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1. Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show two springs M and N.

Both springs are of the same material and same


wire thickness but have different spring constant.

DIAGRAM 10.1 DIAGRAM 10.2

(a) What is meant by elasticity? [1 mark]


(b) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the mass loaded by the spring, the diameter of the spring
and the extension of the spring. Relate the diameter of the spring and the extension of the spring to make
a deduction regarding the diameter of the spring and the spring constant. [5 marks]
(c) Explain how a spring is able to show the characteristics of elasticity. [4 marks]
(d) Diagram 10.3 shows an ordinary motorcycle.

Diagram 10.3
Using appropriate concepts in physics, suggest and explain suitable modifications or ways to enable the motorcycle to
be used as a vehicle by beach patrol rescue personnel. The vehicle must be able to travel on soft, sandy beaches and
provide maximum comfort for the passengers. Base your answer on the following aspects:

(i) number of tyres


(ii) material for motorcycle frame
(iii) elastic limit of the suspension spring
(iv) thread patterns on the tyres.
(v) material of the seat [10 marks]

2. Diagram 9.1 represents a 50 cent coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container.

(a) State the meaning of weight. [1 mark]


(b) Using Diagram 9.1, compare the mass, the time taken to fall, the acceleration of the coin and the leaf. Relate the
effect of mass on acceleration due to gravity to make a deduction regarding the physics concept involve .[5marks]
(c) A stone which is released from a tall building falls down in the air. During the fall, the stone experiences an energy
change.
(i) What is meant by energy? [1 mark]
(ii) Explain the energy changes in the stone. [3 marks]
(d) Diagram 9.2 shows a student trying to launch a water rocket fall. You are required to give some suggestion on
how to design a water rocket for a national competition. Using the knowledge on forces, motion and properties of
materials, explain the suggestion based on the following aspects:
(i) Material used
(ii) Shape of the rocket
(iii) Angle of launching
(iv) Volume of water in the rocket
(v) Added structure for the motion of the rocket. [10 marks]

3)

(c) Based on the physical principle above, you are required to design a roller skate track. Using appropriate physics
concept, explain the design of the roller skate track so that it can be used to oscillate skate board continuously.
Your answer should include the following aspects:
(i) shape of the track
(ii) slope of the track
(iii) surface of the track
(iv) characteristics of material used to make the track
(iv) safety equipment/attire needed by athlete [10 marks]
4)

5)
Water storage
tank

(c) Diagarm above shows a water storage tank used to suppply water to houses. State the modification that
can be done to make the water supply system more efficient and safe. Your modification should the
following aspects:
(i) there is sufficient amount of water supply for all the houses
(ii) position of water storage tank
(iii) design of the water storage tank
(iv) material use to make the pipe (10 marks)

6(a) Figure 9.1 and Figure 9.2 show a fisherman pulling out fishing net out of the water.

Figure 9.2

(ii) Based on Figure 9.1 and Figure 9.2, compare the volume of fishing net submerge, the weight of the catch and
the force needed to pull the fishing net. Relate the upthrust with the volume of object submerge to make a
deduction regarding upthrust and the volume of liquid displaced. [5 marks]
(b) Explain how a submarine at the surface able to submerge. [4 marks]
(c) Diagarm below shows a hot air ballon used to carry two passengers.

Suggest modification can be done to the balloon so that it can carry more passengers and move up faster. Your
modification should include the following aspects:
(i) size of balloon
(ii) material used to make the balloon
(iii) number of burners.
(iv) type of gas can be used (10 marks)

7. Diagram 9.1 shows an ice cube melting when heat is absorbed from the surrounding. Diagram 9.2
shows a kettle of water boiling when heat is absorbed from the fire.
DIAGRAM 9.1 DIAGRAM 9.2

(a) What is meant by temperature? [1 mark]


(b) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, name the process that take place in both situations, the usage of
heat absorbed in both processes and changes in temperature for both processes.Relate the processes
with the type of heat needed to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks]
(c) (i) Your body sweats when you are feeling hot. How does sweating helps to cooldown your body?
[2 marks]
(ii) Explain why a scald from steam is more serious than the one from boiling water?
[2 marks]
(d) The figure 9.3 shows a container used for keeping ice

Figure 9.3
State the modification that can be done to the container so that is able to keep the ice for a long time
and can be move from one place to another, based on the following as aspect
(i) size of the container
(i) characteristics of material used
(ii) colour of the container [ 10 marks ]
8
[ 1 marks ]
(b) Based on Diagarm 9.1 and 9.2, compare the time taken, the rate of heat supply and the physical state of
matter at AB. Relate
(i) the heat supplied and the temperature change at AB
(ii)the temperature change and the change in physical state of mattter [ 5 marks ]
(c) Explain how thermometer is used to determine the temperature of a person having fever. [ 4 marks ]
(d) Diagram 2 shows a simple solar waterheating system. Energy from the sun falls on the solar panel.
Water is pumped around the system so that a store of hot water is made available in the tank.

DIAGRAM 2
Using suitable physics concepts, explain the required modification needed in designing an efficient
solar water-heating system. The modification should include the following aspects:
(i) pipes design
(ii) material used to make the pipe
(iii) heat absorption
(iv) positon of the water tank [10 marks]

9
(d) Diagram 10.3 shows a car engine radiator

You are required to give some suggestions to make the raiator more efficient. Your suggestions should
be based on the following aspects:
(i) size of the tank
(ii) characteristics of the cooling liquid
(iii) size of the fan
(iv) number of fin blades [10 marks]

10
(d) Diagram below shows a telescope

By using two prism and a telescope in, suggest modification that can be done to make a binocular. In your
explanation,
(i) draw the arrangement of the prisms and lenses draw ray diagram to explain how the image form
(ii) state two advantages using binocular compared to telescope when observing far object on the
ground. [10 marks]

11)
[10 marks]

12. Diagram 10.1 and 10.2 show vibrations produced by plucking the string guitar of different thickness.A
microphone is used to detect the sound waves of each guitar string. The traces displayed on the
oscilloscopes are shown in diagrams 10.1 and 10.2.

(a) State what type of wave is sound wave. [ 1 mark]


(b) Using Diagram 10.1 and 10.2, compare the diameter of guitar string, amplitude of wave and the number
of oscillations. State the relationship between frequency of sound wave and diameter of the string. State
the relationship between the frequency and the pitch of the sound wave. [ 5 marks]
(c) Diagram 10.3 shows a sound wave produced by vibration of a tuning fork. The sound wave travels in
air.With the help of Diagram 10.3, explain how the sound wave is produced. [4 marks]

(d) Diagram 10.4 shows a radar system at an airport. Signals are transmitted from the radar system to
determine the position of an airplane.

Using suitable physics concepts, explain the required modification needed in desigining an efficient radar system. The
modification should include the following aspects
(i) diamater of parabolic discs
(ii) material used to make the discs
(iii) distance of receiver from the center of the parabolic discs
(iv) type of wave is transmitted
(v) height of parabolic discs [10 marks]

13)
(iv) Explain how the node and antinode line is produce (3 marks)
(b) As an engineer your asked to modify a boat that can detect the depth of the seabed. Your modification
should include the following aspects:
(i) instrument needed to determine the depth of the sea
(ii) type of wave used (6 marks)
(c) How the depth of seabed is determine. (4 marks)

14) Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show two identical resistors which has resistance R connected to the ammeters,
voltmeters, switches and batteries with different ways.

Diagram 10.1 Diagram 10.2


(a)What is meant by current? [1 mark]
(b)With reference to Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the type of circuit connections, the reading of
ammeters, the reading of voltmeters and the effective resistance of the circuits. Relate the current flows in a circuit
with the effective
Fuse boxresistance to make a deduction regarding the relationship between type of a circuit
connection and the effective resistance. To an To an [6 marks]
(c) One identical resistor is connected parallel to the resistors in
airDiagram 10.2. Explain
conditioner whatkettle
electric happens to the reading of
ammeter and voltmeter.
L [3 marks]
(d) Diagram 10.3 shows a cabin wiring consisting of a filament lamp, an air conditioner and an electric kettle. The
Filament lamp
electric supply enters the cabin via meter and fuse box.
N
To an
To an
electric kettle
E air conditioner
L Live wire
N Neutral wire
E Earth wire
Using your knowledge on electricity and Diagram 10.3, suggest and explain suitable designs or ways to
(i) make the cabin wiring more effective
(ii) protect electric appliances from damage
(iii) prevent electric shock
(iv) increase energy efficiency. [10 marks]

15) Figure 10.1(a) and Figure 10.1(b) show photographs of two electric circuits. Each circuit contains two
identical new dry cells marked 1.5 V, a 2 ohm resistor and an ammeter. Figure 10.2(a) and Figure 10.2(b)
show the reading of the ammeter for each circuit respectively.

ammeter
resistor ammeter

resistor

Dry cells

Dry cells

(a) (b)
FIGURE10.1

(a) (b)
FIGURE 10.2
(a) State the energy transformations that take place in the dry cell. [1 mark]
(b) Observe Figure 10.1 and Figure 10.2. Compare the arrangement of dry cells in the circuit, the voltage
supplied and the reading of the ammeter.
State the relationship between the energy transferred to flow the electric charges around the circuit and
(i) the voltage supplied
(ii) the current flowing around the circuit [5 marks]
(c) Explain why it is more dangerous to touch the live wire of a mains supply, rather than the neutral wire.
[4 marks]
(d) You asked to give some suggestion to make a heating coil used in an electric kettle. State modification
that can be done to the heater so that it can heat up the water more efficiently. Your modification should
include the following aspects
(i) shape of the heater
(ii) position of the heater inside the kettle
(ii) characteristics of material of heating material [10 marks]
16

Soft iron armature

Contact screw
17

(a) What is meant by induce current. [1 marks]


(b) Based on Diagram 11.1 and Diagram 11.2, compare the numbers of turns of solenoid, the number of magnet and the
angle of deflection of the galvanometer. State the relationship between number of magnet and strength of magnet to
make a deduction regarding strength of magnet and induce current. [5 marks]
(c) Explain the working principle of a transformer. [4 marks]
(d)

18

(a). What is the meaning of radioactivity ? [1 mark]


(b). Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the initial activity of the sources, the time interval for the
activity to be halved and the rate of decay of the radioactives. [3 marks]
(c). State the relationship between:
(i) the rate of decay of the radioactives and the time of interval for the radioactive to be halved.
(ii) half life and the rate of decay of the radioactives. [2 marks]
(d) Uranium-238 decays to Thorium (Th) by emitting an alpha particle.
[2 marks]
(ii) What happens to the proton number and neutron number of U-238 after the decay process? [2 marks]
(e) Diagram 10.3 shows an underground water pipe which has a leak.
Water pipe / Paip air Location of leakage
Kedudukan kebocoran

1m

DIAGRAM 10.3
(i) Explain how a radioactive substance can be used to detect the location of the leakage. [4 marks]
(ii) Radioactive substances are hazardous and must be used with care. In using a radioactive substance to detect
the leakage, suggest how the substance should be chosen by considering the following aspects:
- the half-life of the substance,
- the types of radiation emitted by the substance,
- the type of detector to be used. [6 marks]
19
20)
21)
22) Diagram 11.1 below shows a simple hydraulic brake system in a car.

DIAGRAM 11.1

Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of the brake system consists of type of liquid brake line, size of pistons and
type of brake either disc brake or drum brake.
i) What is meant by Pascals Principle? [1mark]
ii) You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the materials in Table 11.1 which could be used to make
an efficient brake hydraulic system. Justify your choice. [10 marks]

Brake Type of Thickness The ratio of cross sectional area for wheel and Type of brake
System liquid of brake master piston.
line

P Oil Thin High Drum

Q Oil Thick Low Disc

R Water Thin High Drum

S Oil Thick High Disc

T Water Thick Low Drum

TABLE 11.1
b) Diagram 11.2 shows a simple hydraulic machine used for lifting heavy loads such as cars in a garag e. It
consists of two pistons, X and Y of cross sectional area 0.02 m 2 and 0.28 m2, respectively.When piston X is
pressed down by applying a force of 15 N, a large force is produced on pistonY.

DIAGRAM 11.2
i) Explain briefly how the load can be lifted up when the small piston X is pressed down. [4marks]
ii) Calculate the pressure exerted on the liquid by piston X. [1 mark]
iii) Calculate the maximum load that can be lifted by piston Y. [2 marks]
iv) If piston X is depressed downwards by a distance of 21 cm, what is the distance moved by piston Y?
[2mark]
23) Diagram 11.1 shows a small aircraft. Diagram 11.2 shows a cross section of the aircrafts wings..

DIAGRAM 11.1 DIAGRAM 11.2

(a) Name the shape of the cross sectional of the aircraft wings. [1 mark]
(b) The aircraft obtains its lift when flying due to a difference in pressure of the air between the upper and bottom sides
of the wings.
(i)Explain how lift force is produced. [3 mark]
(ii)Name the principle involved in your answer to(b)(i) [1 mark]

Table 11 shows characteristic of four design of the aircraft wings.


Design Shape of cross section of Area of Density of wing Surface of wing
2
wing wing /m material/Kgm-3

P 40.0 2100 smooth

Q 41.5 2300 rough

R
42.5 2000 rough

S 38.2 2050 smooth


TABLE 11
(c) You are requested to choose a suitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. By referring to the
information given in Table 11, explain the suitability of each characteristic and suggest the most suitable
wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. [10 marks]
(d)An aircraft installation department chooses wing P to be installed with its aircrafts which has maximum
mass 800 kg.
(i) If the air pressure below the wing is more than the air pressure above the wing by 500 N m-2,
calculate the force that exerted from below of the wing. [2 marks]

(ii) Determine the resultant force and its direction that exerted to the wing of the aircraft. [2 marks]
(iii) Calculate the vertical acceleration of the aircraft. [1 mark]

24)
25)
26. Diagram 10.1 shows an apparatus which is used to determine the density of a liquid. These apparatus is an
application of Archimedes Principle.

DIAGRAM 10.1

(a) State the Archimedes Principle. [1 mark]

Rod A
Rod B

Water Water

DIAGRAM 10.2

(b) Diagram 10.2 shows rod A and rod B of different densities are immersed in water. Explain why the
rods float in water and why B sinks deeper than A. [4 marks]
(c) You are required to build a hydrometer that can be used to measure densities of concentrated
acids. Table 10.3 shows the characteristics of 4 types of hydrometers L, M, N and O.

Hydrometer Type of material Diameter of Density of Diameter of bottom bulb/ cm


of hydrometer capillary tube/ cm shots/ kgm-3

L Plastic 0.5 1000 1.0


M Plastic 2.0 1300 3.0
N Glass 0.5 9800 3.0
O Glass 2.0 8000 1.0
TABLE 11.1
Based on the table 11.1;
(i) Explain the suitable characteristics of the hydrometer so that it can be used to measure different
densities of acids.
(ii) Decide which hydrometer is most suitable and give reasons. [10 marks]
(d) Diagram 11.3 shows a boat which has a safety limit line, L. The volume of the boat under the line L
is 4 m3. The mass of the boat is 250 kg. [density of water : 1000 kgm-3]

L DIAGRAM 11.3

(i) Calculate the volume of water displaced by the boat.

(ii) What is the maximum load that can be carried safely by the boat? [ 5 marks]
27. Diagram 10 .1 shows a simple step up transformer is connected to a bulb.
Power supply
a.c , 12 V

Secondary Primary coil


coil

Bulb 24V,36 W

DIAGRAM 10.1

a) (i) Name the type of current induced in the secondary coil. [ 1 mark]
(ii) Describe how current is induced in secondary coil. [3 marks]
(iii) What happen to the brightness of bulb if the number of turn in secondary is reduce ? [ 1 mark]

b) The number of turns in secondary coil in Diagram 11.1 is 100 turns and the current in the primary coil is 5 A.
(i) Calculate the number of turns on the primary coil. [ 2 marks]
(ii) What is the efficiency of the transformer. [2 marks]
c) ) State one type of energy being lost in when a transformer is functions [ 1 mark]
d) You are asked to investigate the features of transformer and the design of the materials are being used. Explain the
suitable of each features in Diagram 5.2 and then determine the most suitable transformer to be used. Give a reason
for your choice.

core
C shape aluminium Thin copper wire is
core insulated
Aluminium core not Wound the secondary coil
P primer laminated beside the primary coil
coil

secondary coil

Primer coil
Core U shape aluminium Thin copper wire is
core insulated
Aluminium core not Wound the secondary coil
laminated on top of the primary coil
Q

secondary
coil

primary coil soft iron core thick copper wire is


core
Thin sheet of soft insulated
iron core is laminated Wound the secondary coil
on top of the primary coil
R

secondary
coil

Primer coil soft iron core Thick copper wire is


core
soft iron core not insulated
laminated Wound the secondary coil
on top of the primary coil
S
secondary
coil
soft iron core Thin copper wire is
secondary Thin sheets of soft insulated
coil iron core is laminated Wound the secondary coil
T opposite to primary coil

primary coil

28. Diagram 12.1 shows a water detection system designed by a student to detect the level of water in a storage
tank so that an outlet valve can be opened automatically when the water level is too high.
The radioactive source and detector are used to detect the level of water in the tank. The radioactive source
contains a radioisotope.
(a) What is the meaning of radioisotope? [1 mark]
(b) Explain how the outlet valve opens when the water level is too high. [4 marks]
(c) Diagram 12.2 shows the properties of five radioisotopes.
You are required to determine the most suitable radioisotope that can be used as the radioactive source in the
water detection system. Study the properties of all the five radioisotopes based on the following aspects:
(i) Initial activity. [2 marks]
(ii) Type of radioactive emission. [2 marks]
(iii) Half life of the radioisotope. [2 marks]
(iv) The physical state of the radioisotope. [2 marks]
Explain the suitability of each property and then determine the most suitable radioisotope.Give the reasons for
your choice. [2 marks]

29. Diagram 12.1 shows a Geiger Muller tube (GM tube) and a rate meter which are used to detect radioactive radiation.

(a) What is meant by radioactivity?


[1 mark]
(b) Explain how the GM tube is able to detect the radioactive radiation.
[4 marks]
(c) Radioactive material is also used in smoke detectors. You are assigned to study the
characteristics of some radioactive materials and the type of logic gates used in the smoke
detector shown in Table 12.1. Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the radioactive
materials and the type of logic gates used and determine the most suitable smoke detector.
Give reasons for your choices. [10 marks]
(d) (i) Copy and complete the equation for the radioactive decay shown below by writing the appropriate numbers in the
boxes provided.

Mass of Th-230 = 230.0331 u


Mass of Ra-226 = 226.0254 u
Mass of He-4 = 4.0026 u
[1 u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg ]
[speed of light,c = 3 x 108 m s-1 ]
(ii) Calculate the mass defect in kg. [2 marks]
(iii) Calculate the energy released. [2 marks]