFET

Figure 9: Working model of circuit Page | 261

Global Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies Volume 4, Issue 3- 2015
ISSN (Online): 2277-6370 & ISSN (Print):2394-0921

[3] U. Badstuebner, J. Biela, and J.W. Kolar: An
Optimized, 99 % Efficient, 5kW, Phase-Shift PWM
DC-DC Converter for Data Centers and Telecom
Applications, Power Electronics Conference
(IPEC), 2010 International
[4] J. W. Kolar, J. Biela, and U. Badstuebner, Impact
of power density maximization on efficiency of DC-
DC converter systems, in Proceedings of the 7th
Internatonal Conference on Power Electronics
(ICPE), October 2007, pp. 2332.
[5] Rejeki Simanjorang, H. Yamaguchi, H. Ohashi, K.
Nakao, T. Ninomiya, S. Abe, M. Kaga, A. Fukui:
Figure 10: Output of gate drive circuit High-Efficiency High-Power dc-dc Converter for
Energy and Space Saving of Power-Supply System
in a Data Center, Applied Power Electronics
Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2011 Twenty-
Sixth Annual IEEE
[6] Rejeki Simanjorang, Hiroshi Yamaguchi,
Hiromichi Ohashi, Takashi Takeda, Mikio
Yamazaki, H. Murai: Estimating Performance of
High Output Power Density 400/400V Isolated
DC/DC Converter with Hybrid Pair SJ-MOSFET
and SiC-SBD, in Proc. IEEE Intelec Conf.
2009M. Young, The Technical Writers Handbook.
Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.
[7] Rejeki Simanjorang, H Yamaguchi, H. Ohashi, T.
Takeda, M. Yamazaki and H. Murai: A High
Output Power Density 400/400V Isolated DC/DC
converter with Hybrid Pair of SJ-MOSFET and
SiC-SBD for Power Supply of Data Center, in
Proc. IEEE APEC Conf. 2010, pp 648-653
[8] Won-Yong Sung, Dong-Gyun Woo, Yun-Sung Kim,
Bon-Gi You, Byoung-Kuk Lee:Advanced
Simulation Model for Loss Analysis of Converters
in Electrici Vehicles, 2012 IEEE Vehicle Power
Figure 11: Input and Output voltage obtained for DC- and Propulsion Conference, Oct.9-12,2012,
DC Converter Seoul,Korea.

The design of a 350V/400V isolated dc-dc converter for
data center with HVDC system has been proposed
briefly in this paper. The design has been tested and
analysed through simulation and the suitability of the
devices used is analysed. The switching losses are
measured. A prototype has been developed and the
output obtained for a 5V input is used to implement the
boost operation. In future work, the proposed converter
shall be further investigated for application in data
centres with a different voltage requirement as well.

The authors wish to thank the SSN Management for
funding this project work. Page | 262