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2598 | CHEN ET AL.

4 | CONCLUSION
How to cite this article: Oh J, Jang J, Hong S. A fully
A fully integrated CMOS W-band pulse compression radar integrated W-band pulse compression radar CMOS
transceiver has been presented. It includes a high perform- transceiver. Microw Opt Technol Lett. 2017;59:2594
ance transmitter and a UWB receiver with 65-dB dynamic 2598. https://doi.org/10.1002/mop.30779
range, which consists of a 39.5 GHz VCO, a novel sub-
harmonic pumped pulse former, and a 3.75 GHz PN code Received: 18 March 2017
generator. The second-harmonic coupled VCOs are intro- DOI: 10.1002/mop.30784
duced to obtain a high power combining efficiency, thus
achieving low phase noise. A novel transformer-based power
divider can distribute a LO signal to the transmitter and the Gain enhancement of a compact
receiver with high isolation between outputs of more than 20
dB. The radar module with the proposed transceiver IC and
2.4-GHz meander antenna
waveguide transitions can measure multiple targets 6.5-cm using inductive feed and
apart using a 7.5 GHz bandwidth signal with a 14.5 dBm
peak output power. capacitive load
Ja-Hao Chen1 | Chun-Kai Yang2 |
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Chen-Yang Cheng3 | Cheng-Chi Yu1 |
The authors would like to thank the Integrated Circuit Design
Education Center (IDEC) for their support in computer-aided Cheng-Hsing Hsu2
design (CAD) tools. This work was supported by the Center 1
Department of Communication Engineering, Feng Chia University,
for Integrated Smart Sensors funded by the Ministry of Sci- Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China
ence, ICT & Future Planning as Global Frontier Project 2
Department of Electrical Engineering, National United University,
(CISS-2012M3A6A6054195) and by the Korea Government Miao-Li, Taiwan 36063, Republic of China
(MEST) under National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) 3
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Taipei
Grant 2014R1A2A1A01004954. University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 10608, Republic of China

Correspondence
R EF ERE NC ES Ja-Hao Chen, Department of Communication Engineering, Feng Chia
University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.
[1] Ng HJ, Feger R, Stelzer A. A fully-integrated 77-GHz UWB
Email: chiahaoc@fcu.edu.tw
pseudo-random noise radar transceiver with a programmable
sequence generator in SiGe technology. IEEE Trans Circuit Syst Funding information
I. 2014;61:24442455. Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under Project MOST,
[2] Guermandi D, Shi Q, Medra A, et al. A 79 GHz binary phase- Grant number: 105-2622-E-035-011-CC3
modulated continuous-wave radar transceiver with TX-to-RX
spillover cancellation in 28 nm CMOS. In: IEEE ISSC Confer- Abstract
ence Technical Digest; 2015:354356; San Francisco, CA.
In this study, a compact printed meander antenna with
[3] Trotta S, Knapp H, Dibra D, et al. A 79 GHz SiGe-bipolar
enhanced peak gain for 2.4-GHz applications was investi-
spread-spectrum TX for automotive radar. In: IEEE ISSC Confer-
ence Technical Digest; 2007:430431; San Francisco, CA.
gated. Inductive feed and capacitive load techniques were used
in the meander antennas design to optimize peak gain per-
[4] Oh J, Jang J, Kim C, Hong S. A W-band 4-GHz bandwidth phase-
modulated pulse compression radar transmitter in 65-nm CMOS.
formance. A measured maximum peak gain of 4.49 dBi, input
IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 2015;63:26092608. reflection coefficient of 215 dB, and fractional bandwidth of
[5] Gierkink S, Levantino S, Frye R, Samori C, Boccuzzi V. A low-
7.23% were achieved using a 1.6-mm-thick FR4 substrate.
phase-noise 5 GHz CMOS quadrature VCO using superharmonic The low-profile antenna occupied an area of 26 3 15.6 mm2.
coupling. IEEE J Solid-State Circuit. 2003;38:11481154. The proposed antenna can be implemented in standard printed
[6] Jang J, Oh J, Kim C, Hong S. A 79-GHz adaptive-gain and low- circuit board processes without any lumped elements or via
noise UWB radar receiver front-end in 65-nm CMOS. IEEE holes, and it introduces very little fabrication complexity.
Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 2016;64:859867.
[7] Jameson S, Socher E. A wide-band CMOS to waveguide transi- KEYWORDS

tion at mm-wave frequencies with wire-bonds. IEEE Trans capacitive load, high gain, inductive feed, meander antenna, small size
Microwave Theory Tech. 2015;63:27412750.
CHEN ET AL.
| 2599

F I G U R E 2 Configuration of the meander antenna with an inductive


feed and a capacitive load

F I G U R E 1 (A) Configuration of meander line. (B) Lumped-model


equivalent circuit of the meander antenna
under the patch,6 and the use of reflector planes to enhance
gain.7 The use of the substrate-integrated waveguide to
reduce antenna size and to realize the high gain performance
1 | INTRODUCTION
is investigated in Ref. [8]. However, these methods increase
Electronic devices used in wireless communication systems both the fabrication complexity and the difficulty of integra-
tion with wireless communication systems.
require low-cost fabrication and must be compact. A com-
Small antennas can easily generate leakage, which
mon method for antenna size reduction is a folded line, such
induces the disadvantages associated with low gain charac-
as a meander line.1 However, a reduction in antenna size
teristics.9 The problems of leakage current can be addressed
also reduces efficiency, gain, and fractional bandwidth per-
through a capacitive feed (C-feed) technique.10 The C-feed
formance, which is unfavorable for wireless communication
technique improves gain performances but increases fabrica-
applications.2
tion complexity and cost. The microstrip-fed antenna11 is
Enhancing the gain of an antenna increases transmission
proposed to compact mobile transceivers; however, the
distance and reduces power consumption in the transmitter,
antenna gain is not optimized well.
and numerous methods have been proposed for increasing
This article describes a method that enhances the peak
antenna gain. For example, array antennas are a common
gain of a compact meander antenna of size 26 3 15.6 mm2
approach to increase gain;3 however, these antennas are not
with an inductive feed (L-feed) and a capacitive load
compact. The resonant method4 uses an additional super-
(C-load) on a 1.6-mm-thick FR4 substrate. The measured peak
strate to enhance gain by reducing parasitic elements. Other
gain of the implemented antenna was 4.49 dBi, and the input
methods for increasing gain include the electromagnetic
reflection coefficient was 215 dB at the resonant frequency of
bandgap,5 the use of an air gap between the patch and
2.48 GHz. The proposed antenna is compact and low profile,
ground to reduce the effective permittivity of the cavity
and can be fabricated using a standard printed circuit board
(PCB) manufacturing process, allowing easy integration with
T A BL E 1 Peak gain comparison of meander antennas with vari- modern 2.4-GHz wireless communication systems.
ous sizes

2 | DESIGN DESCRIPTION

The meander antenna is widely used because the meander


Resonating at line shortens the antenna length for a specific resonant fre-
2.4 GHz and quency, making it compact. Figure 1A shows the configura-
a 5 0.6, b 5 1
tion of a meander line; its resonant frequency is calculated
(unit mm) N 5 10 N56 N 5 3.5 N52
using the following equation:12
Configuration w57 w 5 10.5 w 5 14 w 5 17.5          
c 2c 2l 8l
p log p 21 5Nwlog 1l log 21
Parameters l 5 31.4 l 5 18.6 l 5 10.6 l 5 5.8 4f Er bf Er Nb b
Return loss (dB) 12.4 13.3 10.5 12.2 (1)

Gain (dBi) 25.56 28.92 210.4 28.41 where f is the antennas resonant frequency, c is the speed of
light (3 3 108 m s21), w is the antenna width, l is the
2600 | CHEN ET AL.

gain of the antenna with w 5 7 mm and l 5 31.4 mm was


25.56 dBi. This performance is better than that of the other
antennas in Table 1; hence, this meander configuration is
selected for further study and performance improvement.
The proposed meander antenna comprises three parts:
meander resonator, L-feed, and C-load (dashed lines in
Figure 2). The configuration parameters of the meander
resonator are N 5 3.5, w 5 7 mm, l 5 10.6 mm,
a 5 0.6 mm, and b 5 1 mm, and its simulated input reflec-
tion coefficient and peak gain response are indicated in
Figure 3 by the black solid line and black dash line, respec-
tively. The input reflection coefficient establishes that the
F I G U R E 3 Input reflection coefficient and peak gain frequency resonant frequency is 4.83 GHz and that the gain is 28.8
response of the meander resonator with various L-feed lengths (k 5 0, 10, dBi at the resonant frequency. The meander resonator is
20, and 40 mm). [Color figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com] connected to an L-feed, as shown in the inset of Figure 3,
and the input reflection coefficient and peak gain variations
antenna length, a is the pitch, b is the conductor diameter, are evaluated for various L-feed lengths. As the length (k)
N is the number of fold turns, and Er is the dielectric constant of the L-feed increases, the resonant frequency of the
of the substrate. Figure 1B illustrates the lumped-model meander line decreases and its peak gain increases, as indi-
equivalent circuit of the meander antenna.13 The lump com- cated by the dashed circles and triangles in Figure 3. The
ponents LA and CB are the inductances and the capacitances increasing the length of the L-feed line varies the current
of the line segments, and Lb and Cb are the inductances and distribution and decreases resonant frequency. Moreover,
the capacitances of the bend segments, respectively. COS is the line separates the resonator and ground, which reduces
the open-circuit capacitance at the end of the meander signal coupling. In addition, the L-feed improves imped-
antenna. To understand the peak gain characteristic of the ance matching characteristics. The effects of the L-feed are
meander antenna, the meander line antennas are calculated similar to those of the C-feed technique14 in that it reduces
based on the Equation 1 with the FR4 substrate material the capacitor coupling between the antenna and the ground
(Er 5 4.8), and the Keysight ADS simulator14 is used to mod- and attains impedance matching characteristics to enhance
ify and estimate the peak gain of the meander antennas of the antenna peak gain. Figure 4 shows the total field radia-
various configurations at 2.4 GHz as listed in Table 1. Table tion pattern variations of the meander antenna at its reso-
1 lists the configuration parameters of the meander antennas nant frequency for various lengths of the L-feed. For
and their input reflection coefficient and peak gain perform- comparing with the maximum field strengths with various
ances. The peak gains of the meander antennas with various lengths of the L-feed, Figure 4A shows the xy-plane radia-
size parameters are all less than 25 dBi (Table 1). The peak tion patterns with u 5 798, and Figure 4B,C show xz-plane

FIGURE 4 (A) xy plane (u 5 798), (B) xz pane, and (C) yz plane total fields patterns at resonant frequency with various L-feed lengths (k 5 0, 10,
20, and 40 mm). [Color figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
CHEN ET AL.
| 2601

F I G U R E 5 Input reflection coefficient and peak gain frequency


response of the meander resonator. Input impedances (Zin) at resonance
are also listed. [Color figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com] F I G U R E 7 Input reflection coefficient and peak gain frequency
response of the optimized meander antenna. [Color figure can be viewed
and yz-plane radiation patterns with u 5 08 and u 5 908. at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
To reduce the antenna size and optimize peak gain per-
formance, the L-feed of the proposed antenna is folded length of C-load increases from 0 to 5 mm, the input react-
with g 5 7 mm, h 5 10 mm, and i 5 12 mm (Figure 2). The ance decreases form 1j 4.7 to 2j 6.6, and it shows the
optimized input reflection coefficient (black solid line) and capacitive of the input impedance increases with increasing
peak gain frequency responses (black dashed line) are dis- the C-load area. Because increasing the C-load area increases
played in Figure 5. The resonant frequency and the peak Ceq, according to Equation 2, the resonant frequency
gain of the optimized antenna are 2.65 GHz and 2.68 dBi, decreases. Conversely, the peak gain increases as the C-load
respectively. area increases; the peak gain of 4.63 dBi is achieved at
To improve the peak gain and the matching characteristic 2.4 GHz with the C-load area given by m 5 5 mm. The input
of the meander antenna further, a C-load is connected to the impedance with the area for m 5 5 mm is 34.2 j 6.6, and
top of the meander resonator (Figure 5). The antenna per- the impedance and the antenna layout are for the optimiza-
formances are optimized by tuning the area with the length tion of power transfer, causing the optimization peak gain
parameter m; the input reflection coefficient and peak gain achieved. Further, the input reactance increases from j 6.6
variations are shown in Figure 5. The variations of antenna to j 5 with the length parameter m increasing from 5 to
input impedance (Zin) with changing length of the C-load at 7.5 mm, inducing the change of reactance from capacitive to
resonant frequency are also listed in Figure 5. The resonant inductive. The input impedance with m 5 7.5 mm is no lon-
frequency decreases as the C-load area increases, as indicated ger for the optimization of power transfer, and it reduces the
by the position of the black dashed circles (Figure 5). The peak gain to 3.5 dBi. Therefore, the antenna with C-load

FIGURE 6 (A) xy plane (u 5 798), (B) xz plane (u 5 08), and (C) xz plane (u 5 908) total fields patterns at resonant frequency with various C-load
sizes (m 5 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mm). [Color figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
2602 | CHEN ET AL.

F I G U R E 8 Simulated current density distribution of the optimized


antenna. The solid black circle indicates the location of maximum current FIGURE 11 Smith chart of simulated and measured input reflection
density. [Color figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com] coefficient characteristics at resonant frequency. [Color figure can be
viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

simulated input reflection coefficient and peak gain charac-


teristics are indicated in Figure 7 with black lines. The reso-
nant frequency is 2.43 GHz, and the peak gain is 4.63 dBi at
the resonant frequency. The simulated fractional bandwidth
is evaluated by the equation [(fH fL)/(fH 1 fL)] 3 200 at
210 dB threshold, and this value is 4.94%, where the upper
frequency fH is 2.48 GHz and the lower frequency fL is
2.37 GHz. The current density distribution on the antenna
with 2.4 GHz is shown in Figure 8. The majority of the cur-
rent density is concentrated around the portion of the mean-
der resonator at the resonant frequency, which shows the
F I G U R E 9 Photograph of the proposed meander antenna. (A) The
radiating element is the meander resonator part of the
obverse side. (B) The reverse side. [Color figure can be viewed at wileyon-
antenna. The length of the meander resonator (l) is 10.6 mm,
linelibrary.com]
which is shorter than one eighth of an effective wavelength
at the resonant
 frequency, where the effective wavelength is
area given by m 5 5 mm is selected in this antenna design. p
Figure 6 illustrates the radiation pattern variations of the k5300= fGHZ Er .
meander antenna with various C-load areas at their resonant
frequencies. 3 | MEASURED RESULTS
After optimizing the performances, the configuration
parameters of the proposed antenna are a 5 0.6 mm, Figure 9 is a photograph of the implemented meander
b 5 1 mm, d 5 5 mm, g 5 7 mm, h 5 10 mm, i 5 12 mm, antenna. The antenna performances were measured using an
l 5 10.6 mm, m 5 5 mm, N 5 3.5, and w 5 7 mm. The Agilent N5230A vector network analyzer, and radiation

FIGURE 10 (A) Antenna measurement system and light duty multi-axis positioner. (B) Antenna testing platform. [Color figure can be viewed at
wileyonlinelibrary.com]
CHEN ET AL.
| 2603

FIGURE 12 The measured (A) xy-plane (u 5 08), (B) xz-plane (u 5 08), and yz plane (u 5 908) radiation patterns at 2.4 GHz of the proposed
antenna

patterns were measured with the AMS-8600 antenna mea- Figure 12, and it shows the difference between simulated
surement system and light duty multi-axis positioner as and measured input impedance responses. The different input
shown in Figure 10A. Figure 10B shows the photograph of impedance induces the power transfer variation. Thus, simu-
the antenna testing platform. The antenna under test (AUT) lated and measured gain characteristics are not fitting well.
is connected with feedline with ferrite bead attached on the
platform. The standard horn antenna with dual polarization
and the testing platform with two-dimensional rotation are 4 | CONCLUSION
utilized for the radiation patterns measurements. For compar-
ison with the simulated results, the measured input reflection A meander antenna using an L-feed and a C-load to improve
coefficient and peak gain characteristics are plotted using red peak gain performance is implemented on a FR4 substrate in
lines in Figure 7. The measured input reflection coefficient is this study. The proposed antenna has the maximum peak
215 dB at the resonant frequency of 2.48 GHz. The meas- gain of 4.49 dBi, input reflection coefficient of 215 dB, and
ured fractional bandwidth of the antenna is 7.23% with the fractional bandwidth of 7.23%. Compared with conventional
upper frequency fH 5 2.58 GHz and lower frequency meander antennas, the optimized meander antenna with an
fL 5 2.4 GHz. The measured peak gain and directivity at the L-feed can increase peak gain by 8.24 dB, and that with an
resonant frequency are 4.49 and 6.51 dBi, respectively, and L-feed and a C-load can increase peak gain by 10.19 dB.
the radiation efficiency is calculated by the gain divided by The antenna is compact (26 3 15.6 mm2) and can be imple-
the directivity, and the radiation efficiency is 62.78%. The mented in standard PCB processes without any lumped
measured peak gain was increased by approximately 10 dB elements, bonding wires, or via holes, easing integration
compared with the meander antenna with N 5 10 and with wireless communication systems.
w 5 7 mm (Table 1).
The Smith chart in Figure 11 displays the simulated R EFE RE NC ES
input reflection coefficient and measured input reflection
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2604 | ELMOBARAK ET AL.

3
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Abstract
[10] Fukusako T, Ide K, Ijiguchi S. Gain enhancement of low- As it has outstanding electrical and mechanical properties,
profile, electrically small capacitive-feed antennas using stacked like high conductivity, durability, and flexibility, graphene
meander lines, 2010 International Conference on Communica- may be an interesting material also for conformal and
tions, Circuits and Systems (ICCCAS), Chengdu, 2010:636641. wearable antennas. Whereas mono-atomic graphene layers
[11] Dadgarpour A, Abbosh A, Jolani F. Planar multiband antenna have been proven to perform inadequately at microwave
for compact mobile transceivers. IEEE Antennas Wireless frequencies, in this article the performance of multilayered
Propag Lett. 2011;10:651654. graphene-based sheets (GBS) fabricated onto a polymer
[12] Endo T, Sunahara Y, Satoh S, Katagi T. Resonant frequency substrate is assessed when used as flexible planar and con-
and radiation efficiency of meander line antennas. Electron formal antennas. This is accomplished through studying a
Commun Japan (Part II). 2000;83:5258.
simple microstrip antenna topology. Challenges related to
[13] Das A, Dhar S, Gupta B. Lumped circuit model analysis of the fabrication process of these antennas are discussed, for
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example adhesion issues and the occurrence of air gaps on
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the substrate layer. The graphene-based technology is
[14] Keysight (Agilent) ADS, ver. 2014. Available at: www.keysight.
compared to a classical technology involving copper as
com.
metal. Bending of the antennas is also discussed. The
main conclusion is that multilayered graphene does per-
How to cite this article: Chen J-H, Yang C-K, Cheng form adequately as conductor in antennas at microwave
C-Y, Yu C-C, Hsu C-H. Gain enhancement of a compact frequencies, with the possibility of providing a slightly
2.4-GHz meander antenna using inductive feed and higher gain than copper.
capacitive load. Microw Opt Technol Lett. 2017;
KEYWORDS
59:25982604. https://doi.org/10.1002/mop.30784
conductive rubber, conformal antenna, flexible antenna, graphene

Received: 19 March 2017

DOI: 10.1002/mop.30783

1 | INTRODUCTION
Assessment of multilayered
Graphene is a new material that has recently attracted
graphene technology for flexible tremendous scientific interest due to its extraordinary
mechanical and electrical properties.1 It is currently being
antennas at microwave investigated for numerous applications. The question arises
frequencies if graphene may also be exploited for antenna applications,
which is a possibility that has been considered only recently
in Refs. [2,3], and [4]. As it is investigated that in 5G wire-
Husameldin A. Elmobarak1 | less systems, on body telecom will become ubiquitous, the
Sharul K. A. Rahim1 | demand for flexible, durable, and robust wearable antennas
is expected to rise exponentially. This is demonstrated by the
Mohammad Abedian1 | Ping Jack Soh2 | rocketing number of papers on flexible antenna design.
Guy A. E. Vandenbosch2 | Lo Yew Chiong3 A conductive ink jet-printed antenna on flexible low-cost
paper-based substrates for RFID and WSN applications has
1
Wireless Communication Centre (WCC), Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), been presented in Ref. [5]. A printing technique to fabricate
Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia a microstrip patch antenna printed on polydimethylsiloxane
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, (PDMS)ceramic composite has been proposed in Ref. [6].
Leuven, Belgium In parallel, a textile UWB antenna bending and wet