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ANATOMY OF NILEM FISH (Osteochilus vittatus)

AND CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus)

By :
Name : Dion Satrio Pambudi
NIM : B1B015018
Entourage : IV
Group :5
Asistant : Sumana

PRACTICAL REPORT ANIMALS STRUCTURE

MINISTRY OF RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION


JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY
FACULTY BIOLOGY
PURWOKERTO
2016
I. INTRODUCTION

A. Issue Background

Fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of


all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this
definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as
various extinct related groups. Most fish are ectothermic ("cold-blooded"), allowing
their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the
large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic
environments, from high mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon) to the abyssal and
even depths of the deepest oceans (e.g., gulpers and anglerfish). With 33,100
described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of
vertebrates (Eschmeyer, 2013).
Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food.
Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds
or in cages in the ocean. They are also caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets,
raised by fish keepers, and exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture
through the ages, religious symbols, and as the subjects of art, books and movies
(Eschmeyer, 2013).
From this practice we use nilem fish and catfish is to know the morphology
and anatomy of nilem fish (Ostechilus vittatus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus).
Students also must understanding the function and organ inside body fish. After know
the part and function students can compare organ nilem fish and catfish.

B. Obejctive

The purpose of the practice and lab activity this time is to know the morphology
and anatomy of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and nilem fish (Ostechilus vittatus).
Students also understanding the function and organ inside body both of this fish. After
know the part and function stundent can compare the organ of catfish and nilem fish.
II. MATERIAL AND METHOD

A. Material

Tool we used for this practice to observe nilem fish and catfish is scissor,
knife and tweezers. Material we used for this practice nilem fish and catfish.

B. Method

Method we used for this practice are :


1. Catfish and nilem fish injected anestesi or killed using scissor by pierce the
head
2. Cut using scissor and tweezers ventral body of the fish.
3. To cut body nilem fish after cutting from ventral body to Anus then we
continue cutting from anterior to radi branceos tegi.
4. And for catfish we cut using scissor and tweezers ventral body to Anus area.
5. After cutting, observe organ or part inside the body.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. Result

Figure 1. Morfology Nilem Fish (Ostechilus vittatus)

Details :

1. Dent nose 15. Anus


2. Cavum Oris 16. Porus Urogenitalis
3. Maxilla 17. Pinae Dorsalis
4. Mandibulla 18. Pinna Caudalis
5. Misae 19. Pinar Analis
6. Nostril 20. Pinna Ventralis
7. Organa Visus 21. Pinna Pectoralis
8. Preoperculum 22. Caput
9. Operculum 23. Bruncus
10. Interoperculum 24. Cauda
11. Suboperculum
12. Radii Brachiostegi
13. Membran Brachiostegi
14. Linea Lateralis
Figure 2. Anatomy of Nilem fish (Ostechilus vittatus)

Details :

1. Cavum Oris
2. Organon Visus
3. Gills
4. Cor
5. Prenephros
6. Mesonephros
7. Gonad
8. Vesica Metatoria
9. Intestine
10. HepatoPangcreas
Figure 3. Anatomy of Nilem fish (Ostechillus vittatus)

Details :

1. Ductus Cuveri 18. Intestine


2. Vena Hepatica 19. Vesica Felea
3. Sinus Venosus
4. Atrium
5. Ventricle
6. Bulbus Arteriosus
7. Artery Brachialis
8. Gills Filament
9. Pronepros
10. Mesonepros
11. Ureter
12. Oesophagus
13. Gonad
14. Ductus Sperma
15. Porus Genitalis
16. Anus
17. Vesica Metatoria
Figure 6. Anatomy of Nilem fish (Ostechilus vittatus)

Details :

1. Gills Filament
2. Septum Branchialis
3. Epibranchialis
4. Branhialis
5. Dent Gills
6. Filter Gills
Figure 4. Scale Anatomy of Nilem fish (Ostechilus vittatus)

Details :

1. Circular Line
2. Radiar Line
Figure 5. Anatomy of Nilem fish (Ostechilus vittatus)

Details :

1. Neural Archus
2. Dent Neural
3. Septum Transversal
4. Horizontal Septum
5. Hypaxial muscle
6. Haemal Archus
7. Dent Haemal
8. Vertebrae
9. Epaxial Muscle
10. Myomere
11. Myocommata
Figure 7. Anatomy of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Details :

1. Neural Archus
2. Vertebrate
3. Hemal Archus
4. Urostyle
5. Hyporalia
Figure 8. Morphology of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Details :

1. Caput
2. Brancus
3. Cauda
4. Barbel Superior
5. Barbel Inferior
6. Cavum Oris
7. Nostril
8. Organon Visus
9. Operculum
10. Linea Lateralis
11. Pinnae Dorsalis
12. Pinna Pectoral
13. Sting
14. Pinna Abdominalis
15. Pinna Analis
16. Pinnae Caudalis
Figure 9. Anatomy of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Details :

6. Oesophagus
7. Hepar
8. Cor
9. Gastrum
10. Pylorus
11. Intestine
12. Gonad
13. Ren
14. Anus
15. Porus Urogenitalis
16. Clasper
Figure 10. Anatomy Gills of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Details :

1. Arborescent
2. Gills
B. Disscusion

1. Nilem fish

Nilem fish (Osteochilus vittatus) is a kind of freshwater fish Cyprinidae tribal


members. Herbivorous fish is known to spread in Southeast Asia: Tonkin, Siam
(Thailand), the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Java. Nilem is farmed fish for
consumption, especially in Java. Now, nilem also introduced to several lakes in
Sulawesi (Affandi, 2004).
Nilem fish has medium-bodied fish, total length up to 260 mm. High body at the
beginning of the dorsal fin from 3 to 3.7 versus standard length (without caudal fin).
Head length from 4.1 to 4.5 versus the standard length. Rounded muzzle blunt, with
wrinkled lips. Maxillary barbels approximately along the diameter of the eye, rostral
barbels shorter. Early dorsal fin is approximately parallel to the lateral line to the 8th
or 9th; separated from the fontanel by 10-12 scales (Affandi, 2004).
Morphology of nila fish which has a flattened body shape toward compress with a
rectangular profile posteriorly. The position is located in the tip of the nose mouth
(terminal). Apparent on the tail fin of vertical lines and the dorsal fin is visible skew
lines lying. Characteristic of tilapia are vertical stripes of black on the tail fin, dorsal
and anal. At the caudal fin (tail) with a form to make are a reddish color and can be
used as an indication of the maturity of the gonads (Affandi, 2004).
The beginning of the digestive tract that is shaped like a pipe, containing mucus to
aid swallowing food. In marine fish, the esophagus plays a role in the absorption of
salt by passive diffusion causes seawater salt concentration are taken will decline when
in the stomach and intestines so as to facilitate the absorption of water by the rectum.
Gastric digestion segment whose diameter is relatively large when compared to other
digestive organs. Intestine ends and empties out as the anus. Is where the absorption
of nutrients. Cloaca is a space where bermuaranya gastrointestinal and urogenital tract.
The anus is the end of the digestive tract (Affandi, 2004).
CO2 and O2 gas exchange occurs when water diffusion of habitat that enter
through the mouth, pushed toward the gill area. O2 which many contained in the water
will be bound by the blood hemoglobin, while the CO2 contained in the blood will be
released into the water. The blood that had lots containing O2 and then circulated back
to all organs and so on (Affandi, 2004).
Body of freshwater fish more hipertonis of the environment so much water coming
through the surface of the body, as a result of fish is a little drink of water. And urine
produced many and watery. To get the water and salt from food, water enters by
osmosis through the surface of the body (Affandi, 2004).
In females have ovaries while the male fish have testicles. Both ovaries and testes
of fish are all located in the abdominal cavity next to the bladder dam alimentary canal.
State fish gonads determine the maturity of fish. Maturity fish has increased with the
rise in gonadal function. Tilapia generally has a pair of gonads, located in the posterior
part of the abdominal cavity at the bottom of the kidney (Affandi, 2004).

2. Catfish

Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels,
which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three
largest species, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, thewels catfish of
Eurasia and the of South America, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the
bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia
cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither having
scales (Wong, 2001).
Catfish have no scales; their bodies are often naked. In some species, the mucus-
covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its
skin. In some catfish, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes; some form of
body armor appears in various ways within the order. In loricarioids and in the Asian
genus Sisor, the armor is primarily made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates.
All catfish, except members of Malapteruridae (electric catfish), possess a strong,
hollow, bony leading spine-like ray on their dorsal and pectoral fins. As a defense,
these spines may be locked into place so that they stick outwards, which can inflict
severe wounds. In several species catfish can use these fin rays to deliver a
stinging protein if the fish is irritated (Wong, 2001).
Catfish have a body shape that is rounded and elongated. Her skin was slick, slimy,
but not flaky. Catfish have a relatively wide mouth size and nearly splitting half of the
width of the head. These whiskers have the function as a tool to sense when eating or
moving ordinary looking. As a tool for swimming, catfish also have three pieces of a
single fin, the anal fin, tail fin and dorsal fin. Catfish also mempuyai two paired fins,
the pelvic fins and pectoral fins. Besides used as a tool for swimming, fin also has a
function to maintain the body's balance of catfish when stationary or moving. At the
pectoral fins are pointed and loudly called patil used as a weapon (Prawirohartono,
1982).
Catfish have gills and respiratory form of the argorecent as a respirator
enhancements. Catfish breathing apparatus located at the back of the head. Gills in fish
is an important component in gas exchange. Gill arch is formed of cartilage hardens
with some gill filaments in it. Each gill filaments composed of many lamella which is
where gas exchange (Prawirohartono, 1982).
Digestion groceries physical or mechanical starting from the oral cavity, with
strong involvement of the teeth in the process of cutting and grinding food.
Furthermore, the material digested food in the stomach and intestines with their
movement / muscle contraction. Digestion physical or mechanical in this segment
occurs effectively for their activity of digestive fluids (Mahyuddin, 2011).
Catfish respiratory system in the form of gills and breathing apparatus are
arborescent. Gills of catfish have the parts and the breathing mechanism similar to
fish nilem. Catfish can live in the mud or in water that has minimal oxygen levels
because they have this additional breathing apparatus catfish can survive out of water
within a few hours if the circumstances surrounding air moist. Arborescent is a
membrane that overlapped and full dnegan blood capillaries. Capillary blood was
located at the top of the second and third gill arch. Arborescent has a shape similar to
a sponge (Kriswantoro, 1986).
Reproductive system in male catfish and female catfish different. Catfish
are a pair of male testes and appear on the exterior of the shape tapered red and the
genitals which serves to channel the sperm out of the body. Catfish females in the body
there is the ovary that contains the egg granules which will issued when the time to
reproduce. Catfish perform external fertilization, so the male fish fertilize the egg
outside the mother's body. Differences catfish males and females are in catfish male
genitals are located near the anus, brightly colored and tapered, while the female
genitalia appear rounded catfish (Kriswantoro, 1986).
IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion

Based on the results of the discussion can be concluded as follows : Fish is one
type of vertebrate animals are poikilotermis (cold-blooded), typically on the spine,
gills and fins as well as dependent on water as a medium for life. Fish have the ability
in the water to move by using fins to keep the balance of his body that is independent
of the flow or movement of water caused by wind direction. Of the overall vertebrates,
about 50,000 species of animals, fish are the largest group among other vertebrate
species or species that have the greatest around 25.988 kind consisting of 483 families
and 57 orders.

B. Suggestion

When lab activity, insufficient time given. so many students who still have
not finished working practice. as well as the lack of information to bring both diktat
to enter the lab. teaching atmosphere less conducive.
REFERENCE

Affandi, R., Sjafei, D.S., Rahardjo, M.F. dan Sulistiono. 2004. Fisiologi Ikan,
Pencernaan dan Penyerapan Makanan. Bogor : Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Eschmeyer, William N.; Fong, Jon David. 2013. Catalog of Fishes. California :
Academy of Sciences.
Helfman, G.; Collette, B.; Facey, D. 1997. The Diversity of Fishes (1st ed.). Wiley-
Blackwell.
Kriswantoro, M. 1986. Mengenal Ikan Air Tawar. Jakarta : Karya Bani.
Mahyuddin, Kholish. 2011. Panduan Lengkap Agribisnis Lele. Jakarta : Penebar
Swadaya.
Prawirohartono. 1982. Biologi Ikan. Jakarta : Erlanga.
Wong, Kate. 2001. How Nocturnal Catfish Stalk Their Prey. Amerika : Scientific
American.