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Answer sheet for the test#1

1- A certain elevator cab has a total run of 190 m and a maximum speed of 305
m/min, and it accelerates from rest and then back to rest at 1.22 m/s2. (a) How far
does the cab move while accelerating to full speed from rest? (b) How long does it
take to make the nonstop 190 m run, starting and ending at rest?

We assume the periods of acceleration (duration t1) and deceleration (duration t2) are periods of
constant a so that Table 2-1 can be used. Taking the direction of motion to be +x then a1 = +1.22
m/s2 and a2 = 1.22 m/s2. We use SI units so the velocity at t = t1 is v = 305/60 = 5.08 m/s.

(a) We denote x as the distance moved during t1, and use Eq. 2-16:

(5.08 m/s) 2
v 2 = v02 + 2a1x x = = 10.59 m 10.6 m.
2(1.22 m/s 2 )

(b) Using Eq. 2-11, we have


v - v0 5.08 m/s
t1 = = = 4.17 s.
a1 1.22 m/s 2

The deceleration time t2 turns out to be the same so that t1 + t2 = 8.33 s. The distances traveled
during t1 and t2 are the same so that they total to 2(10.59 m) = 21.18 m. This implies that for a
distance of 190 m 21.18 m = 168.82 m, the elevator is traveling at constant velocity. This time
of constant velocity motion is

168.82 m
t3 = = 33.21 s.
5.08 m / s

Therefore, the total time is 8.33 s + 33.21 s 41.5 s.

2- Since the belt is moving with constant velocity, the displacement (x0 = 0 m) covered by the
belt in a time tbelt is giving by Equation 2.2 (with x0 assumed to be zero) as

x = vbelt tbelt (1 )

Since Clifford moves with constant acceleration, the displacement covered by Clifford in
a time tCliff is, from Equation 2.8,

2 2
x = v0tCliff + 12 atCliff = 12 atCliff (2 )
The speed vbelt with which the belt of the ramp is moving can be found by eliminating x
between Equations (1) and (2).

SOLUTION Equating the right hand sides of Equations (1) and (2), and noting that
tCliff = 14 tbelt , we have

( 14 tbelt )
2
vbelt tbelt = 12 a

vbelt = 1 at 1 (0.37 m/s 2 )(64 s) = 0.74 m/s


= 32
32 belt

3-Three vectors are given by , , and

. Find (a) , (b) , and (c)

Solutions for #35


We apply Eq. 3-30 and Eq.3-23. If a vector-capable calculator is used, this makes a good exercise
for getting familiar with those features. Here we briefly sketch the method.
r r
(a) We note that b c = - 8.0 i + 5.0 j + 6.0k . Thus,

r r r
a (b c ) = (3.0) ( - 8.0) + (3.0)(5.0) + ( - 2.0) (6.0) = - 21.
r r
(b) We note that b + c = 1.0 i - 2.0 j + 3.0 k.
Thus,

r r r
a(b + c ) = (3.0) (1.0) + (3.0) ( - 2.0) + ( - 2.0) (3.0) = -9.0.

(c) Finally,
r r r
a (b + c ) = [(3.0)(3.0) - ( - 2.0)( - 2.0)] i + [( - 2.0)(1.0) - (3.0)(3.0)] j
+[(3.0)( - 2.0) - (3.0)(1.0)] k .
= 5i - 11j - 9k

4- a stone is projected at a cliff of height h with an initial speed of


50.0 m/s directed at an angle 0 = 64.0 above the horizontal.
The stone strikes at A, 5.51 s after launching. Find (a) the height
h of the cliff, (b) the speed of the stone just before impact at A,
and (c) the maximum height H reached above the ground.

4. (a) Using the same coordinate system assumed in Eq. 4-22, we solve for y = h:

1 2
h = y0 + v0 sin q 0t - gt
2

which yields h = 51.8 m for y0 = 0, v0 = 42.0 m/s, q0 = 60.0 and t = 5.50 s.

(b) The horizontal motion is steady, so vx = v0x = v0 cos q0, but the vertical component of velocity
varies according to Eq. 4-23. Thus, the speed at impact is

( v0 cosq 0 ) + ( v0 sin q 0 - gt ) = 27.4 m/s.


2 2
v=

(c) We use Eq. 4-24 with vy = 0 and y = H:

H=
bv sinq g= 67.5 m.
0 0
2

2g

6- Suppose that, while lying on a beach near the equator watching the Sun set over a calm ocean,

you start a stopwatch just as the top of the Sun disappears. You then stand, elevating your eyes

by a height , and stop the watch when the top of the Sun again disappears. If the

elapsed time is , what is the radius r of Earth?


. When the Sun first disappears while lying down, your line of sight to the top of the Sun is
tangent to the Earths surface at point A shown in the figure. As you stand, elevating your eyes by
a height h, the line of sight to the Sun is tangent to the Earths surface at point B.

Let d be the distance from point B to your eyes. From Pythagorean Theorem, we have

d 2 + r 2 = (r + h) 2 = r 2 + 2rh + h 2

or d 2 = 2rh + h 2 , where r is the radius of the Earth. Since r ? h , the second term can be dropped,
leading to d 2 2rh . Now the angle between the two radii to the two tangent points A and B is q,
which is also the angle through which the Sun moves about Earth during the time interval t =
11.1 s. The value of q can be obtained by using

q t
= .
360 24 h
This yields
(360
)(11.1 s)
q= = 0.04625
.
(24 h)(60 min/h)(60 s/min)

Using d = r tan q , we have d 2 = r 2 tan 2 q = 2rh , or

2h
r=
tan 2 q

Using the above value for q and h = 1.7 m, we have r = 5.2 106 m.

7- The horizontal displacement of the jumper is given by Equation 3.5a with a x = 0 :


x = v0 xt = (v0 cos q )t . The vertical component of the jumpers velocity at any time t is given
by Equation 3.3b: v y = v0 y + a y t . At the instant that the jumper lands, v y = -v0 y . Therefore,
the vertical component of the jumpers velocity is

-v0 y = v0 y + a y t

Solving for t and assuming that upward is the positive direction gives

-2 v 0 y -2 v 0 sin q
t= =
ay ay

Substituting this expression for t into the expression for x gives

F-2 v sinq I
x = ( v 0 cosq ) t = v 0 cosq G
H a JK
0

or
-2 v 02 sin q cosq
x=
ay
Solving for v0 gives
-x ay - ( 8.7 m) (9.80 m / s 2 )
v0 = = = 11 m / s
2 cosq sin q 2 cos 23 sin 23

8- You have it in your notes, anyway!


The speed of the fish at any time t is given by v = v x + v y , where vx and vy are the x and y
2 2

components of the velocity at that instant. Since the horizontal motion of the fish has zero
acceleration, vx = v0 x for all times t. Since the fish is dropped by the eagle, v0x is equal to
the horizontal speed of the eagle and v0 y = 0 . The y component of the velocity of the fish for
any time t is given by Equation 3.3b with v0 y = 0 . Thus, the speed at any time t is given by
v = v 02 x + ( a y t ) 2 .

SOLUTION
a. The initial speed of the fish is v 0 = v 0 x + v 0 y = v 0 x + 0 = v 0 x . When the fish's speed
2 2 2 2

doubles, v = 2v0 x . Therefore,

2 v 0 x = v 02 x + ( a y t ) 2 or 4 v 02 x = v 02 x + ( a y t ) 2

Assuming that downward is positive and solving for t, we have


F
G 6.0 m / s I
H9.80 m / s JK=
v0 x
t= 3 = 3 2
1.1 s
ay

b. When the fish's speed doubles again, v = 4v0 x . Therefore,

4 v 0 x = v 02 x + ( a y t ) 2 or 16 v 02 x = v 02 x + ( a y t ) 2

Solving for t, we have


v F
G 6.0 m / s IJ = 2.37 s
t = 15 0 x = 15
ay H9.80 m / s 2 K
The bonus question

a- All of them have the same magnitude of V,


b- 1and 2 will take longer time than 3 and 4.