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1.

Nitric oxide and ________ are needed to relax the smooth muscle cells of the blood
vessels.
Acetylcholine
2. ________could be eliminated as a needed signal to relax smooth muscle cells if a
membrane permeable cGMP was used.
Nitric oxide
3. Cells of many multicellular animals communicate directly by coupling their cytoplasms
using ________ junctions.
gap
4. Signals that act on the same cells as those that generated them are called ________.
Autocrine
5. Signals that diffuse to other types of cells are called ________.
Paracrine signals
6. The molecule that binds to the receptor is called a ________.
Ligand
7. Phosphatidylinositol is a ________.
Lipid
12. A signal pathway is
the series of events that occur in response to a signal being detected
16. In general, all cell signaling causes
a change in receptor conformation
17. The major categories of signal receptors are
Transmembrane and cytoplasmic
18. Steroids bind
to cytoplasmic receptors
19. Steroids typically affect
gene expression
20. Typically, large polar signals directly interact with
transmembrane receptors
21. Insulin is a(n)
extracellular ligand
22. Some signal receptors are
ion channels, protein kinases, G-protein linked, and DNA binding proteins
23. Different cell types that respond to a certain signal do not all respond the same way
because
Different cell types might have different signal pathways for the same signal
24. Protein kinase is
an enzyme that phosphorylates
25. One of the substrates for protein kinase is
ATP
26. In eukaryotic cells, a substrate for phosphorylation is
specific tyrosines in target proteins
27. Insulin alters cellular metabolism by
binding with two receptor subunits on the outer cell surface
28. The insulin receptor is a
Kinase
29. The receptor-associated proteins called G proteins
Bind GTP and are Bound to GDP
30. The Ras protein is
a G protein, a protein that activates kinases, part of a pathway called phosphorylation
cascade, and the cause of a certain cancer when defective
31. In order for a G protein to play its part at moving events forward in a signal pathway,
A GDP must be release and a GTP must occupy the nucleotide-binding site.
32. If a G protein was unable to release its bound nucleotide but was able to hydrolyze
it,
signal transduction would
not move beyond this point
33. If a G protein was able to release its bound nucleotide but was unable to hydrolyze
it,
signal transduction would
be continuous beyond this point
34. In heart muscles, the G protein that associates with the epinephrine receptor
activates adenylate cyclase
35. In smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels, the G protein that associates with the
epinephrine receptor
inhibits adenylate cyclase
36. Cytoplasmic receptors are used for
steroids
37. Cytoplasmic receptors are or are closely associated with
DNA binding proteins
38. When a cell with a steroid receptor is exposed to that steroid, the one thing certain
to
happen is that the
the receptor will change shape upon binding to the steroid
39. Transducers
change signals from one form to another
44. The molecule cAMP is called
a second messenger
45. Imagine that it is found that the membrane is necessary for a signal to elicit its
effect, but it need be present only after signal and cytoplasm have been incubated
together. If the experimenter removes the signal from the cytoplasm before adding the
membrane, the effect can still be detected. Which of the following conclusions is
consistent with these observations?
the signal interacts with a cytoplasmic receptor, the signal pathway involves an
interaction with a membrane associated component
46. There are analogs to cAMP, which can pass through a membrane unimpeded. If
you
added this form of cAMP to liver cells, what would you expect to happen?
the same events that would occur if you added epinephrine
47. Adenylate cyclase
produces a cyclic nucleotide
48. There are analogs to cAMP, which can pass through a membrane unimpeded. If
you added this form of cAMP to odorant receptor nerve cells, what would you expect to
happen?
the cell would open its Na+ channels
49. The concentration of cAMP in a cell is increased by a(n)
G protein

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