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Published quarterly by the U.S. Army Air Defense
Artillery School, Fort Bliss, Texas. Articles appearing in
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Page 24, explores the development of new air defense artillery weapon addresses. Individual copies are $4.25 for domestic and
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- . -,,-,,
nstead of the usual "Intercept
I Point" article, I want to give you a
broad overview of our Air Defense Artil-
At Fort Bliss, the Army's first Ser-
geant York Gun battery, E Battery, 4th
Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery,
lery programs and problem areas. has been activated under the command
Army of Excellence of Capt. Alan Landry. This spring, the
The first air defense artillery corps battery will crew two platoons of Ser-
brigade-the 35th-was activated a t geant York Guns in Follow-on Evalua-
Fort Lewis, Wash., Nov. 28, 1984. Air tion I. Air Defense Artilley will publish
Defense Artillery is the first to activate a Sergeant York Gun update and the
a corps brigade under the Army of U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery
Excellence program. As we move ahead, School's response to media criticisms
Air Defense Artillery will increase in of the new system in its Winter 1985
manpower and numbers of weapon edition.
systems. Meanwhile, production of Sergeant
York Gun systems continues. Money
The 4th Battalion, 3rd Air Defense for 145 Sergeant York Guns was origi-
Artillery, commanded by Lt. Col. Bob nally appropriated. At this writing, 26
Huston, departed Fort Bliss, Texas, Sergeant York Guns have been delivered
Major General James P. Maloney to the Army. Contrary to what you may
Dec. 5,1984, for Giessen, West Germany.
This is our first Patriot deployment see in the media, the Sergeant York
a n d represents a tremendous FLIRs and the remaining systems will Gun works. I am confident that we will
increase in U.S. air defense artillery soon be equipped with FLIRs. provide further proof of its excellent
capability in the Federal Republic of capabilities in the operational
Vulcan testing this spring.
Germany. Air Defense Artillery will T h e f i r s t increment of Product
publish a special section on the develop- Improved Vulcan Air Defense System
ment, testing, fielding a n d opera- Blazing Skies Ill
(PIVADS) kits is now on contract. The The 1l t h Air Defense Artillery Brigade
tions of Patriot in the Winter 1985 contract provides for the equipping of
issue. conducted a major joint exercise a t
221 towed and 65 self-propelledVulcans. Fort Bliss and White Sands Missile
A study group at the Pentagon is We are seeking more funds so the entire
examining whether Patriot should be Range, N.M., Nov. 7 through Nov. 16,
fleet will be eventually equipped. The 1984. The Hawk units conducted emis-
transferred to the Air Force. The results modifications will improve Vulcan's
are due next summer. In my opinion, sion control training while fighting a n
sight, computer, servos a n d intensive air battle against a:mixture
the final outcome will be that the Army diagnostics. The results will be a more
will retain Patriot. I t is certainly a of threat aircraft. Lessons learned dur-
effective Vulcan, with less down time. ing this exercise will have significant
valid issue for studs. - . however. and
should yield many ideas for improving Stinger impact on current. air defense tactics
t h e efficiency of multiservice a i r The new seeker for Stinger, called regarding the use of high-power radars
defense. Stinger-POST RMP (reprogrammable equipped with the tracking adjunct
micro-processor), has been approved system and blinking procedures. The
for development and future procure brigade has developed innovative proce
The 5th Battalion, 200th Air Defense
ment. Meanwhile, production of dures for minimizing radar emissions.
Artillery, manned by New Mexico
Stinger-POST has begun. Air Defense This will increase the survivability of
National Guardsmen stationed a t
Artillery will publish articles describ- theimproved-Hawk systems. Air defense
McGregor Range, Fort Bliss, achieved
ing product improvements for Stinger artillerymen need only to study the
"first battery equipped" status Oct. 29,
and other air defense artillery systems stunning victory of the Israeli Air Force
1984. The battalion will become fully
in its Spring 1985 issue. in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley to under-
operational in 1985. Its advent gives
stand the need for effective control
Air Defense Artillery a n all-weather, Sergeant Vork Gun procedures.
short-range air defense capability. The Secretary of Defense recently Our branch h a s achieved m a n y
Chaparral decided to delay the award of the FY85 "firsts" during the past year. We are
The forward-looking infrared radar Sergeant York Gun contract for 117 truly modernizing in a revolutionary
(FLIR) continues to be applied to the systems until July of 1985. His decision way-more so than any other branch.
Chaparral fleet. This gives Chaparral will be based on the results of Sergeant We are the high-technology combat
night and adverse weather capabili- York Gun operational testing scheduled arm! %
ties. Fourteen are now equipped with for April through May of 1985.
2 -- . . .. ., %c,;i,,,;.
t . ' , ..
-, .. . . ., . .
F ort Bliss, Texas, is the only Army
post in the world where you can

.*' .
. . , - ' ,
- other hand, the soldier's enthusiasm or
eagerness isn't always the best indica-
see the complete cycle of enlisted train- tor of who should be selected to attend
ing at work, from one station unit formal training courses. Let the pur-
training to the U.S. Army Sergeants pose of the school be your guide. Select
Major Academy. Since Fort Bliss is the soldier who is not only enthusiastic
also the home of Air Defense Artillery, but who has demonstrated a n on-the-
it's no wonder air defense artillerymen job ability or potential to apply the
are acutely aware that they need for- skills the school is designed to fully
ma1 training to get ahead in today's develop.
Army. Consider, also, the soldier's combat
I overheard two soldiers talking a s potential. Remember that in war the
they passed me on post. price of failure is almost always catas-
One said enthusiastically to the other, trophic and, too often, fatal. How will
"They picked me to go to school, and the soldier react when the ammunition
I'll be leaving next month." is live and the targets shoot back?
"Hey, super! I didn't think they'd let There can be little hope in promoting
you go with all the stuff we've got com- the "highest standards of professional
ing up," the other answered. military competence" if a large percen-
The conversation was brief, but the csM Frederick T. Stafford Jr. tage of the schoolhouse seats is occu-
discussion touched on one of the major pied by those not fully qualified.
problems in the Army today, a problem You must doggedly select the right
I've contended with for most of my mil- Sergeants Major Academy. In between soldier for formal training. Take advice
itary career. are four other courses: the Basic NCO from others, but make the decision
Senior NCOs hold the keys which Course and the BasicTechnical Course yourself. Don't just fill a quota. Know
unlock the door to professionalism and for the E-5 and E-6; the Advanced NCO your soldiers and send them to school
technical competence, but, all too often, Course for the E-6 and E-7; and the a t the point in their careers when the
we select the wrong soldier for NCO First Sergeant Course for the E-7(P) mission of theschool can best support
schools. Be honest with yourself. In and E-8 about to be selected a s first them and the Army.
your experience, who is the last soldier sergeants. Let's assume by now that you are
selected for formal training? Probably Most NCOs will attend the Primary convinced the best qualified and best
the soldier doing the most important Leadership Development Course and prepared soldier is the right soldier to
job-the one you "can't afford to lose.'' the Advanced NCO Course. However, select for formal training. Now, it's up
We should be sending the soldier of the only a small percentage will attend the to you to supply the encouragement
month, the soldier on the promotion First Sergeant Courseor the Sergeants soldiers need to accept the challenge of
list, or the soldier on the order of merit Major Academy. Only those soldiers in formal training courses. .
list, but, instead, we send the soldier MOSS with many new critical tasks to Never let soldiers believe'other unit
the unit can most easily do without. learn a t skill level 2 03-5) or skill level 3 activities or operations are moreimpor-
Sending your mediocre soldiers rather (E-6)will attend the Basic NCO Course tant than training. The best time for
than your best soldiers to Army schools or Basic Technical Course. soldiers to attend Army schools is when
creates a system that promotes medi- Each NCO course carries promo- they are a t the peak of readiness. Don't
ocfity over excellence. It's a system no tional points that can make or break a make them wait, and don't let them
army, particularly a n "Army of Excel- soldier's career. Selecting the right wait. Don't establish prerequisites
lence," can afford. soldiers for school and sending them a t other than those imposed by Army
The argument that "I can't afford to the right point in their careers are, regulations that prevent soldiers from
lose you" must be changed to "the paradoxically, two separate butinsep- attending schools. Visit them while
Army can't afford not to send you," for arable tasks. Understanding two of the they are in school with news about
the soldiers selected for NCO schools
today are the soldiers who will become
tomorrow's enlisted leaders. .
important missions of NCOES will help
you make the right choice:
prepare to perform
their families. Once they graduate, put
them to work applying their newly
learned skills immediately upon their
The Non-commissioned Officer Edu-
cation System (NCOES) is the formal
program that gives our sergeants and
specialists the know-how they need to
?heirdoties in war or peace,
the highest standards
professionalmilitary competence.
return. Their success will encourage
others. It's a tough decision to send key
soldiers TDY to schools for weeks a t a
time, but wemust remember our respon-
get the job done. I n Air Defense Artil- Keeping these two missions of Army sibility to the Army and to the soldiers
lery, it begins with the Primary Lead- schools in mind, go back to what the who will be the battery first sergeants
ershipDevelopmentCoursewhich teaches soldier on the street said: "They picked a n d battalion command sergeants
essential leadership and training skills me to go to school. . . ." Remember his major of 10years hence. I t is not enough
and qualifies soldiers for E-5. At the enthusiasm. This means the unit prob- to get the job done today. We must lay
opposite end of the NCOES scale is the ably made the right choice. On the the groundwork for tomorrow.
FALL 1984
Hawk SLAM for the accomplishment of the air pointing t h i s out to you-just
T h e a r t i c l e "Hawk SLAM defensemission. By task organizing thought I'd add mine to the pile.
Increases Light Air Defense F i r e the Hawk element with a contin- Thomas M. Dowler
power" (Spring 1984) by CPT John gency unit (division or lower), a n CPT, FA
Warnke portrayed some interesting additional logistical burden i s 1st Bn, 11th FA
a n d innovative concepts in the placed on the maneuver commander Fort Lewis, Wash.
employment of Hawk on the future who does not have organic assets to
battlefield. It does support current support a SLAM. Carrying the sup- You're correct, and yes, your letter
thinking on making air defense a n port with the SLAM unit negates its was added to the pile.
active member of the combined arms purpose and would make the unit
team. However, the SLAM concept too large for its intended use. Also, Scale Model MiGs
fails to take into consideration cer- the choice of Hawk equipment is less I read Mr. Robert Chalmers' arti-
tain elements that greatly impact on than desirable. The main threat is cle "Scale Model MiGs Provide Third
Hawk and its future employment on the low-altitude attack; therefore, Dimensional Training" (Spring
the air-land battlefield. the elimination of the continuous 1984) with great interest and a cer-
SLAM was stated a s having two wave acquisition radar is not tacti- tain amount of trepidation. As a
purposes: to provide early warning cally sound and does not support the fighter pilot who has exposed him-
through the SHORAD unit to for- air defense artillery operational self many times to Army air defense
ward maneuver units, and to in- concept or the Hawk operational artillery, I applaud the use of the
crease air defense firepower. How- and organizational plans that were hostile expendable aerial target
ever, SLAM operates without com- recently published to reflect current (HEAT). However, I am concerned
mand and control from the parent doctrinal thinking. The assault fir- about the realism depicted in this
unit or any higher or adjacent com- ing platoon is the basic combat ele- type of training.
mand and control medium. This ment for Hawk and will be the com- Going to the 1/5 scale of the MiG-
means that the SLAM unit would bat configuration for all Army Hawk 27 will no doubt improve the recog-
have to continuously radiate its units in the future. It is small, can be nition features of this aircraft, pro-
acquisition radar to provide a n air highly mobile and, with low-altitude vided it is configured correctly. How-
picture, in which case the unit would simultaneous Hawk engagement, ever, the photographs, especially on
be targeted and destroyed within will be highly effective on the Page 5, show a MiG-27 a t a wing
hours. Furthermore, with no com- air-land battlefield. sweep of 16 degrees which is only
munications to higher or adjacent I have mentioned just a few of the used for loiter or cruise. The combat
command and control facilities, the issues that entered my mind when I setting of the MiG-27 is 45 degrees.
unit would have to follow the pro- read this article. The innovative This is quite important especially
cedural guidelines for HIMAD fire thinking merits credit. It is ideas
when you compare this wing con-
units in autonomous operations that such a s the SLAM concept which figuration with our own F-111, A-7
enormously decrease the unit's air show the need for small mobile and and Europe's Tornado which from
defense effectiveness because of the flexible systems on the air-land bat- certain aspects and ranges look all
constraints on firing. tlefield. Hawk is essential on tomor- too much like a MiG-27.
The SLAM concept states that row's battlefield. It is through such In most conflicts involving MiGs,
jammers, high-altitude bombers and activities a s the 9th Division's test- you can surely bet that there will be
mass raids would be acceptable tar- ing SLAM that we will be able to more than one, and that "friendly"
gets, leaving hostile aircraft in the develop systems that will do the job. fighters will also be there. There
close-air support mode and helicop- Don E. Harris, Sr. may be a valid reason for only hav-
ters for SHORAD. The procedural CPT, ADA ing one HEAT in a n exercise. But, I
guidelines for HIMAD autonomous Tactics Dept, USAADASCH wonder what the results would be if
operations would probably prevent one or more friendly expendable
e n g a g e m e n t s of h i g h - a l t i t u d e A Case of Identity aerial targets were inserted in a live-
bombers because of vertical weap- Reference your Spring 1984 issue, fire exercise? These points may seem
ons engagement zone limitations Page 34, top picture (of helicopter) superfluous to many, but are of great
and the same for jammers. Also, and caption. concern to anyone who survives a
with only one launcher, mass raids I don't doubt that it is, in fact, a mission only to cross the FEBA and
would be impossible to counter. routine chore for 9th DIVADA sol- possibly be shot down because of
The parameters for the SLAM diers to hook up a towed Vulcan to a mistaken identity.
package, a s stated -by the article, UH-60 helicopter. However, in the Charles R. Corder
include reducing the amount of picture the soldiers appear to be LTC, USAF
necessary equipment and logistical hooking up a towed Hawk launcher Ch, Weapons and Tactics Div
support to levels mutually accepta- to a CH-47 Chinook. I'm sure you've 388th Tactical Fighter Wing (TAC)
ble to the maneuver commander and already received numerous letters Hill Air Force Base, Utah

4/81 ADAcreates uulcan
UldeO-Tam SYstem
The 4th Battalion, 61st Air Defense
Artillery, Fort Carson, Colo., has de-
veloped a Vulcan video-tape system
that lets a n instructor monitor and
record the same sight picture a s a
gunner tracking a n aerial target. The
system, with components readily avail-
able through installation training and
audiovisual support centers, serves a s
a n instruction and a n evaluation tool.
The video-tape system, which is
powered by a n AC generator, has a
camera, recorder, power pack, televi-
sion monitor, tapes and cables. By
drawing a sight reticle on the televi-
sion screen, a n instructor can observe
and tape the gunner's tracking abili-
10th Air Defense Artillery Brigade. Racing theclock, SP4 Raymond L.Trujillo(left) ties. The instructor then replays the
The 10th ADA will host the first and SGT Michael A. Anderson attach the tape for the gunner and critiques his
two Patriot battalions in U.S. Army "fins"tothe Chaparral during a missile upload
~urope. drill while SSG Frank Hampton assists. (Photo
by Louise Baker) Gunners and squad leaders say the
At the ceremony, a large stone, bear- system makes training more effective
ing three bronze plaques, was unveiled and credit it with increasing their fir-
by BG(P) J. Hollis V. McCrea Jr., 32nd mond P. Warren Jr., senior gunner, ing proficiency. Air defense artillery
U.S. Army Air Defense Command dep- captured the feeling of his peers when units which have used the video-tape
uty commander, Weinfurter and the he called it "the olympics for 16Ps. system have reported dramatic in-
mayor of Giessen. Speeches made hon- Because it's the only chance we have to creases in tracking proficiency. One
oring the scientist were dedicated to fire. It's the only time we really get to unit's fire performance increased b e
the continuance of good relations be- prove we know our jobs." tween annual service practices from
tween the two countries. Proving themselves was on the top of eight to 22 RCMATS shot down.
After unveiling and dedication cere- the list for these Spearheaders a s Char-
monies, a Project Partnership cere- There are some limitations to the
lie and Delta batteries, 3/61 ADA, com- system. Sunlight must be considered
mony was held between 10th ADA and peted for top position in their annual when setting up the system, prolonged
the 2nd German Air Defense Rocket training exercise a t the NATO Missile use requires continuous recharging of
Regiment. Soldiers from both units ex- Firing Installation, Crete. the power packs, and the camera's
changed unit crests, symbolic of the Upon completion of the exercise, maximum zoom-range of 75 feet limits
future relationship of the two units. Charlie edged out Delta by less than its capabilities.
one percentage point to capture best
The materials needed to install the
battery, but the Delta "Dogs of War"
3/81 LIDATllalM OlemDlc style countered by taking top squad.
system can be obtained through instal-
by Louise Baker lation engineers a t a cost of approxi-
Members of the top squad were SSG
mately $22. The video-tape camera is
Training, training and more train- J a m i e Carlos, squad leader; P F C
installed in a plywood box and is pro-
ing goes into a bid for Olympic team Richard J. Perry, assistant gunner;
tected by styrofoam cut into three sec-
placement for athletes. In the same PFC Leo L. Perleberg, driver; and
way, talented air defenders of the 3rd tions (two molded for the camera's
Battalion, 61st Air Defense Artillery, sides and one cut to protect the top and
It will be another year before these
bottom of the camera). The box and
3rd Armored Division, West Germany, soldiers h a v e t h e opportunity to
camera are then mounted above the
train for a n opportunity to participate "prove" themselves again during a live-
Vulcan ground-sight mounting bolts.
in live-fire exercises. fire exercise, and already they're look-
The pressure was on for the 23 Chap- Washers are used to raise the box ap-
ing ahead. "Last year was ours,"
proximately one inch off the platform
arral crews, a s only the six top-scoring Delta's ISGFrank P. Cowell said philo-
to keep the cannon saddle from hitting
squads from each battery would earn sophically, "and this year was theirs-
the chance to fire a live missile to con- the box.
there's usually not more than a one
clude their annual training exercise. point difference between the two bat- Units may obtain diagrams and in-
The exercise was especially impor- teries. But next year," h e added, structions for assembling the video-
tant for the division's Chaparral crews " 'Dogs of War' will come back with tape system by writing Air Defense
because it is the only opportunity they more gusto and take it." Artillery magazine, HQ USAADASCH,
have during the year to fire a missile. A The competition promises to be Attn: ATSA-DTP-SP, Fort Bliss, TX,
member of the top squad, SP4 Ray- tough. 79916-7090.
FALL 1984
3/71 ADA Takes Blte Out of ASP prepared for the live fire which would
be witnessed by a number of distin-
many frequencies being thrown a t us
by SSG Frank Cox on our scopes. With ECCM we can
guished U.S. and foreign visitors. eliminate the bogus targets (or the
Every good air defense artillery sol- false readings) and find the actual
A Delta Battery soldier offered a
dier knows that a n ASP is not a small target."
simple explanation of the job, "Our
venomous snake, like the one that bit On the fifth day of training, the first
main mission consists of finding and
Cleopatra. But, a t the same time, air of the two Nike Hercules missiles was
knocking down low-flying aircraft,"
defenders understand that a n ASP-or launched during t h e morning, t h e
said SGT Leonard Ortiz. "We really
annual service practice-can "bite" second in the afternoon. Both inter-
have two missions, surface-to-air a n d
a unit if it's not prepared for this cepted a n d destroyed their simulated
performance-oriented mission. targets.
Delta Battery, 3rd Battalion, 71st Air A highlight in the training occurred
when battery radarmen were success- With the mission successfully accom-
Defense Artillery, arrived on the Greek plished, troops boarded a U.S. Air
island of Crete this summer for its ful against electronic countermeasures
by the training enemy. Greek air force Force C-130 Hercules for their return to
week-long a n n u a l service practice the cooler climate of West Germany.
never needing a venom antidote, a s the members used a T-1 computer station
van to simulate a threat target for the Talk turned to the Nike unit's future
battery finished i t s mission with since the weapon system will no longer
honors. Nike Hercules firing. T h e Greeks
attempted to "hide" their target by be used by the U.S. Eventually the unit
Its mission involved the last U.S. fir- will be d e a c t i v a t e d . But quickly
ing of the Nike Hercules missile. (See jamming the U.S. missilemen's radar.
But it did not work. The firing unit thoughts returned to home, a s missile-
related story Page 12.) The 48 West men began pulling on warmer clothing
Germany-based soldiers were blasted countered the jamming and intercepted
the target. less than 30 minutes after take off from
with a blanket of 100-degree heat a s the sunny island.
they arrived on the island to begin this "The enemy tries to use electronic
historic last firing. Troops quickly countermeasures to evade detection,"
pulled off field jackets, rolled up BDU said Ortiz, "but we apply electronic suwort vital to Alr Defense
sleeves and rubbed on suntan lotion. counter-countermeasures (ECCM) to by Frank J. Eagles Jr.
The workweek began with checks, beat them a t their own game. When the Some say t h a t behind every success-
double checks a n d triple checks to target (simulated by the computer sta- ful m a n there is a good woman. How-
make sure everything was properly tion van) tries to jam our radar, we see ever, in the case of air defense artillery
units, behind every good battalion,
there's a good direct support element.
The 108th Air Defense Artillery Bri-
gade, 32nd U.S. Army Air Defense
Command, h a s the support of a n elite
group of Chaparral and Vulcan sys-
tems repairmen from the 3rd Ordnance
This unit feels t h a t if it takes three or
four days to get the job done-so be it. If
a forward-area alerting radar on a
Chaparral system h a s to be taken
apart piece by piece-well that's all in a
day's work.
Perhaps that is why the 2nd Battal-
i o n , 67th Air Defense Artillery's
Chaparral/Vulcan direct support unit
was named the best in 32nd AADCOM.
"This unit h a s a demanding quality
assurance, quality control system,"
said MSG Flavio Beas-Compo, the
direct support unit foreman.
All direct support units have rigid
equipment inspections before putting
their signature on a finished product,
but Beas-Compo credits their success
to the men who do the work.
"I'm only the foreman here. The sol-
Greek air force members, SSG Kostas Kivernitakis (foreground), 2LT Gregory Tzevelekos (center) diers should take credit for being the
and SSG StratosSolidakis, use a T - l computer station van t o simulate a threat target for the 3/71 best in 32nd AADCOM. They really
ADA Nike Hercules missile firing. The Greeks'attempt to jam the U.S. radar did not work. (Photo by work hard a t their jobs."
SSG Frank Cox) The quality assurance and quality
control section tabulates production their abilities in a Vulcan live-fire exer-
quality battalionwide, keeping tabs on cise recently.
every piece of equipment entering a n d The "Gang" is a group of about 30
leaving. I n addition, the quality assur- senior division officers with the rank of
ance and quaIity control team of SSG lieutenant colonel to the commanding
Alan Mason and SP5 Gerald Heavy log general.
and handle thousands of technical "This is a way of training the train-
manuals and publications, making up ers, keeping our senior leaders abreast
a complete library. of the latest equipment and its opera-
tion," said CPT Samuel Eure, assistant
S-3, 2nd Battalion, 5th Air Defense

Mounted on the Vulcan air defense Alp Defander named

gun system are M-60 machine guns.
"This allows the system's tracking abil- Whlte House Fellow
ity to be tested without the expense of by SP5 Craig Strawther
firing the 20 millimeter main gun," Army a i r defense artilleryman,
Eure said. "We're giving the division's MAJ(P) MacArthur DeShazer, Fort
leaders a chance to become familiar Bliss, Texas, was selected to partici-
with the Vulcan system." pate in the White House Fellowship
PFC Joe Clr~~lver repairs electronic radar
Prior to firing, each officer had to program for 1984-85.
equipment for the Chaparral system. pass a n aircraft recognition test. After Among the 13 Fellows selected are
(Photo by Frank J. Eagles Jr.) that was completed, they moved to the five servicemembers, all of them Army
firing line to track and fire a t a radio- majors. White House Fellows come
controlled miniature aerial target. from many fields besides the military,
"The heart of Our quality is Officers from all branches partici- including law, journalism, medicine
the maintenance management 'ys- pated. After all points and scores were and business.
tern," said Mason. "With this computer tallied, officers received the Omlefinch White House Fellows are assigned
system we just every- Award from 2/5 ADA's commander, typically a s special assistants to a
thing to LTC Gary Bridgewater, making them cabinet secretary, head of a n indepen-
A key to their success is the produc- honorary air defense artillerymen. dent agency of the executive branch, a
tion control shop. They keep hands-on
control of the flow of work coming into
and going out of the maintenance shop. @ssOChtIonHonors Cadet
A recent 32nd AADCOM i n s ~ e c t i o n
team was unable to detect a single error
in the direct support unit's log book.
The 100-percent accuracy rate contrib-
uted to .the unit's top rating.
"Production control keeps .on file
everything that moves. It's also respon-
sible for storing all the repaired parts
brought back from the maintenance
shops," said Mason.
Contact teams stand ready 24 hours
a day, seven days a week, for on-site
repair and servicing of equipment.
For Beas-Compo a n d his mainte-
nance crew, there's no better satisfac-
tion than "knowing you're the best in a
field that prides itself on a top-quality

by 1LT Johnny Primeau The first Sabre Awardsponsored by the U.S. Army Air Defense nrrl~leryAssociation is presentedto
.US. Military Academy Cadet Kevin M:Koziatek at Westpoint, N.Y. COL Norbert Koziatek, Kevin's
For all soldiers, training, from basic father (left) andCOLCharlie Johnson, the senior Air Defense Artillery officer at the USMA, join in
weapons to the most complex systems the ceremony. The association saber is given to honor the top air defense artillery cadet in the
in the Army inventory, is everything. class.Though the saber is being presented for the first time this year, it isanticipated that it will be
The 2nd Armored Division's "Over an annual award given by the association.Kevin'sfirst assignmentwill be with the 1/2 ADA.25th
**the Hill Gang" got a chance to test Inf..Div., Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. (Photo by SP4 Tony Kendall)
- 7
F I L L 1984
senior member of the president's staff Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery, operators to actually see the target
or the vice president. are in different stages of the 16-week they track and kill.
The program, according to the White modernization schedule. The program The ability to see the target enhances
House Fellowship Commission, pro- 'is expected to improve their defense the ~rob,abilities of accurate identifica-
vides "gifted a n d highly motivated posture reliability by 200 percent, tion and permits, in the case of multiple
young Americans with some firsthand according to CPT Keith McNamara, aircraft, the selection of a specific tar-
experience in the process of governing 10th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, get. The assessment of a target kill is
the nation a n d a sense of personal electronic missile maintenance officer. also greatly improved with visual
involvement in the leaders hi^ of the "Anything less would be too conser- contact.
society." Individuals are chosen based vative a n estimate. I consider 200 per- Another feature of the tracking ad-
on a demonstrated.potentia1for leader- cent a realistic measurement," he said. junct system is its quiet track. With the
ship and contribution to the The main features of this program radars off and not emitting a signal,
community. are thereliability, availability and main- operators can visually track aircraft
In selecting the fellows, the commis- tainability high-powered illuminator through the video monitor. Once the
sion sought leadership, intellectual radars (RAM HIPIR) and the tracking target h a s been locked on by the cam-
and professional abilities a s well a s adjunct system . era, the RAM HIPIR can be energized
commitment to community and nation. The RAM HIPIR h a s the same func- instantly and a missile fired.
DeShazer, a distinguished military tion a s the old HIPIR, but modern With the new equipment comes the
graduate of Central State University, solid-state circuitry makes the system need for a n intense training cycle.
Wilberforce, Ohio, earned his bache- virtually failsafe. A fault isolation pro- Charlie Battery's first sergeant,
lor's degree (magna cum laude) and gram within the system electronically Bennie Jordan, said, "The intense day-
commission in 1971. He h a s a master's locates any problems that occur, and to-day t r a i n i n g before turnover i s
degree in political science from the these are easily corrected using the really allowing the soldiers to learn all
University of Texas a t El Paso and is a system's replaceable circuit cards. the ins and outs of the present equip-
graduate of the Armed Forces Staff The number of adjustments possible ment, so when we take over the im-
College, Norfolk, Va. on this radar h a s been narrowed from proved system they'll have a secure
Given time and the right circum- more than 70 to four, and these can background to work from."
stances, he hopes to someday com- only beattended to by a system-trained Another initial stage of the program
mand a Patriot battalion. Following a mechanic. is a five-week training course in digital
productive military career, his long- The tracking adjunct system con- electronics taught by instructors from
range goal is to return to government sists of video cameras, mounted coax- the equipment manufacturer, Ray-
on the local, state or federal level. ially on the RAM HIPIR, and con- theon, to system mechanics.
In September he assumed his duties nected monitors inside the battery con- The last weeks of the program are
in his new position a s a White House trol center and platoon commmand devoted to in-depth training on site
Fellow for 1984-85. post. Visual capabilities given to the with the new equipment. Operational
President Lyndon Johnson estab- Hawk by the tracking adjunct system readiness evaluations test personnel
lished the White House Fellowshiws will, along with other benefits, allow and conclude the program.
program in 1964. The program is open
to U.S. citizens in the early stages of
their careers and from all occuwations
and professions. Federal government
employees are not eligible, with the
exception of career Armed Forces
Applications for the 1985-86program
are available from the President's Com-
mission on White House Fellowships,
712 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington
DC 20503. For more information, call
commercial (202) 395-4522.

by SP4 Laura Bower

Two batteries from 32nd U.S. Army
Air Defense Command, West Ger-
many, are entering the video-computer
age a s they undergo Phase I1 of the
Hawk Product Improvement Program. SGT Doris Spears, SGT David Lynn and SGT Robert Majica, C Battery, 2/2 ADA, perform a
Alpha and Charlie batteries of 2nd maintenance check on a Hawk launcher. (Photo by SP4 Laura Bower)

Air Defenders Score Hit in
Traininu Realism,, ,:,,., ., o., stapleton Daniel Ford

Tiny hairs raised on the back of SP5

Hernandez' neck when his driver, PFC
Kotter, cried, "Target at 3 o'clock."
Almost instantly the squad leader
shouted, "Contact." Quickly Hernan-
dez slewed t h e Vulcan 20mm gun
mount to acquire the target in the cen-
ter of his sight reticle. He responded,
"On target," pressing the foot switch to
attempt to lock on the radar. Hernan-
dez continued to track the unidentified
helicopter a s it flew nap-of-the-earth
about 2.5 kilometers away. I t was still
difficult to identify and, with the weap-
ons control status being weapons tight,
he cautioned himself to let it come
closer as he steadied his hands.
Hernandez continued to track a s the
helicopter, coming straight a t them,
skimmed over the earth. Suddenly it
opened fire on the guards spaced along
the bridge Hernandez' platoon was to
protect. Immediately, the squad leader
barked, "Hostile, engage." Without hes-
itation, Hernandez fired but didn't
bring the hostile craft down. The ready-
The MILES-equipped Chaparral simulates the signature of the Chaparral missile through flash,
to-fire lamp lit, he adjusted the sight
bang and smoke of the weapons effect signature simulator installed on the upper right launch rail.
reticle back onto the target and fired
again. Primed to fire once more, Her-
nandez watched a s the helicopter viding intensive training to thousands the armored vehicle. The transmitters
spewed smoke over its left skid and a of soldiers. Until April 1984, two vital are easily attached to a n 4 removed
bright light flashed. elements, MILES-equipped air defense from all hand-carried a n d vehicle-
The Vulcan gunner had scored a hit. and aviation, were missing from the mounted weapons.
He knew it, the enemy knew it, and so totally integrated battlefield. This gap The arriving pulses are sensed by
did the troops he was there to protect, is quickly being narrowed with the detectors, amplified a n d then com-
even though the Vulcan was only fir- shipment of the first production sys- pared to a threshold level. If the pulses
ing dummy ammunition. The Vulcan tems of air-ground engagement simu- exceed the threshold, a single bit is reg-
a n d t h e a t t a c k helicopter were lation for air defense. The svstem that istered in the detection logic. Once a
equipped, for the first time, with multi- proved so successful on the ground is proper arrangement of bits exists, cor-
ple integrated laser engagement sys- now available for air defenders and responding to a valid code for a par-
tem (MILES) detectors and firing sys- aviation personnel. ticular weapon, the decoder decides
tems. MILES, a t long last, gives air whether the code is a near-miss or a hit.
defenders a more realistic role to play How It Works If a hit is registered, a hierarchy deci-
in today's training scenarios. All MILES transmitters emit invisi- sion is made to determine if this type of
MILES provides the most realistic ble pulses of laser radiation in the weapon can indeed cause a kill against
training device available today. I t uses infrared region. These laser pulses are this particular target and, if so, what
eye-safe laser transmitters that shoot coded so that they take on the charac- the probability of the kill might be.
coded "bullets" of infrared energy to teristics of the weapon they are at- Coding, along with internal logic, pre-
simulate the effects of live ammuni- tached to by approximating the effec- vents other infrared sources, such a s
tions. It was developed by Loral Electro- tive range and lethality of that weapon the sun, from causing false alarms.
Optical Systems, Inc., under contract system. An M-16, for example, h a s a n Probability of kill depends upon the
to the Army. approximate range of 460 meters and type of vehicle and the type of weapon
Since MILES inception more than 10 would be ineffective against armored code received. This information has
years ago, systems have been deployed targets. However, it would be effective been incorporated into the electronics
to more than 25 sites worldwide, pro- against the personnel exposed outside logic of each MILES-equipped vehicle
FALL 1984
simulated. The launch tube contains launch is simulated by the firing of one which make it vulnerable to attack by
a n anti-tank weapons effect signature of the four onboard ATWESS car- opposing MILES weapons.
simulator (ATWESS) device which, if tridges t h a t contain pyrotechnic
proper launch procedures are followed, charges which ignite during each mis- Now and the Future
ignites to simulate the flash, smoke sile firing. Laser detector belts are at- The current family of MILES simu-
and sound of a missile launch. To tached to the vehicle making it vulner- lated weapons includes most systems
achieve a kill, sighting and launch able to attack by opposing MILES found in the combined arms battle-
procedures must be followed. This sys- weapons. field. Fielded simulators range from
tem is completely self-contained and The Vulcan transmitter mounts on M-16 rifles and M-1 tanks to Stinger
requires little effort to be put into opera- the range-only-radar antenna and sim- and attack helicopters. Codes for more
tion. The Stinger gunner wears a man- ulates firing effects of the 20mm can- than 30 additional weapons have been
worn laser detector and is vulnerable to non by transmitting a coded laser mes- programmed into the MILES.
other MILES fire. sage. For aerial targets, the Vulcan is With the close of the Vietnam con-
The MILES Chaparral consists of a used in the radar or manual mode. If flict, combat-seasoned officers and
laser transmitter that simulates the the gunner engages the targets in the NCOs have either left the service or
effects of a Chaparral missile, a com- radar mode (full radiate), he is re- were promoted to positions of higher
bat vehicle kill indicator and a weap- warded by having three laser tubes responsibility. The Army hopes to use
ons effect signature simulator. The fire. If the gunner does not, he will MILES to train the green, inexperi-
simuls$sr provides a signature of the receive only one laser-tube firing. For enced soldier to seasoned-soldier status
Chapam1 missile through flash, bang ground targets, the Vulcan can only be without the use of real bullets and the
a n d smoke. All are attached to a used in the manual mode. Visual effect possibility of injury.
MILES rail assembly that is installed of 20mm firings is provided by use of Another benefit of the MILES is that
on the upper right launch rail. The the flash weapons effect signature sim- it forces soldiers to aim their weapon to
Chaparral simulator is fired in the ulator which produces high-intensity suppress or kill the enemy-thus, it
same manner as the weapon system, f l a s h e s when t h e MILES 20mm also serves a s a gunnery trainer in the
using the actual firing circuitry, con- weapon fires. Laser detector belts are tactical exercise. And finally, MILES
trols a n d sight assembly. Missile attached to the perimeter of the vehicle uses the actual firing circuitry of the
systems on which they are mounted. It
forces operators and maintenance per-
sonnel to ensure their equipment
is operational-or they will only be

I This cockpit kill indicator contains lights and

switches that allow the pilot to visually moni-
tor the MILES equipment attached to,bis craft.

George Stapleton is a training

systems analyst with Loral Electro-
Optical Systems, Pasadena, Calif. He
holds a bachelorPsdegree in engineer-
ing from the U.S. Military Academy
and a master's degree in political sci-
ence from Auburn University. He is a
graduate of the U.S. Air Force Com-
mand and Staff College and the U.S.
Army War College.

CPT Daniel P. Ford is the air defense

branch chief for AGEWAD at Fort
Eustis, Va. He's a graduate of the Air
Defense Artillery Officer Basic and
Advanced Courses and has received
Hawk, SHORAD and Nike Hercules
instruction at the Air DefenseArtillery
Center and School. He received his
bachelor's degree in economics from
the University of Arkansas.
Powerful 'Here' Conquers Foe
in Last Match .-p&;

The last U.S. Nike Hercules missile streak'sinto history at the NATO Missile Firing Installation on thethe idand of Crete,
Greece. The missile, known for its speed and accuracy, is being dropped from the U.S. inventory.(Photo by SSG Frank
- '. . Cox)
1 ,

. Thirty y&rs iga, the US, Army b r -
rowed &e name for its nkwmt air d e
~ r & kmyth01agy~This ~unim&i,Itae
A m 3 kwnd once again to Greaee m
the powddN&e Hettlllm m M e w m
~ Q rwith d a Rn@ live &g on the-
Gr&k aana at C m t
N~mehle&m N&Q. t.h~goddm af -
Y i q r y , and H e q I a , ,a,pow@u? hey ,
rioted fhr liillhg a lion with hie b&w
ere#& '

frszll ih US.h ~ a idefenst~.mimiion

with h m m
D61t.a Ba&ery.,3zd Battalio~,71k A&
- &fen- Arhillw, We& h a s l g t , ma-
i&cM*-b& IasrUa.i p k a f t & dmib
its pmt of mir muiudmviw practice ' '

at the .NATU W e . F i r i n g.h~&a1la-.

tion, located north of Sauh b y . [See ;
Matid &tomPage 8.1
T%o df the
W.&-a~df*&& .- F N ~m m I y m . ~80S.&0&
af @p 1-t fir- wm s
f peffarm a ayswm cheek rm the mainbody of the k8t NjkdHswule6
&issile &:bfired by UX. rnidlenven during tttsir ASP
. on . Crste. 4Pfiom by SSG b31k: 6@0
'1 the program when th6 "Herd e n w
' flie &&tiendd~feEi;aein~entaiyE i tla'g . . 'a Pd&ile$B, in &dig 'aHt firings &rfiw $asg&. '

lab 19Mb-Both n%en*ncs aab&+- t (Hekulm) raund at M A G P ~ R ~iaQ

*~ '

N EHwm1m ~ has timtkqgad a -

adieu $en@+ -the Q ~ aWm a V n d . ( ~ a * ~ w ~ ~ e x ~ & ,sprbg d e h e target at an g~titudea&rx~150~00Qf&,
' &m~ankmajor-wtqiidy~ walthgta @j9,
' a
hn waf.hqmv atarget moving faster thap 2,-OOQ mph ~ ,

. smthet%nd+fanera. . . "@MWichaeld, f3b+ie&, 3r& Bhttd- .' ah& a target at & mag&in bxeess 4 4 8 '

" BG(P) J. Hollis Y. P+~c& JR, 32114 i g n k w b p e w dma,j ~ ~ i ~ ~ mg

, i b .e , n ~ ~ .,
0.5: Arm$ Air befens4 Command . was *gh the pg-arn in 195$-b'f j* Anpy tmqmap haw m+d ~ e & l ~ g.
- S' d e ~ ~ Y0 y~ W ~ W m e, w ,*?+a the @a1 &clib a t the fiercdes is fidshd - ill the continental U n i M Skktes;
'- p e t e g e , gth8ngh akthe time it felt - with;the.U.S.Army; but the Ratriot is Hawhii,. Alaska, weitern Eur'i>p&,

more like But& m y s b m a a . ' q-g,:,:' he,+ '


Tl& ~ i k e ~ e r m l m i ~ & ~ w n d g0Binav~i.and


e ~man
&wnhna. Q%w,~&na
- the H e ~ a u h%y@m ir&~lude
. Itdy, Denmark* Noiway, .Prance;
Bslginrn, Ne$hedands, Wet Gemwy, -
Turkey,'3"aiwarq and Gmxe.
A.E' t k last U.8. ,Wig,'fie.&sil'e .
- prformed, iia dutim wit&. &e mm'e .
by John R. Pliler

Visual aircraft recognition (VACRJ skills are not easy to

T heVACR training task is not impos-
sible and the extra degree of task
difficulty should not prevent any air
teach or learn, and once learned the skills are nor easily
defender from attaining acceptable air- maintained.
craft identification skills.
The reauirement for visual identifi-
cation of aircraft is emphasized in
many publications, including the Quad- Five seconds are allotted for the identi- - a t any aircraft notpositively identified
ripartite Standardization Agreement fication of each aircraft following pre- a s friendly.
(Q-STAG) 699, JCS publications and sentation, and 10 seconds are allotted The key words are positive identifi-
short-range air defense (SHORAD)doc- for writing down (reporting) the air- cation. Remember that the SHORAD
trinal manuals. Effective VACR train- craft. The goal is a firm 100 percent squad or crew must be able to detect,
ing is vital due in part to the increasing correct identification. identify and engage hostile aircraft.
ranges at which enemy aircraft can Frequently asked questions concern- Further, they must be able to detect,
engage their targets or conduct recon- ing the VACR task are: identify and ensure that friendly air-
naissance tasks, the increasing ranges craft are not destroyed by friendly air
in which SHORAD units can engage Why don't w e train to identify defense fires.
aircraft and the operational ambigui- threat aircraft only and assume
ties inherent in the current electronic everything else is friendly?

Why don't w e just idendify air-
identification, friend or foe system. craft as friend or foe instead o f by
The VACR training m u s t prepare Why don,t we train to identify name and/ol: number?
SHoRAD'gunners detect, friendly aircraft only and assume
or identify aircraft at a. distance that else is.threatB
will allow SHORAD. units to engage Again, military sales and supply of
hostile aircraft before they can carry tactical aircraft by the Soviet Union,
out their tasks and to detect, identify There are valid reasons why both the United States and its allies to many
and ensure that friendly aircraft are threat and friendly aircraft are in- other countries, combined with the
not engaged. cluded in the task. Potentially hos- changing political leanings of some
Present a n d future challenges to tile nations maintain U.S., allied and nations, make i t uncertain which air-
VACR product developers, trainers Soviet-manufactured aircraft in their craft will be "friends" a n d which
and observers are to identify the appro- inventories. Some friendly countries will be "foes" in future theaters of
priate task and standards for training, have Soviet-manufactured aircraft operation.
to identify and develop training media such a s the Su-7, MiG-21 and Mi-8. Secondly, threat aircraft are iden-
and to train up to and beyond the cur- Aircraft configuration alone does tified and reported by type and name
rent standards. Thus, VACR task not necessarily indicate geopolitical to the intelligence community to aid
standards outlined in SHORAD sol- persuasion. them in their assessment of threat
dier's manuals are to identify visually One air defense artillery rule of en- capabilities.
by NATO name and alphanumeric des; gagement (weapons tight) states that Thirdly, in order to reach a positive
ignation a minimum of 90 percent or the air defender can fire only a t aircraft friend or foe decision, the current
more of 40 threat and friendly aircraft. positively identified a s hostile, accord- wings, engine, fuselage, tail (WEFT)
ing to the prevailing hostile criteria,
. ~- Another -ruleof engagement. (weapons
principals of training must befollowed. tween the instructor .and.student dur- rials, the question should which
Once the soldier has reached the level i n g initial-entry training and introduc- medium is best for VACR training, but
of competence in these WEFT princi- tion of new .aircraft, and the media rather which is best suited for a partic-
pals, it is a relatively minor task to must be flexible during this critical ular training situation.
teach or learn the-aircraft's name or learning period. The ground observer Other current and future training
number. aircraft recognition (GOAR) kit or aids are:
And finally, since some aircraft are other slide kit a n d FM 44-30, Visual
impossible to .classify absolutely as Aircraft Recognition, arethe preferred Ground Observer Aircraft Recog-
"friend or foe," a criterion test of those media for this task. n i t i o n Kit-The most recent revision
aircraft (both institutional and i n the Training to and beyond standards of this kit was May 1978.The GOAR kit
field) is also impossible a t the level of and sustainment training while in gar- is considered a viable training device
"friend or foe." rison requires a system that can be and will be retained and used by units
Both the approach to VACR training used by the soldier alone or with a until it is replaced, despite some prob-
to the skill level required and the main- small group. The media selections for lems. Only 540 sets were produced, and
tenance of that skill level must be this training are VACR training exten- all of these were issued to field units.
addressed when types of training me- sion course (TEC) lessons, FM 44-30 There are no replacement kits avail-
dia are being selected and developed. and Army correspondence course pro- able. In some cases the kits are.deterio-
Because of the complexity of the sub- gram subcourses. rating because of constant use and
ject and the fact that exercises with Flash cards, playing cards.and FM d u p l i c a t i o n . Some t r a i n i n g a n d
actual aircraft are impractical, mul- 44-30 are best suited for training sol- audiovisual support centers are reluc-
timedia techniques have been or are diers on maneuvers because of limited tant to duplicate faulty slides which
being developed for various training access to power sources. would turn out a n inferior product. The
situations. In addition, graphic training aids best slides from several GOAR kits
There must be a close exchange b e posters are offered to keep the soldier should be assembled when reproduc-
up-to-datewith current tactical aircraft tion is required.
drawings and data. After the develop-
ment and fielding of training m a t e

istered frequently and in short train

WEFT-The wings, engine, fuselage,

tail (WEFT) theory of visual aircraft
recognition training is the teaching

the last aircraft selection board aeet-

H-60 Black Ha

FALL t984 15

'. r
A 'st

b e '

.dm k

WINGS PA^-- n i a o mrrrus 3 LENGTH ----- 17 MEI~RS

v- -----
SPttD ----------I40 KNOlS
RANGE----------- 482 NILOMtIERS
n SPEED ------- 1,sn K N O ~ S
SPEED------ 1,420 MOTS WNGt ------ 1,000 KIlOMtIlM

CIA 44 2 9 Fqg 27 GTA 44 2 9 ha RANGE ----- 12,000 KlLOMntRS

0 or* *a 2 OF,q 1Z

GTA 44-2-9 (formerly 44-2-6)-
Visual aircraft recognition playing
cards 44-2-6, now available in limited
quantities, will be replaced in the first
* fielded in October 1983. A revision is
scheduled for 1986. The reviion will
include a"How to Train" chapter, and
the bluetinted background will be d e
quarter FY85 as 44'2-9. GTA 44-2-5and leted so photographs and line draw-
44-2-8 aircraft wall posters will be up- ings can be locally reproduced.
dated in 1985. Visual aircraft recognition training
is being updated through revisions of
Future Slide Kit-A slide kit is cur-
rently under study for development
d resident courses t h a t have signifi-
cantly reduced the number of students
using the same format a s the GOAR
kit, except the slides would have a
A failing theVACR course. Additionally,
the officer basic course will include
standard color for the background with -
VACR training of 22 aircraft begin-
a contrasting color for the aircraft.
Also the kit would include only 48
aircraft-the 40 aircraft listed i n
SHORAD soldier's manuals, plus eight
1-15 u c l r (USA)
wlnGsPAn -13 MntRs
SPftD ---- 1,bW 10101s
alncr ----3,200 KILOMET~RS
* ning in the near future.
Several feasibility studies concern-
ing VACR products are nowbin prog-
ress and field units will b e updated.
additional aircraft that have been ,,,A 4., 9,q ,, These studies range from slide sets,
added to international inventories moving target simulator film runs, new
since the last aircraft selection board and revised ~ o s t e r and
s flash cards t o
meeting, or older aircraft in some inven- computer-generated imagery. In addi-
tories that are critical in some areas. tion, multimedia VACR training aids
The kit could be updated to add aircraft bad indications. The tapes are contin- and materials have been recently, or
as they are fielded. uous reel so random selection cannot will soon be, developed and fielded.
be made while training or testing. I t These products, plus a good VACR
VACR TEC Lessons-These lessons must be pointed out, however, that training program, will transform a dif-
have been in development for several trails and validations were made dur- ficult task into a n easier one while pro-
years and 100 sets (one set equals 13 ing the TEC development phase which ducing a n acceptable aircraft identifi-
lessons) were produced and issued to prove that VACR training objectives cation skill level for all air defenders
Chaparral a n d Vulcan air defense can be met by using these lessons.
units in May 1983. A full issue will be Once soldiers have studied these les-
achieved in the first quarter of FY85. sons sufficiently, testing can be done
Several sets were delivered to Fort Bliss with any training medium.
l e a r n i n g centers, t h e developing John R . Pliler is a training specialist
branch and several tenant units. Upon F'MLtl30,VisualW~tion- with the SHORAD Weapons and Elec-
receipt, these lessons were found to be This comprehensive manual with pho- tronics Department, USAADASCH,
in good condition, although a few defec- tographs, line drawings and descrip- and is the current point of contact for
tive Beseler Cue/See tapes gave some tive data on more than 100 aircraft was VACR products and materials. He has
been a VACR instructor with the 1st
ADA Training Brigade.
1 I

~ ~ ! R V
i .
lo" Wah"11,' k h a n
'' ~ u r i t i ~ .
infantry con,ma'nders discpWed
ciths ahd in&triif site; -
The division of th& air deknse
m e d i u m - t ~ - ~ ~ h a l t i t u b e - der
air r
fense of strategic asse'ts. The Ger-
that Luftwaffe (German air.force) artillery missions, ac(rornpCishsd in man arrangement, sipiEar to the
air defense artillery units provided the midst of bitter campaigning on Japanese Self-DefenseFdrce @Not-
inadequate air defense for their ' the Eastern Front and North Africa, ment of air defense artillery roles,
maneuver fvrces. The army, as a continues today i n the Federal sfiould interest American air de- '
result, created its own air defen* ~epublic'~f Germany M e r e the fense artilterists since such r, div-
artillery )o defend its infantry and West German army is responsible ision of roles between the U.S. Air
panzLpr units, while .Luftwaffe air for short-rahge air defense of force and U.S. Army is a eureot '
d=fbnse artiflery continued to en- ma'neuv& forces and the West topic of diseussjoo.
gage Allied bombers over German Germgn air force is charged with

Federal Republic of Germany air d e of World War 11, proving a s effective night with the aid of searchlights.
fenders trace their history back to the against Allied tanks a s against Allied I n 1935, when conscription was re-
Franco-Prussian War. German field ar- aircraft. sumed between the two world wars, Air
tillerymen used two 3.7cm cannons, At the beginning of World War I, Defense Artillery became a branch
specifically designed for that purpose, however, Germany had only a few air within the Luftwaffe (German air
during the siege of Paris to fire a t defense guns to counter 1,200 Allied force) which took over the responsibil-
French communication balloons, en- aircraft and therefore improvised by ity for the air defense of the homeland
gaging 66 French balloons before modifying a variety of field artillery a s well a s of the field army. At the
finally downing one on Nov. 12,1870. cannons, machine guns and rifles for beginning of World War 11, Germany
This early air defense initiative was air defense. During the war, the first possessed the most extensive and mod-
not resumed until 1906when the poten- range-finding devices, searchlights ern air defense in the world-1,200
tial military importance of the Zeppelin and sound detectors were fielded and heavy, medium andlight flak batteries
and the first airplanes were recognized. deployed, and barrage fire was re- and 180 searchlight batteries. Impor-
The first of the new model anti-aircraft placed by directly aimed fire when the tant developments during the war in-
gunswas a5cm gun Kw-BaK(Kraftwagen- first technical device for lead measur- cluded twin and quadruple flak guns,
Ballonabwehrkamne) by Rheinmetall, ing became available, Fire units of pla- light and heavy self-propelled flak
followed, in 1916, by the more impor- toons and batteries replaced single gun guns, railway flak guns, air defense
tant Krupp model 8.8cm Kw-Bak which deployment. By the end of World War I, missiles and target detecting and track-
led to the famous 8.8cm flak (Flugab- a total of 2,600 flak guns, including ing devices.
wehrkanone [flug flier + abwehr calibers 2cm, 3.7cm, 5cm, 6.5cm, In 1941, it became obvious that the
defense + kanone cannon]) gun. Fielded 7.62cm, 7.7cm, 8cm, 8.8cm, 9c and Luftwaffe was not able to provide suf-
in 1918near the end of World War I, the 10.5cm, had been fielded, and 1,590 air ficient protection to the fie!d army in
8.8cm flak gun was a versatile and targets (airplanes and balloons) had the combat zone. I t was then that the
effective weapon. It was later to become been successfully engaged, a figure army began to establish air defense
the most famous and most feared gun that included 51 aircraft shot down a t units (HeeresFlakabteilungen), mainly

FALL 1984
as divisional air defense. They were When the Euromissile air defense and his staff in the Ministry of Defense.
equipped with 8.8cm, 3.7cm and 2cm Roland system became the primary Besides several other army agencies,
flak guns. During the war many of corps air defense weapon a t the begin- the General Army Office commanding
these units became well known for ning of the 1980s, the L-70 was not general commands the army branch
their ability to also fight opposing phased out because its technology was schools. The Army Air Defense Artil-
ground forces. The 8.8cm, for example, still modern and a high number of L 7 0 lery School is located a t Rendsburg in
established such a fearsome reputation trained reservists was available. The Northern Germany.
as a n anti-tank weapon that, accord- L-70 was retained by the corps Roland The Army Air Defense Artillery
ing to the official U.S. Army history of regiments and became the weapon sys- Branch has a peacetime personnel
the war, U.S. troops invaribly attrib- tem assigned to two small equipment- strength of about 10,700 soldiers. In
uted any high velocity cannon fire to holding air defense battalions a t corps wartime this number will grow to more
8.8cms. level. The Redeye air defense missile than 17,600. The Army Air Defense
system became a secondary weapon Artillery School and the school's train-
for the divisional air defense battalion ing battalion, which in wartime will
Army Air Defense Artillery
in 1972. form the corps LandJut Air Defense
in the Bundeswehr
The history of German air defense Artillery Regiment 600, is composed of
forces was interrupted by the total dis- Army Air Defense Artillery Today
one Roland, one Gepard and one L70
armament of Germany in May 1945. Today the West German Army Air battalion. Other main components of
But when the Bundeswehr (West Ger- Defense Artillery is a n independent the branch, which is composed solely
man armed forces) was created in 1956, branch within the army's Combat Sup- of short-range air defense units, are
many veterans were called to serve in port Troops. Other combat support three corps air defense commands,
the new army air defense artillery of troops are Field Artillery, the Corps of three Roland regiments, 11 Gepard
the Bundeswehr, which h a s now Engineers, Topography and Nuclear, Gun regiments and six Bofors L70
existed longer than either the Reichs- Biological and Chemical branches. Gun battalions which serve as equip-
wehr or the Wehrmacht, the armies The combat s u ~ ~ ot rr ot o ~ sare suDer- ment holding units.
which fought World War I and World vised by the ~ e n e r a lcombat
, support
War 11.Initial planning aimed a t estab- Troops of the German General Army Mission/Threat
lishing one air defense battalion or- Office in Cologne. Part of the Depart- Army Air Defense Artillery forces
ganic to each of the newly created 12 ment of Combat Support Troops is the fight hostile aircraft a t low a n d
West German army divisions. A few Army Air Defense Section, run by a n medium altitudes and thereby defend
years later the air defense battalion of assistant chief of staff (0-6). His staff is their own troops and vital installations
the 1st Airborne Division was dis- mainly engaged in the doctrinal and and facilities against air attack, air
banded. The 11 remaining divisional o p e r a t i o n a l requirements of t h e reconnaissance and airborne opera-
air defense battalions are still opera- branch, including the training, organi- tions, with first priority given to ma-
tional today. zation and planning of the develop- neuver forces and artillery. The air
The author joined the army i n April ment of Army Air Defense Artillery. defense artillery forces thus help main-
1957. Together with the first Bundes- The General Army Office is a special tain the operational freedom of the
wehr air defenders, he was trained on staff to the Chief of Staff of the Army land forces in the forward combat zone.
U.S. Quad 50-caliber machine guns
mounted on half tracks. Later that
year, the Quad 50 was replaced by the
M-42 "Duster," which became the pri-
mary army air defense system. The
West German army also deployed, for a The famed German
short time, two 75mm Skysweeper bat- "eighty-eight" of World
War II made the word
talions. The Duster served as the pri-
"flak" part of the English
mary army air defense system until the language. At left is an
late 1970s when it was replaced, along 8.8cm Flak 36, at right is
with the Skysweeper, by the current an 8.8cm Flak 18.
divisional air defense gun, the 35mm
twin Gepard.
In 1960, the 40mm Bofors L70 air
defense gun system was integrated by
including a battery equipped with that
weapon system in each divisional air
defense battalions, a n arrangement
that resulted in battalions with a mixed
composition of three Duster batteries
and one towed L-70 battery. In the
early 1970s, the L-70 batteries formed a
separate corps air defense battalion
within each of the three army corps.

KorpsFlaKdr 1
FlaRgt 7
FlaRgt 100 Corps Air Defence
FlaRgt 300
KorpsFlaKdr 3
Figure 2. West German Army Air Defense
FlaRgt 5
units within the corps which include
FlaRgt 12 the corps air defense Roland regiment,
REGENSBURG \ the two corps air defense G70 battal-
ions and the divisional air defense

FlaRgt 4 Gepard regiments.
TO this end, the commander closely
ULM cooperates with the Luftwaffe liaison
teams to the corps commzind, the air
KorpsFlaKdr 2
defense operations liaison teams and
the air support operations center as

Figure 1. ADA Unit Locations

The air threat is characterized by a

FlaRgt 10

- .- -F
, 2%-
- d

ground-based electronic counter-
well a s with the corps army aviation
command and other airspace users.
The Roland regiment and the Gepard
regiments have not been broken down
into battalions. However, the regi-
ments have been provided two staff
elements, each of which are prepared to
take over battalion command duties.
great number of highly sophisticated, measures. Assigned two or three firing batteries
airborne weapon systems which can and certain elements of the headquar-
penetrate the airspace of the Federal Air Defense Weapon Systems ter battery and supply and support
Republic of Germany in a variety of The current organization of the army battery, these elements can form so-
types and profiles. Besides the well- air defense forces is shown in Figure 2. called air defense task forces while one
known spectrum of threat criteria, two Organic to each of the three West Ger- of two firing batteries may remain
factors have to be carefully observed: man national corps is a corps army air under the regiment's immediate com-
the increasing number of all-weather- defense command whose commanding mand.
capable threat aircraft and the threat officer, an 0-6, is in charge of air d e Each Roland and Gepard squad con-
capability of supporting all air opera- fense mmmand and control and air- sists of three crews that allow the
- tibns with massive airborne a n d space control for all army air defense systems to be operated on a 24-hour
basis. The Gepard squad is addition- to engage attacking hostile aircraft their respective weapon system com-
ally equipped with Redeyes which, dur- before they can deliver their weapon parable to the U.S. Army's one station
ing daylight, are operated by one of the loads. unit training), the recruits are trans-
three crews. Convoy defense can either be con- ferred to those firing batteries of the
ducted with air defense units inte- regiment that need a personnel fill-up.
Principles of Employment grated in the march columns or prepo- The fill-up is always accomplished by
Army Air Defense Artillery forces sitioned along the route of march. platoons.
will be employed during wartime based Again, preference will be given to pre- The training of Roland and Gepard
on the plans of operations of the corps, positioning for the same reasons that squads and platoons is organized and
division and brigade commanders who make stationary point defense a choice conducted by the battery commanders
will take into consideration the advice of preference. on the basis of a n overall training plan
of their respective air defense com-
manders. The corps G70 battalions
will be employed in the corps rear area
where, because of their limited mobil-
ity, they will mainly protect assets by
stationary point defense. The platoon
is the fire unit. I t consists of two guns,
one tracking radar and a power supply
The corps Roland regiment will be
predominantly employed in the corps
rear area, but may also reinforce the
divisional Gepard regiments by one or Mounted on a Leopard
tank chasis, the Gepard
two Roland batteries.
hasa maximum speed of
The divisional Gepard regiment will 65 miles per hour.
defend maneuver forces, artillery and
other assets in the division area. It will
assign its air defense task forces, which
may also include a Roland battery, to
two of the division's brigades and use
the remaining battery or batteries for Army air defense units have been, to a n d guidance by t h e regimental
the defense of a reserve brigade, the a certain extent, dependent on the sur- commander.
divisional artillery or other assets. veillance radars of their weapon sys- Battery training, in the form of field
Every allocation of air defense units tems for airspace surveillance and training exercises or live firings, is
is task-limited. In other words, new early warning. External early warning conducted by the regimental staff.
missions will be given along with new has been provided by the antiquated Each battery has to undergo a n inspec-
allocations of air defense units after a regimental TPS-1E surveillance radar tion (comparable to the U.S. Army
certain task has been fulfilled. Com- and, when possible, through liaison ARTEP) by the regimental commander
manders, however, will see to it that, teams stationed with the nearest Hawk and his staff every 15 months. Train-
whenever possible, the same task for- unit or air force ground observation ing highlights are field training exer-
ces or batteries will remain with "their" post. This will radically change with cises on maneuver brigade, division or
brigades or battalions on the basis of the fielding of the Army Air Defense corps level with allied forces partici-
habitual association, although habit- Surveillance and Control System in pating. Single batteries, air defense
ual associations do not exist officially. the early 19908,the first stage of which task forces or entire regiments are
The Roland or Gepard squad is the will be initiated by fielding two new trained and tested in warlike situa-
fire unit. The lowest tactical unit is the surveillance radar systems, the low- tions and conduct annual live-firing
battery. Platoons will not be employed level surveillance radar and the air exercises on West German and allied
independently; this applies to a rein- surveillance radar, beginning in 1988. air defense firing ranges.
forcing Roland battery a s well. Gepard firing against air targets is
Whenever there is a choice, prefer- Training conducted a t Todendorf Firing Range.
ence will be given to stationary point Army air defense training is con- The more advance crews fire on Sardi-
defense in order to take advantage of ducted in field units a s well as a t the nia, Italy, where they can alternately
prepared firing positions i n well- Army Air Defense Artillery School. engage air and ground targets. Roland
known terrain, a tactic that allows Basic training for draftees a s well a s units, which conducted firing exercises
manportable air defense systems to be volunteers is performed by one of the on Crete from 1979 to 1983, began fir-
employed supplementary to the Gepard six firing batteries of each Roland and ing a t the Centre d'Essais de la Medi-
and thus form a weapon mix. In mobile Gepard regiment. This additional terranee Firing Range in southern
point defense, Gepard and Roland training task rotates to another bat- France in 1984. Redeye firing has been
units will accompany "their" maneu- tery about every two years. practiced since 1974 a t McGregor
ver forces during attacks or delaying After 12 weeks of basic training Range, Fort Bliss, Texas.
actions a t distances that enable them (which includes special training on Officers and NCO air defense train-
ing is conducted at the Army Air
Defense ArtiIlery School a t Rendsburg
i n northern West Germany. For spe-
cific air defense training purposes,
such as the training of Gepard and
Roland commandants and gunners,
the school (as well as every regiment)
uses a variety of technical training
devices that enable the instructor per-
sonnel to teach and drill the students
effectively and thoroughly before al-
lowing them to perform on the weapon
The Army Air Defense Artillery
School, with one training department
for small unit self-defense training
against air attack a t Todendorf Firing
Range, annually trains roughly 4,500
students, rangingfrom young NCOs to
field grade officers, i n 76 different
courses. The school's Special Staff for
Combat and Training De.telopments
conducts the field testing of new air
defense e a u i ~ m e n tand develo~sair West German'sRoland air defense missile system hasan effective range of 6,000 metersand can
defense field manuala and training travel at speeds of 70 kilometers per hour.

The Future --aa----aa --aa---

The main tasks of Army Air Defense
Artillery in the near future will be to L- - - - - -- - 3 Alr -------- FIX 3
redace Redeye with Stinger, to field by CPT Pierre Warweitzky and CPT Anton Mages
the~rm ~ ~ibefense
r surveillance and
Control System and to initiate the nec- The air defense forces of the Federal
essary technical improvements of the Republic of Germany.are part of the
Gepard and Roland air defense weapon integrated air defense of NATO and
systems. are thus assigned, even in peacetime,
to Allied Forces Central Europe
With some of our allies employing
(AFCENT), one of Supreme Allied
the same short-range air defense weap-
Command Europe's three regional
on systems a s the German army and
commands which include Allied For-
with the continued development of new
ces Northern Europe and Allied Forces
and increasingly effective weapon sys-
Southern Europe. The Commander-in-
tems, short-range a i r defense for
Chief, Central Europe exercises opera-
NATO land forces has been constantly
tional command over air defense forces
modernized and improved. For the pres-
through the Commander, -Allied Air
mt, as well a s in the foreseeable future, Forces Central Europe.
~tmay well be assessed a stronghold in In 1960, NATO decided to expand its
Iur overall deterrence capability. air defense belt in Europe so it would
reach from northern Norway to Tur-
key. An air defense system consisting
LTC Guenter Schroeder has been,
of radar sites, command posts, air de-
since 198 1, the German army liaison
fense missile units and fighter wings
officer to the U.S. Army Air Defense
was emplaced close to the border to
Artillery School, Fort Bliss, Texas. An
make NATO's strategic concept a real-
ity. In the Federal Republic of Ger-
air defender for more than 27 years,
he has served as a Duster battalion
many, the heart of Central Europe, air
defense systems are deployed in sev-
commander, Gepard regimental execu-
eral belts.
tive officer and as the commander of
the officers and officer cadets training Operational control of AFCENT for-
inspection unit of the West German
ces is assigned to the 2nd Allied Tacti-
Army Air Defense Artillery School. cal Air Force and the 4th Allied Tadi-
cal Air Force. The 2nd Allied Tactical
The agreement will reinforce the
close working r.elationship between the
Luftwaffe air defense forces and the
U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery, a
relationship which has made the U.S.
Army Air Defense Artillery School,
Fort Bliss, Texas, a second home for
German air defense artillerymen.
West German Air Force Air Defense
With the deployment of 15 air defense
missile units in the early 1960s, it
became obvious that the German Air
Force Air Defense School (GAFADS)
a t Aachen, due to infrastructural lim-
itations, could no longer meet training
requirements for Nike Hercules and
Hawk; The installation a t Aachen was
turned over. to the German army.
GAFADS was faced with the alter-
native of either building new facilities
or accepting the United States' offer to
train its soldiers a t the U.S. Army Air
Defense Artillery School a t Fort Bliss.
Fort Bliss offered many advantages.
The installation met reauirements for
quarters,.office buildings, technical
areas and the installation of weapon
The Luftwaffe's new Air Defense ~ r o u n d . ~ n v i r o n m e command
nt and,control system provides. systems. The U.S. Army offer to pro-
surveillance data to command centers from a large number of diverse radars. vide equipment maintenance, supply,
Air Force protects the airspace of west- tocol between the United States and security and health care support would.
ern and northern West Germany, the t h e Federal Republic. The United free GAFADS to concentrate its per-
Netherlands, Belgium a n d Luxem- States will provide West Germany with sonnel in training tasks. The warm,
bourg and is assigned German, Brit- 12 tactical Patriot fire units, plus two dry climate promised to reduce equip-
ish, D.utch and Belgian forces to accom- additional units for training, mainte- ment breakdown, thereby ensuring
plish its mission. Southern Germany is nance and logistical support. These high operational readiness. Last, but
protected by American and West Ger- systems will be manned, operated.and not least, the U.S. Army Air Defense
man forces of the 4th Allied Tactical supported by the Luftwaffe air defense Center could offer expert service and
Air Force. forces. West Germany will procure advice in all work areas.
Tactical control is conducted by sec- from the United States 12 tactical fire GAFADS moved to. Fort Blies, June
tor o~erationscenters with associated units, plus two spare systems for train- 8, 1966, becoming the largest German
control and reporting centers which ing, maintenance and logistical sup- Luftwaffe training organization out-
perform minute-to-minute control of port. Luftwaffe air defense forces will side of Europe. Its mission is to provide
the attached air defense missile units man, operate and support a n addi- tactical. technical and advanced train-
and fighter wings. tional 12 U.S.-owned Patriot fire units ing of officers and enlisted personnel of
The Luftwaffe (West German air for 10 years in the 4th Allied Tactical Luftwaffe air defense and artillery mis-
force) provides the following forces for Air Force sector. sile units; represent the Luftwaffe a t
the air defense of Central Europe and West Germany, under terms of the U.S. Army training installations in
the Federal Republic of Germany: protocol, will also provide 27 Roland training matters concerning all surface-
Six Nike Hercules battalions fire units for the defense of three U.S. to-air and surface-to-surface missile
Nine Hawk battalions air bases in West Germans. The West weapon systems procured by the Luft-
Two F-4F Phantom fighter wings German Air Force air defense forces waffe, and to serve as liaison to various
Four regiments to operatecommand will man, operate and support these U.S. training installations.
and control and reporting centers systems for 10 years. West Germany GAFADS is directly subordinate to
and low-level radar systems will procure 60 Rolands, plus eight the German Air Force Tactical Com-
spare systems for training, mainte- mand in Cologne for training matters
The Luftwaffe also provides about nance and logistical support, to protect with the exception of training for
1,000 20mm air defense guns to protect West German operational air bases, guided missile air defense and missile
facilities and installations. some of which are also used by U.S. technology. The number of personnel
West Germany's participation in the forces. West Germany will also invest to be trained a t GAFADS is based on
NATO air defense system will increase $50 million in conventional force air the annually required regeneration for
as the result of a recently signed pro- defense research and development. its 15 air defense and two artillery mis-

their classes, often with a final score
between 90 and 100 percent. The per-
centage of non-graduates is generally
below one percent.

Stockpile Reliability Firing

The U.S. Army is legally obligated to
test special warheads fired with Nike
missiles by telemetry a s long a s the
.warheads are employed by NATO or
other alliances. Since the United States
discontinued the Nike system in 1982,
and .no U.S. Nike missiles or firing
units were available in the continental
United States, GAFADS was asked to
support t h e tests. This agreement
proved to be advantageous for the Luft-
waffe. The telemetry channels are free,
and the live firing is always a training
highlight which improves the morale
of GAFADS students.

A Catholic and Lutheran military
chaplaincy, administration office, voca-
Luftwaffe soldiers parade at Fort Bliss, Texas, home of the West German Air Force Air Defense tional advancement organization,
School. social services office and elementary
school have been established a t Fort
sile units (total strength of 20,000). A but the expense must be afforded if key Bliss to support GAFADS in its mis-
GAFADS cadre of approximately 320 personnelare to reliably do their jobs. sion. The elementary school, which
trains about 1,800 soldiers a year on The students are further trained in has established a good academic repu-
the operation of the Nike, Hawk and their units after returning to Germany. tation, is attended by the children of
Pershing l a weapon systems. Mainte- Training finally leads to missile firing most soldiers stationed a t GAFADS
nance and ordnance personnel are on a NATO firing installation on Crete and the German Air Force Training
trained a t various U.S. Army service i n the Mediterranean. Command at Fort Bliss. The Catholic
schools and a t the NATO Maintenance chaplain is also responsible for the
and Supply Agency, a NATO school Training Emphasis Soldatenstube which, over the years,
located a t Fort Bliss. The majority of The major part of training is practi- has become a kind of community cen-
the courses are taught through Ger- cal training on the equipment. I n order ter for our soldiers and their American
man interpreters. to use the combat units' field expe- friends.
Besides Fort Bliss, GAFADS garri- rience for training, a n exchange of Although GAFADS is a n indepen-
sons are stationed a t the U.S. Army experience takes place through ques- dent German installation, its members
Missile and Munition School a t Hunts- tionnaires filled out by former students work closely with U.S. and NATO
ville, Ala., the U.S. Army Artillery a n d their unit commanders. The authorities on many levels. We are
School a t Fort Sill, Okla., the U.S. answers are evaluated and ~ utot use grateful for the support we receive from
Army Engineering School a t Fort Bel- for organizing training. our allies whose spirit of cooperation
voir, Va., and the U.S. Air Force Tech- The influence of field units .on train- considerably facilitates our tasks.
nical Training Center a t Lowry Air ing, however, is ensured in another
Force Base, Colo. even more important way. GAFADS
Training a t GAFADS is organized in permanent party personnel are re-
four separate areas: tactical personnel placed a t three-year intervals by new
instructors drawn from the field .units. CPT Pierre Warweitzky is the com-
(officers who in general receive their
mander of a direct support battery in
weapon system training a t GAFADS thus keeping training practically
oriented. Freising, Federal Republic of Germany.
after graduation) from the Federal
At GAFADS and the other training He.formerly served as assistant chief
Armed Forces University i n West
installations, students are trained in of the Hawk Department, Directorate
Germany, operators (NCOs), mainte
45 fields of specialization. Further- of Test Analysis and Literature, Ger-
n a n c e personnel a n d o r d n a n c e
man Air ~ o r c eAir Defense School,
personnel. more, eight special training courses are
conducted annually. Fort Bliss, Texas.
Training classes are divided into
small groups that are trained on the More than 28,500 students have been CPT Anton Magesis aide-de-camp to
equipment in shifts, a n arrangement trained a t GAFADS since 1966. Ger- the Commandant, Luftwaffe Air
that guarantees each student intense man students a t non-German installa- Defense School, Fort Bliss, Texas.
individual training. The cost is high, tions generally rank at the top third of

FALL 1984
The by CPT Richard K. Schultz
Weapon systems of the future must keep pace with
maneuver units that are moving rapidly and changing
The weapon systems described in
this section are prototypes which
may, or may not, find their way into
W hen persons try to protect them-
selves, their natural reaction is
to look front and back, left and right-
to rapidly respond to any threat, any-
where in the world. With the Army's
diminishing manpower base, each unit
the Army inventory. They are, how- but they never look up. Since the advent eventually will be equipped wit5 a var-
ever, possible solutions to the prob- of aircraft and aerial projectiles, it h a s iety of weapons that can be tailored to
lems of providing effective air de- been the task of every soldier to defend any mission. One mission may take it
fense on the air-land battlefield. himself against air attack. Through to the jungle, so grab the foot-mobile
the years, air defense has become spe- weapons; another mission may dis-
cialized; hence, the need for the Air patch it to the desert-same people, but
Defense Artillery Branch. However, on with motorized weapons; yet another
the future battlefield described in Army mission may require helicopter lift, so
21 Doctrine, the doctrine which will grab the slings.
succeed AirLand Battle Doctrine, this The light divisions will respond to
specialization will decrease a s all low- to mid-intensity conflicts ranging
branches are forced to increase their from a guerrillaor insurgent threat up
defense against air attacks. The dis- to, and including, conventional war-
tinction among Army branches, and fare. I n response to mid- or high-
even among services, will become fuzzy, intensity conflicts, the light division
resulting in the melting of insignias would be augmented with corps assets
and the merging of assigned missions. and deployed in terrain generally un-
The creation of light divisions is the suitable for armored forces-urban
first step toward a complete force design areas, jungles, forests and mountains
that will allow our fighting elements to among others.
be specifically tailored to the mission To meet the needs of the light divi-
and threat. The key to the light divi- sion, new weapons should be designed
sion is that i t must be flexible enough from the start with built-in, multi-
mission capability. Why should a made i n a matter of seconds. I n a field ness while retaining the capability b
ground security force be dedicated to a artillery unit, entire sections are dedi- convert to manportable air defense
critical asset already defended by dual- cated to perform just one part of that when needed.
purpose air defense weapons? engagement process; but with a man- Weapons Procurement
Today, the Army is searching for portable air defense system, one man The time element in equipping our
weapons that will serve the needs of does it all manually in a matter of Army with these weapons is critical.
the light division. One system is the seconds. Under the LADS concept, the Yet, how does the Army go about get-
lightweight air defense system, or system will automatically perform all ting a weapon system that is not obso-
LADS, that will replace the Vulcan fire control engagement processes. lete by the time it rolls off the produc-
and complement manportable air d e Considering the number of countries tion line? In the past, the weapon was
fense system capability for the light that have vintage and current NATO/ built first. The priority was to take
and special infantry divisions and Warsaw Pact aircraft coupled with the advantage of the latest gizmo. Next, it
corps. I t will also augment existing rapid projection capability of the air- had to defeat the threat in every cir-
short-range air defense organizations craft, a strong potential exists for cumstance, no matter what it cost, how
to defend assets i n heavy divisions and immediate escalation from any low- it did i t or what it looked like. The way
corps rear. The requirements for the intensity to a mid- or high-intensity air i t would fight would be determined 10
LADS stress how the light division will conflict. To counter the air threat and years later when it rolled off the pro-
fight, how the system design should survive, the LADS must have compar- duction line. By that time it could no
optimize the use of strategic and tacti- able air defense capability to that of longer meet the threat, but everyone
cal lift, a n d what capabilities are the SGT York Gun, but in a configura- was excited about the latest gizmo just
needed to defeat the threat that will be tion that supports the operational con- down the road.
encountered. cept of the light infantry division. The Our way of winning in this no-win
The Future Threat LADS must be lightweight and suffi- situation is to gauge what is subject to
In a low-intensity conflict, the air ciently compact to maximize the use of change and what is not. The light divi-
threat will consist of a few conven- strategic and tactical airlift assets. A sion concept is a sound concept and the
tional military aircraft supplemented LADS with a dual-role capability will only viable way for our Army to fight
with civilian aircraft adapted for com- further enhance its tactical and stra- in low- to mid-intensity conflicts now
b a t (strap-on m a c h i n e g u n s a n d tegic worth and flexibility by increas- and in the future. The key to future
bombs). For this level of intensity, ing combat power without a force struc- weapons systems is not the weapons or
manportable air defense versatility ture or transport increase. The light sensors themselves, but a system con-
may be adequate to defend the foot- division will fight a t night and in cept that is modular, one that is capab-
mobile fighting force and ensure that reduced visibility. The LADS will fight able of rapidly and readily accepting a
critical forward operating bases and the same way. I t will also need to be variety of weapons and sensor options
extensive lines of communications passive to prevent alerting the enemy as the threat or mission changes. I t
remain open. Certainly, manportable to the force's location. must have the versatility to accept a
air defense optimizes use of limited The air defense principle of mix is variety of fighting configurations.
- and tactical lift assets. How-
strateaic provided by complementary air defense The following pages explore some of
ever, manportable air defense alone is weapons-one weapon system's limita- these weapon systems. Some are proto-
not the answer to the ever-increasing tions are offset by the capabilities of its types that are being evaluated by the
threat. complement. It is a good tactic in prin- 9th DIVADA at Fort Lewis, Wash.
The engagement process for man- ciple, but rarely occurs on the battle- Others are still in the concepturil stage.
portable air defense is far from simple. field given the number of assets to be Whatever comes out of these systems,
One soldier detects t h e aircraft. defended. The LADS concept combines one can rest assured that they will meet
acquires it, identifies it, then performs the complementary weapons on a sin- the requirements needed to counter the
his firing steps. Difficult decisions are gle platform for maximum effective- future threat.


Predicted fire weapon Cluicker reaction time - Short-range CPT Richard K . Schultz is the project
-Gun Negligible dead zone Limited vs. target maneuver officer for the lightweight air defense
-Hypewelocity rocket Dual role I system for the Concepts and Require- I
ments Branch, Directorate of Combat
Missiles High lethality Dead zone Developments, U.S.Army Air Defense
Extended range Limited ground role Artillery School, Fort Bliss, Texas. A
Adapts to target maneuver Countermeasure considerations
1983 graduate of the Air Defense
MANPAD conversion
Artillery Officer Advanced Course, he
Hybrid High lethality over entire range has served in batter y-levelpositions in
Quick reaction time each type of the SHORAD weapon sys-
Dual role tems. He holds a bachelor's degree in
Greater target capability biology from Bucknell University,
MANPAD conversion I Lewisburg, Penn.
.,,. ;
?p-'i ;:,. . - ..,:' :. I
, ., . ...


<..I , . .-
- -. ., ' ,

^-"-e: Ocr of a I::3 w!;-.kd :.:.I

***:;;..&, .. . +*-, -
.. .;-.,:. * ,.,.- :
- ,
: ,.
. :, G'. . ~. .
w p m = = -
,.t r - 3

Meet Spike, a hypervelocity rocket that has speed and accuracy almost
like a rifle bullet and a warhead that gives the effect of a shotgun blast.

... -. . .,
# _ , _ _ _ - Y
The first Spikes were not too promis- with multiple penetrator warheads will
ing. They were costly, blew up in the cost less than $500 each. "The cost is
launch tube and were not sufficiently extremely low compared to a guided
accurate. Today, all three problems rocket that can do the same job," Burt
have been solved. added.
The rocket has few metal parts b e Another advantage of Spike is that it
sides the tungsten warhead and the gives the Army a different kind of kill
pike is different from other Army stabilizing fins on the tail end. These mechanism against enemy armored
rockets in that its warhead con- spring-loaded fins fold up inside the vehicles. "Armored vehicles are pri-
tains no explosives. Instead, a one- launch tube. On their undersides are marily designed to defeat explosive
pound tungsten rod, traveling 5,000 little spin vanes. The exhaust plume warheads. If the enemy has to defeat
feet per second, hits so hard that its impinges on the vanes giving the both explosive and kinetic energy war-
kinetic energy liquefies armor plate rocket a spin rate of 40 revolutions per heads, it makes his design problem a
and allgws the warhead to penetrate. It second as it leaves the launch tube. lot more complicatedJJJBurt said.
is also unusual in that it has been built Spike's launcher is a six-round throw- On the battlefield, Spike likely would
virtually in its entirety inside an Army away clip that, like all other aspects of be used in multirocket barrages. "The
missile laboratory. the rocket, originated in the Army Mis- concept is not to have a high probabil-
Originally designed for heavily sile Laboratory. ity of killing a target with one rocket,"
armored targets, Spike's small size, Hurtling downrange at 5,000 feet per Burt explained. "The chances of hit-
speed, accuracy and low cost prompted second, the rocket's booster burns out ting a small target at one to two kilo-
researchers a t the U.S. Army Missile at 180meters, while the warhead simul- meters with a single rocket, even one as
Command, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., to taneously separates from it and flies good as this is, are small. But if you use
engineer a different type warhead that straight to the target. multiple bursts, say three, six or nine
would make the rocket more useful Spike prevents the target from hav- rockets, the probability goes way up."
against lightly armored ground targets ing the time to react to the launch. "It "We've ended up not only with E
and aircraft. The result was a warhead gives a n opportunity to kill targets rocket that will do the job but one wt
that contains "hypervelocity penetra- quickly and cheaply," Burt said. can afford to buy thousands and thou
tors" of tungsten that resemble large Engineers calculate Spike rockets sands of."
nails with fins on the ends. It may be
possible to use the standard tungsten
welding rods available a t any hard-
ware store for $1apiece. Eighteen such
penetrators are released in a single
shotgun swarm.
This multiple-penetrator warhead
for Spike is being developed to be used
on helicopters and also to be mounted
on the new high-mobility, multi-
purpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV-
referred to as Humvee). In the latter
application, the rockets are paired with
Stinger missiles and high-tech sensors
in a light air defense system being
developed for roof-mounting on the
Humvee. A prototype of this system is
known as the Setter (Page 32).
Although Spike is a new develop-
ment, its concept-a small, inexpen-
sive yet accurate and effective hyper-
velocity rocket-goes back to the early
1960s when engineers of the Army
Missile Laboratory built a small exper-
imental rocket which was fast but not
sufficiently accurate. In the late '608,
another hypervelocity weapon was
built, a big, two-stage rocket that
worked but was never produced.
A decade later, the engineers were
asked to take another look a t the con-
cept. "We started in 1977 a t a low level,
not much funding - and not much inter-
est among potential users~J' Artist rendition of helicopter firing Spike rockets. Note that this drawing is not in proportion and I
Jim Burt, Army Missile Laboratory's that it shows more than 18 "hypervelocity penetrators" being released from the warhead. How-
lead engineer on the Spike project. ever, it clearly depicts the fins and the warhead separation.
- -
FALL 1984
Soldiers of the 9th DIVADA put Avenger through its paces during field testing at the Yakima Firing Center, Wash.

L~~~~,,I wave of the Fa;,, ,

I .
Shoot-on-the-move air defense system weds multiple-Stinger

launcher to high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle.

AR - -Y
: I , j . := . ..

A low-cost, mobile air defense sys-

tem that h a s a n advanced capa-
bility but uses off-the-shelf components
ner into a n automated command and
control system. This allows engage
ment of hostile aircraft a t greater
is being evaluated by soldiers of the 9th ranges than currently possible. Sec-
DIVADA, Fort Lewis, Wash. ond, Avenger can fire missiles more
Manned by members of the 1st Bat- rapidly per engagement than can the
talion, 67th Air Defense Artillery, the typical Stinger gunner. Third, these
prototype system, called Avenger, dem- advantages can be integrated into the
onstrated its capability last spring current force structure with no increase
when three hits were scored in three in strategic or tactical air mobility
live firings. The successful firings hap- assets, since MANPAD Stinger crews
pened less than six weeks after the unit will use the Humvee as the normal
was turned over to the Army by the mode of transportation.
Boeing Aerospace Co. Evaluation of The fire unit can be lowered onto the
the system's ability to maneuver and vehicle by crane or helicopter. It is
provide appropriate air defense cover- equipped with a n identification, friend
age continued during a field exercise in or foe interrogator; a forward-looking
August. infrared sensor; and a driven-reticle
According to Army officials, two of optical sight that assures the gunner
those firings at the Yakima Firing that he is locked onto the target he is
Center were unprecedented in that the viewing. The system automatically
hits were scored by missiles fired from tracks the missile.
a moving vehicle negotiating a n unim- Missiles can be readied for firing
proved dirt road a t 20 mph. T h e with the flip of a switch, unlike the
Avenger, using its forward-looking in- manportable Stinger. The latter sys-
frared sight, also successfully engaged tem uses a battery and coolant unit
a target a t night and further compiled that must be inserted to activate the
a n impressive 150 hours of operation missile. If the missile is not fired, the
without a single mission-critical com- battery and coolant unit must be dis-
ponent failure. carded and replaced later. Avenger,
The 9th Infantry Division (Motor- however, with its batteries and a sup-
ized) is a highly mobile light infantry ply of argon gas, can cool the missile
organization t h a t is attempting to seeker and spin its gyros up to 40 times
speed the development of low-cost on each of the two pods. The eight mis-
weapon systems t h a t would help siles can be reloaded in four minutes.
achieve the division's objective of en- The system automatically sequences to
hancing its capability while reducing another missile and activates it so that
manpower. In conjunction with the it is ready for firing seconds after one is
Army Development and Employment fired. The unit also is equipped with
Agency, the division deals directly two rapid-fire 7.62mm machine guns
with industry in expediting develop- for self-defense.
ment and procurement. As a n example, Three ready-to-fight Avenger sys-
Avenger progressed from concept to tems can be transported on a C-130
actual delivery of a prototype in only Hercules, and six on a C-141Starlifter.
six months. On the larger aircraft, the unit can be
A modular system, Avenger carries driven off with the gunner in the cock-
eight Stinger missiles mounted on a pit so that it can fire within seconds of
high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled leaving the aircraft.
vehicle (HMMWV-referred to a s The unit, equipped with lifting lugs,
Humvee). I t h a s a gunner enclosed in also is deployable by helicopter, with
the fire unit cockpit and a driver. The the crewmen riding in the aircraft. A
system features a forward-looking in- UH-60 Black Hawk can lift one unit
frared sight that allows engagements and placeit on the battlefield, while the
a t night and during adverse weather. A CH-47 Chinook can handle two.
turret stabilization system provides Although a "light" ADA system,
shoot-on-the-move capability, which Avenger is not envisioned a s the light-
has not affected the Stinger's accu- weight air defense system (LADS).
racy. The missiles can be removed and Avenger is just a smarter way to pack-
fired from the shoulder, if required. age a number of a division's organic
Proponents of the Avenger-type sys- Stinger crews. The LADS will replace
tem say it offers several advantages to the towed Vulcan gun and fulfill the

light-force air defense. First, Stinger
effectiveness is increased because pro-
visions have been made to tie the gun-
requirement for a gun-missile mix in a
light division. *
FALL 1984
2,000 pound
, ind spec

4 high-speed, all-terrain, airmobile wheeled carrier for an air defense

system to meet the needs of the Army's emerging light forces.

T h e b y ' s increased emphasis on

highly mobile light forces has
presented air defense with new chal-
heavy for lift by organic helicopters
and require too many strategic airlift
sorties. Towed systems are not suffi-
lenges. The development of the 9th ciently mobile to allow air defense artil-
Infantry Division as a motorized di- lery units to keep up with mobile sup-
vision dramatically pointed out a need port units, are too slow to replace in
for improved air defense weapon car- emergencies and also require too many
riers. Current tracked, self-propelled strategic airlift sorties.
Recnenining the deficiencies of the
. -
current systems, the 9th DIVADA and
the Army Development and Employ-
ment Agency stated a requirement for
a high-speed, all-terrain wheeled car-
ment. With a weight of 12,000 pounds,
the vehicle with weapon is lighter than
the M-163A1 self-propelled version of
the Vulcan which is mounted on a n
Gamma Goat, the towed Vulcan's
prime mover. With its neutral steering
capability, Excalibur was able to nego-
tiate side slopes and longitudinal in-
rier prototype. In less than a year, the M-113 armored personnel carrier clines a t 60 percent. Significantly, the
system went from a concept to a proto- chassis. operator's steering controls are identi-
type that was delivered to the 9th This modified wheeled Vulcan car- cal to those of a conventional wheeled
DIVADA in late spring 1984. ries 2,500 rounds of ammunition on- vehicle. Rapid emplacement and hip-
The first prototype, Excalibur, was board as opposed to the 1,100 rounds shoot capability were also successfully
developed by Standard Manufacturing carried on the standard self-propelled demonstrated.
Co., Dallas, Texas, a t no cost to the version and the 525 rounds carried on Another feature of the vehicle is its
government. Its initial evaluation was the towed version. ability to raise and lower each wheel
conducted in May a t the Yakima Fir- During the evaluation a t the Yakima individually or simultaneously. This
ing Center, Wash., by soldiers of the 1st Firing Center, Excalibur showed a means t h a t Excalibur can raise or
Battalion, 67th Air Defense Artillery. road and cross-country mobility equal lower its silhouette and can level on a
Excalibur is a high-speed, all-terrain, to a n y current tracked vehicle. I t slope, front to rear or side to side. It also
hydrostatically driven vehicle which graphically demonstrated a n excellent means that in a hostile environment, a
features all-wheel drive, skid steering high-speed on-road, off-road capability damaged tire may be raised off the
and a patented suspension system with a top speed of 45 mph, far exceed- ground, and the entire wheel may be
called trailing-arm drive. The eight- ing that possible of any current Vulcan changed without the use of jacks or
wheel vehicle was specifically designed system. Its variable ground clearance stands.
to mount a 20mm gun turret removed from 4 to 16 inches made it capable of In the area of tactical and strategic
from a towed Vulcan system. I t carries crossing obstacles and rough terrain air mobility, Excalibur offers other ad-
a crew of three and all necessary equip- that would have stopped the M-561 vantages over the towed and self-
propelled Vulcans. The Excalibur is
liftable by CH-47D Chinook, while the
self-propelled Vulcan cannot be lifted
by any organic helicopter. Two Excali-
burs can be transported by a C-130
Hercules, and the C-141BStarlifter can
transport four.
The Excalibur proved to be a stable
gun platform when it was fully em-
placed, stopped but not emplaced and
on the move. Observations indicate
that the system was more stable than
the towed Vulcan, possibly resulting in
increased firing accuracy.
A platoon of four Excalibur systems
will participate in a series of field eval-
uations to further develop tactics, orga-
Variable ground clearance of the trailing-arm drive undercarriage is a plus for any operator who
nization and user requirements. Fixes
must navigate obstacles like rocks, tree stumps, gulleys and other natural variables of rough obtained from lessons learned will be
terrain. (Courtesy of Standard Manufacturing Co.) used in future prototypes.
COL D o n a l d M. L i o n e t t i , 9 t h
DIVADA commander. summed UD the
A minimal wheelbase gives
successful prototype firing by saying,
the trailing-arm drive under-
"This project underscores the value of
carriageeffortlessskid-steer our Army Development and Employ-
maneuverability when all ment Agency-industry partnership.
four end wheels are raised. The true users, field soldiers a t all lev-
In the positionshown at left, els from squad member to commander,
the vehicle's turning power worked directly with civilian engi-
requirement is reduced by neers, developing, in record time, a
60 percent, which helps in light air defense system that truly
counterrotation-type turns. meets the needs of our emerging light
Raising the center wheels
(inset) and rigid-locking the
front axles result in in-
A system like Excalibur will give air
creased stability over the defense units the capability to maneu-
end wheels. (Courtesy of ver with highly mobile units on today's
Standard Manufacturing
battlefields and defend them from the
ever-increasing hostile air threat. *
FALL 1984
Lightweight air defense weapon system prototype combines features of
sensor 'suite,' multiple -Stinger launchers and hyper velocity rockets.

A n e x p e r i m e n t a l a i r defense
weapon fashioned by two engi-
neers of the U.S. Army Missile Com-
tum jump in technology from MUSL
and Avenger, according to Rich Jones
of the Army Missile Laboratory's
mand, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., h a s Advanced Sensors Directorate.
formed the basis of a key air defense Jones, working with Bob Evans of
concept for the light division of the the laboratory's Advanced Systems
future. Concepts Office, came up with the idea
The experimental weapon, known of making a ground-launched system
as MUSL (pronounced "muscle") for by mounting Stinger missiles in pods
multiple-Stinger launcher, was created and air launchers on a World War I1
by mounting Stinger missiles on a n old M-55 machine gun carriage. In Decem-
machine gun carriage. What began in ber 1981, Jones took his plans to the
1981 spawned two new automated air laboratory's prototype development
defense systems. The first system, group which located one of the old gun
Avenger (Page 28), is being evaluated carriages a t Anniston Army Depot,
a t the 9th DIVADA, Fort Lewis, Wash. Ala., and installed a live Stinger pod on
The second system, Setter is a quan- one of the gun mounts and dummy

integrated by a microprocessor and
displayed o n a television screen
mounted in front of the gunner who is
inside the vehicle for protection.
"The objective of our program is to
demonstrate the technology of this sen-
sor suite where we're taking multiple
sensors, fusing all the data together
and providing a single display to the
gunner," Jones explained.
"The sensor suite has the ability to
detect threat aircraft at significant
ranges," he said. "It provides auto-
matic cueing to the gunner so that on
his video display, not only does he see a
real-world scene, but he also has sym-
bology displayed, alerting him to poten-
tial targets a s they're detected."
The gunner can choose to go into an
automatic mode by the push of a but.
ton. In this mode, the microprocesso~
on board sets the priority of targets and
turns the mount to the target of highesi
priority. I t also will position thc
weapon so that the gunner can see thc
target in his field of view. Lock-on is
Rich Jones (left) and Ben Bentley with their MUSL weapon during tests at McGregor Range, Fort done by the push of another button.
Bliss, Texas, in April 1982. A new concept for light air defense has evolved from thisexperimental A Humvee equipped with a turret for
multiple-Stinger weapon. Setter has been built by the Army's
pods on the other three. Jones selected Bentley's bird dog. The name, Setter, is Tank and Automotive Command. After
the World War I1 vintage gun carriage i n reference to the weapon's highly being fitted with a fire-control compu-
for the experiment because it could per- advanced sensor system which evolved ter in Dallas, Texas, the vehicle was
form the vertical and horizontal target in part from the homely experiments sent, in early September, to Redstone
tracking movements necessary for a conducted on MUSL with borrowed Arsenal where components are now
light air defense system. sights. being integrated.
The system was also fitted with a "Think about the functions that a "Though we're building something
day sight from a Navy jet fighter, a good bird dog does," said Bentley. "He that is a prototype, we don't want tc
night sight from a TOW missile and uses his eyes, ears and nose-multiple say this is a LADS or come up with E
a video screen to display the sight sensors-to find a n aerial target and to weapon system type name for it be
pictures. get t h e hunter to bring a shotgun cause that really isn't what we are try
The developers of MUSL, Jones, who around and shoot the bird. In this case, ing to do," Jones said. "H~wever,OUI
joined the missile laboratory in 1979 we're using multiple sensors to find a n primary objective is that a LADS can
after 11years as a n air defense officer, aerial target, to bring a weapon system didate will evolve from this."
and Ben Bentley, who with 16 years in around to bear on the target and allow According to Jones, a key factor ir
armament and aviation joined the lab- the gunner to engage it." Setter's fast development has been thc
oratory in 1982, think their system just Setter packs a lot of firepower in a availability of technology, such a s sen-
might be the lightweight air defense package that is small and light enough sors and the Spike rocket system, thti
system, or LADS, that the Army'slook- to be mounted on the roof of a high- was ready to be adapted to the system.
ing for. mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehi- A third man, Bill Dobbs, contributed a
In April 1982, a soldier using the cle (HMMWV-referred to a s Humvee) new type sensor he was working on for
MUSL weapon detected, tracked and without affecting its stability or struc- other applications. This sensor detectc
killed a target aircraft in a spectacular tural integrity. I t carries eight Stinger radar-type emissions and makes thc
night firing a t Fort Bliss, Texas. The missiles i n four pods like MI!SL and weapon effective in bad weather. Sucl
MUSL was then airlifted to Fort Lewis, Avenger but, unlike either, shoots technology "focusing," a major thrus.
Wash., and used two weeks by the 9th Spike rockets (Page 26) i n volleys of i n the missile laboratory, can speed thc
Infantry Division. There Boeing Aero- three, six or nine, and h a s a super- development of a weapon system. T h i ~
space representatives became in- sophisticated target sensor. The pods approach also has helped hold dowr
terested in the weapon, and from it and launcher components are pat- costs. The total technology demonstra
developed their Avenger air defense terned on lightweight armaments used tion program, including testing, prob
weapon. on helico~ters. ably won't cost more than $6 million.
Following those initial evaluations, The syitem also features a high-tech The unit is expected to be ready fo:
Jones and Bentley turned to applying sensor "suite" of special sensors and a testing and evaluation in late summe:

what they had learned with MUSL to a
.more advanced system they named for

. .. -
laser range finder that locate and cue a
gunner to targets. Sensor suite data is
I . L . C . - C 1.. ,.~
or fall 1985.
possible. The system will net
with Patriot fire control and
with Air Force and Navy air
defense command and control
systems. ESAM will serve a s
the primary air defense against
threat-helicopter assaults de-
signed to disrupt the operations
of the corps. I t may also be used
to defend a g a i n s t low-level
attacks on a Patriot fire sys-
tem's blind side.
The ESAM system will be
able to effectively operate on the
"Army 21" battlefield. ("Army
21" is the new designation for
w h a t w a s "AirLand Battle
2000.") I t will be the primary air
defense system found i n the
ESAM may evolve intoa system that bears little resemblancetotheartist'sconcep- Army 21 regiment. Additional
tion above.
ESAM systems will be a t the
airland force level to provide

ESIIM: II Sustem for reinforcing fires to the regi-

ments a n d to defend airland
force assets from low-level air

the Future byCPTKeithA.Godwin

attacks. (The airland battle
force will be a n operational level
c o m m a n d t h a t will h a v e
assigned organic elements in-

v arious studies and anal-

yses conducted during the
past few years indicate a need
for a weapon system that can
Under the Army of Excellence
force structure design, t h e
ESAM system will replace the
Hawk and Chaparral battal-
cluding air and naval compo-
Finally, the ESAM system
will have a n important role in
provide a highly lethal air d e ions currently found in the air support of contingency opera-
fense shield over the maneuver defense brigade a t corps level. tions. The firing platforms of
forces a n d augment Patriot Though it is a corps asset, the ESAM will be one of the initial
coverage a t low altitudes. I t ESAM will be fully capable of air defense elements deployed
must do so with round-the-clock, supporting all operations of the into a contingency area. One or
all-weather, low-to-medium- maneuver units and will be used two aircraft sorties will be able
altitude early warning against to reinforce the SHORAD fires to deliver sufficient ESAM fir-
a myriad of airborne threats, organic to the division. As a ing platforms and saisors to
requirements t h a t Hawk and corps weapon system, it will be ensure a n adequate defense of
Chaparral will not be able to able to integrate with t h e the landing zones while the re-
meet i n the future. I t must also SHORAD C2 architecture of the mainder of the maneuver force
have the mobility and surviva- division and the command and arrives. As the air battle esca-
bility to maneuver with t h e control of the division airspace lates, additional ESAM assets
supported force on the air-land management element. can be brought i n to adequately
battlefield. On the battlefield, ESAM will defend the force.
To satisfy this need, Air De- support operations in the for-
fense Artillery is developing a n ward and rear areas. When oper- . Components
evolutionary surfaceto-air mis- ating in the close-in battle area, The ESAM will be a weapon
sile (ESAM) system. The objec- ESAM will provide the sup- system composed of sensors, rnis-
tive i s to design a medium- ported force with short-notice, siles, firing platforms and fire
r a n g e , high-firepower, low- low-to-medium-altitude a i r control equipment capable of
manpower air defense system defense early w a r n i n g a n d countering high-performance
fully capable of operating on the protection. jet aircraft, helicopters, cruise
f u t u r e b a t t l e f i e l d . Key t o When the ESAM system is missiles, remotely piloted vehi-
ESAM's development is the in- employed in rear areas, its fires cles and low-radar cross section
crease in air defense firepower it will be primarily centrally con- (stealth) aircraft.
will make available to the ma- trolled by the air defense com- The system will be designed
neuver force without requiring mand a n d control elements, to have common module ele-
more of the Army's limited per- with decentralized execution ments that can be configured to
sonnel assets. used to the maximum extent support the operations of heavy

t l a d v
- - I

and light forces. In addition, its design ters from the firing platform. The objec- of the Concept Based Requirements
will decrease the overall logistics bur- tive is for the missile to be terminally Systems. Technological developments
den currently found with existing ADA guided and have the capability of re- will be directed by a n operational and
systems. I t will be able to maintain ceiving a n initial or midcourse update. organizational plan which details the
continuous operations on a contami- What this means is that the missile will basic requirements for the system, in-
nated battlefield and operate for a n contain a seeker that will detect and cluding the way it will be used on the
extended time using only its organic track the target and will have the battlefield. Currently being written by
stores. Future data systems will permit target verified by the fire control prior the Directorate of Combat Develop-
automatic expenditure reports a n d to engagement. By using this design, ments, U.S. Army Air Defense AGillerp
, automated monitoring, anticipating the missile will home in on the target School, Fort Bliss, Texas, this plan is
and responding to the needs of the even if the firing platform can no longer the document that, once approved, will
immediatebattle. This automated logis- observe the target because of counter- allow materiel development of thc
tics system will help maintain the com- measures. It may also use multimode ESAM to begin.
bat effectiveness of the ESAM a t the guidance to prevent any single coun- To reduce the costs associated with
highest possible levels. termeasure from disrupting its seeker. the development of a new air defense
weapon system, ESAM will be made
Sensors Firing Platform and Fire Control from state-of-the-art technologies cur-
The ESAM sensor network will con- The ESAM firing platform will be a n rently available to weapons' develop-
sist of active radars and passive detec- autonomous weapon system that will ers. The system will "capture" those
tion devices that will give a three- have onboard detection, identification scientific advances that have alread!
dimensional, composite picture of the and engagement capabilities. If the been made and will mold them into e
location and the identification of all data links to the sensor network are weapon system that can defeat any
airborne platforms operating above the disrupted, the firing platform will use existing airborne threat it encounters.
defended force. The radars will have integral passive acquisition sensors These "ready" advances are available
sufficient detection range, probably 35 and non-cooperative positive hostile in all areas of weapon technology-
to 50 kilometers, to ensure that the fir- aircraft identification techniques to from the missiles to the radars.
ing platforms are alerted in sufficient target and engage threat aircraft. The The development of ESAM will fol-
time to engage threat aircraft before ability to conduct simultaneous en- low a n evolutionary approach, as the
the target can release its ordnance on gagements with the eight to 12 ready- system's name implies. I t will not be a
friendly assets. The combination of to-firemissiles makes the ESAM firing new weapon system, built in total then
active and passive sensors will make it platform a substantially better air wheeled out to replace Hawk a n d
difficult to countermeasure the ESAM defense artillery system than today's Chaparral, instead it will be developed
detection capability.
The sensor element will be mounted
Chaparral system. i n increments until the objective capa- I
The fire control for ESAM will be bilities of the system are finally avail-
on vehicles that can maneuver with the automated to the greatest extent possi- able. To achievethe objective, the Hawk
supported force. Individual sensor ele- ble. Because of the large numbers of and Chaparral systems will be modi-
ments will be netted via data links, airborne platforms that will be flying fied to capture technological advances
eliminating the need for the sensors to over the future battlefield, it will be needed by ESAM. For example, the
be physically connected to the fire con- extremely difficult for any fire control Hawk system may develop new radars
trol or firing platforms. Therefore, when operator to effectively direct the air and fire control that would be the basis
emplaced, the sensors and firing plat- battle. Therefore, to assist the fire con- for ESAM. Chaparral may develop pas-
forms will not be collocated. The sen- trol operator in conducting the air bat- sive sensors and the ability to obtain
sors will be positioned to maximize air tle, the priorities of the commander and sensor information from external
i coverage, while the firing platforms the capabilities and limitations of the sources. Eventually, after many im-
y: will be positioned to maximize fire-
power effectiveness.
various ESAM firing positions will be
programmed into the fire control soft-
provements, the objective capabilities
of ESAM will be realized. When devel-
t To detect airborne targets, the sensor ware. Using this information, the soft- opment is completed, however, ESAM
network also will have non-cooperative ware will set priorities of potential will not resemble either Hawk or
' positive hostile aircraft identification

technologies to enhance the effective-
ness of the fires that ESAM can bring
targets grid recommend engagements
to the firing platforms. The fire control
operator will act as a system's check to
Chaparral, its basis for development.
on the airborne threat. The sensors ensure that the software is functioning CPT Keith A. Godwin is the Advanced
. will share acquisition data with the properly and i s not allowing any Concept and Plans officer of the Con-
SHORAD C2 system and all other air threats to penetrate the defended area. cepts andRequirements Branch, Direc-
defense command and control systems The fire control will be netted with torate of Combat Developments, U.S.
on the battlefield. One C-130 Hercules the SHORAD fire control of the de- Air Defense Artillery School, Fort Bliss,
will be able to transport the sensors fended unit and with ADA fire control Texas. A 1979 graduate of the U.S.
I' without modifications or breakdown of centers in the rear. Additionally, the
the sensor system. Military Academy and of the Air
fire control will also integrate non-
Defense Artillery Officer Advanced
- Missiles
ADA sensors t h a t detect airborne
Course, he is responsible for writing
?: ~h~ ESAM missiles will engage a threats with the sensor data.
the requirements documents for the
wide spectrum of airborne threats out Development ESAM system.
to a range of approximately 20 kilome- The ESAM system will be a product
Damned it They moot
. .. : Damned it They Don't?

Before Newberry could engage the

helicopter, the Hind-D pilot fired
several 23mm cannon rounds and
armored forces traversing rapidly hit the crew chief. Simpson watched
down Route 49. As column after in horror a s Newberry's body hit the

this event a thousand times in the

last 48 hours. A command net broad-
cast upgrading the weapons control
of Fair Oaks, Ind. status to weapons tight from weap-
On his second day of the war, ing aircraft split up in ' ons hold brought Simpson back to
Simpmn, a 16510 Stinger gunner, a n attempt to engage reality. Here we go again,
was the only remaining member of the M-1 Abrams tanks Simpson thought as he
crew Delta. His crew chief, SF4 of the 2nd Battalion,
George Newberry, was taken out of 35th Armor, 31st Armor- ing and scanning.
action by a Hind-Dhelicopter on the ed Division. Simpson's
first day of the war; something section's mission was to
Simpson could not forget. Like a n provide air defense for the
endless instant replay, the visual armor unit.
image of his crew chiefs death dom-
inated his thoughts.
As it started to drizzle, he lifted his variable wings, box-like air intakes
eyes away from the long columns of and large belly fin gave it away-a
armored forces and looked toward MiG27 Flogger-D. As Newberry di-
the sky. Scanning for aircraft, rected, Simpson began tracking the
Simpson began once again to recall Flogger.
the circumstances of Newberry's "Activate your weapon!" New-
berry screamed.
They had been in the forward bat-

for the enemy to attack. Ordinarily, ploded in flames.

he would have been bored, but the Exhilarated, Simpson began to
realization that this time was for remove the gripstock assembly from
real keph him alert. Since moving the launch tube when he noticed a n
into position after a U.S. Army Mi-24 Hind-D pop up in the airspace
Europe alert, Simpson had slept to his right flank. Newberry imme-
sparingly and eaten sparsely. But it diately shouldered his weapon to
didnot seem to affect him-his body engage the hoetile helicopter.
was running on pure adrenaline. Dropping the old launch tube,
At least, he had thought, I'm not Simpson jumped out of his foxhole
bogged down with all those lousy and ran to the crew's vehicle, camou-
details I get in field exercises. flaged nearby in a clump of trees, on
Simpson and Newberry continued his left flank. Reaching the vehicle
to search and scan the sky for air- and securing a new missile round,
craft, monitor their AN/VCR-160 he began to attach the gripstock
radio for messages from their sec- assembly to the launcher, while con-
tion sergeant, and listen to the re- tinuing to observe Newberry.

Just as Newberry commented that

the damnedattack wouId never mate-
rialize, the sky suddenly darkened
= ---
by Frank Schoch

In their forward battle position, restricted by present rules of engage-

Stinger crews serve as keepers of the ment to visual identification. While
airspace gates. Their tasks are to let these restrictions are necessary to en-
friendly aircraft pass through and to sure that friendly aircraft are not mis-
. I "1,
shoot down hostile aircraft before they takenly destroyed, they are unfor- JOINT TEST FORCE _-.- /
reach the gates. '. .
tunate because they do not allow
As indicated in the preceding sce- the Stinger to be used to its utmost
nario, tremendous challenges await capacity. effectiveness and reduce fratricide.
Stinger crews o n t h e battlefield. Realizing this, in December 1981, the The test will revolve around the reso-
Stinger gunners and their crew chiefs Office of the Secretary of Defense for lution of three major test issues involv-
must make immensely important deci- Research and Engineering chartered ing aircraft identification; projected
sions in their battlefield role, yet the the Joint Forward Area Air Defense command, control, communications
help they receive during the decision- (JFAAD) Joint Test Force to evaluate and intelligence (C3I) capabilities; and
making process is scanty. In semi- methods of improving the effectiveness airspace management. The specific
isolation and with meager incoming of all SHORAD weapons which oper- test issues are:
information, they a r e expected to ate in and above the ground division W To what degree do the collective
single-handedly defend a unit's air- area. Inherent in this tasking is the means of aircraft identification
space and at the same time not destroy reduction of fratricide or friendly air influence t h e effectiveness of
friendly aircraft. While all short-range casualties from friendly fires. forward-area air defense systems?
air defense (SHORAD) gunners are Headquartered at Fort Bliss, Texas, W To what degree do projected C3I
essentially in the same precarious posi- Air Force a n d Army personnel a t capabilities support forward-area
tion, the two-man Stinger crew is a case JFAAD will gather data in field exer- defense elements?
in the extreme. cises and through mathematical mod- W How does airspace management
Even though the two-man Stinger els and computer simulations. This control affect the mission accom-
crew possesses a n effective air defense data will be used to identify joint tacti- plishment of forward area air
weapon that can engage aircraft head cal, doctrinal, procedural and material defense systems a n d friendly
on and at extended ranges, their fire is changes that will increase SHORAD aircraft?

I t began to rain; cursing the lenge switch and waited for a reply. elevating the weapon to the correct
weather, Simpson pulled up the An unknown response sounded. firing reticle, a n d launched the
hood of his poncho. An urgent early Even though visibility was low, Stinger missile. The missile im-
warning message belching over the Simpson thought he recognized the pacted just under the aircraft's air
TADDS receiver startled him to at- aircraft a s hostile. It appeared to intake. The jet turned into a fireball
tention. Unfortunately, some of the have the mid-mounted delta wings and nosed downwardin a fatal dive.
transmission was lost. "INITIAL of a MiG-21 Fishbed. Grasping a new weapon round,
TRACK, INITIAL.. .," the message Remembering Newberry's delay Simpson noticed two more Fishbeds
began. "AT LEGION 1-6,FEW, . . ., a n d t h e consequences, Simpson approaching from approximately
TRACK DESIGNATOR:. . . ." Feel- began to track the jet. Simpson the same position. But just as he
ing overwhelmed, Simpson did not quickly pressed the Stinger's safety shouldered the Stinger and started
attempt to plot the aircraft on his and actuator switch while contin- to engage theni, the aircraft turned,
manual SHORAD control system uing to track the jet. Almost in- giving Simpson a better view.
plotting and map case. stantly, he received a n acquisition Amazed, Simpson quickly identified
Shouldering his Stinger, he di- tone indicating t h a t the missile the aircraft as F-4 Phantoms. If
rected his weapon toward Legion 1-6 seeker had acquired the target. Next, these are not Fishbeds, he thought,
and waited for the aircraft to come he depressed the weapon's uncaging what about the one I just killed?
within visual identification range. switch. Receiving a steady acquisi- Simpson felt a n uneasy feeling
Then he opened up his identifica- tion tone, he knew that the missile's emanating from his stomach. Had
tion, friend or foe (IFF) antenna seeker head had locked on the target he shot down a friendly aircraft?
assembly. S u d d e n l y , S i m p s o n and was tracking it independently. Why hadn't they responded to his
noticed a fast-moving jet flying Simpson determined that the air- IFF challenge? Were the transpond-
through a n opening in the storm craft was in range by measuring it ers turned off, or broken? If only
clouds in the sky southwest of his on the weapon's range-ring sight, Newberry was here, he thought, I
position. He pressed the IFF chal- applied superelevation and lead by could talk to him about it. . . .

' FALL 1984 37







Thischart shows the probability of Stinger gunners correctly identifying a single friendly aircraft
passing over their area. For example, a 98% proficient gunner would have a 98% chance of
correctly identifying the aircraft; two 98% proficient gunners, a 96% chance; and four gunners, a
92% chance.

Aircraft ldentif i c a t i o ~ ~
Two systems of aircraft identifica-
tion will be investigated-the direct
and indirect systems. The direct sys-
tem is the current visual and electronic
m e a n s of identification used by
SHORAD units. The indirect identifi-
cation system will allow netted
SHORAD units to identify aircraft
with information provided by other
elements and received through .com-
munications systems. SHORAD DUNNER

Projected C3l Capabilities

The architecture of three proposed
C3I systems will be analyzed. The
three systems are the Enhanced Man-
ual SHORAD Control, the Objective
S H O R A D C 2 a n d a still-to-be-
developed Excursion SHORAD C3I.
Airspace Managemant
Three airspace management sys-
tems will also be studied. These are the
Central Region Airspace Control Plan,
the Minimum Risk Passage i n Air De-
fense Plan and a still-to-be-developed
Excursion.Airspace Management Sys-
Not only does JFAAD hope to devise
ways to provide Stinger crews with
more timely- battlefield information,
but it.also ho&to inake them active , ,ank Schoch, a technical publica-
participants in the process. The Joint tions editor with the Joint Forward
Test Director, COL Robert R. Matlick, Area Air Defense Joint Test Force,
.solicits your comments. Send written located at Fort Bliss, Texas, received
." *@$mhents
to OUSDRE/JFAAD, Edit- his bachelor's andmaster's degrees in
,-@@nc\ P.O. Box 16030, Fort Bliss, English from the University of Texas at
~b;7&%%Wt3030. El Paso. He has worked as an Army
: -;e< ',:

-- - - -1.-
, r
and civilian electronic technician.
,-, '
- ,%I

q,,y; ,, . ,&, & ARTILLERY

.*:gpTA;p$y-,.- -
6 < 8

L It'.
_ -
T ' 2
. --.
+ >el-
.> - .- .-'


nnnn3Dm-- A


by MSG Joseph L. Hartman

Recent changes in the program of Sergeants Major Academy and was and select routes to get to that defen-
instruction for the Air Defense Artil- validated late in 1983. The Air Defense sive position. The physical training
lery Advanced Non-commissioned ANCOC implemented the common program is rigid. If the students cannot
Officer C o u r s e ( A N C O C ) h a v e core with Class 2-84, which began pass the Army Physical Readiness
prompted the need for additionalinfor- March 12, 1984. The common core Test, they will not graduate or receive
mation to be provided to the air defense phase is five weeks long and offers any type of "in lieu of' certificate. If
artillery NCO in the field. In the past, instruction in military skills, leader- physical profiles accompany the stu-
soldiers selected to attend the 10-week ship and human relations, resource dents to the course, they will be consid-
resident course have been sent welcom- management, professional skills, ered for waiver; however, there is no
ing packets prior to their class start NBC, and maintenance and supply guarantee that all profiles will be
date. However, these packets omitted management. I n addition to t h e accepted.
certain facts vitally important to the common core, Air Defense Artillery All i n all, the course is challenging
soldier. Here is a n update o n t h a t Operations and Tactics includes in- and demanding. The nightly reading
information. struction pertinent to CMF 16, CMF 23 requirement is a shock for those per-
Numerous diagnostic tests are admin- and CMF 27, and intensive instruction sonnel not in the habit of reading fre-
istered early in the course to identify i n NBC operations. Once the students quently. Every night the students must
areas in which individuals may bsdefi- have successfully completed the NBC read and prepare themselves for the
cient. A faculty advisor uses the results portion of the curriculum, they are cer- following day's subject matter.
ofthese tests to develop means of help- tified to be utilized in the unit a s NBC Air Defense Artillery ANCOC in-
ing soldiers bring their scoresup to a n experts. It is not intended nor recom- structors feel the Air Defense Artillery
acceptable level. While the school re- mended that they replace the 54E per- ANCOC is the best of the 17 advanced
fers to this a s "equalization training," sonnel assigned to the unit, but they courses, and are confident that when a
the students call it "study hall" on Sat- will be knowledgeable i n any NBC sergeant graduates, he or she is totally
urday mornings. By any name, this area in which the unit has a need, preparedphysically,mentallyandaca-
additional training prepares a n indi- including decontamination. demically to assist every officer and
vidualfor classes he will attend later in Tracks have been designed to in- NCO t o better t h e i r
the course. struct the student in either the HIMAD mission.
Diagnostic testing has revealed that Module or SHORAD Module, depend-
the one area of knowledge most ing upon the student's military occupa-
ANCOC students are deficient in is tional skill. The tracked module of the
map reading. The U.S. Army Training course is not designed to teach the serv-
and Doctrine Command dictates that icemembers their jobs. They come
sergeants will be taught a t skill level 4 here with that expertise. However, stu-
and that "teaching down" of lower dents do receive instruction that will
skill level tasks will not occur. This is better enable them to understand the
important for the selectee to under- "big picture." The Airland Battle Con-
stand, especially a s it applies to map cept is taught to ensure that service
reading. Since some sergeants have members are aware of the inter- and
never had formal instruction in this intraservice involvement in each phase
areaandtheonly knowledgethey have of the battle. With this in mind, the
is from non-resident courses or unit students will better understand the
training, they must seek out and mas- why of orders and movements. The
ter the other facets of map reading students will actually design defenses Non-commissioned Officer Course;
prior to attending the course a t Fort Fort Bliss, Texas. He halds an asso-
Bliss, Texas. The skills af map reading
are needed a s a prerequisite to under-
I ciate degree in general management.
Agraduate of the U.S.Army Sergeants
stand additional blocks of instruction
throughout the course. of captain in the U.S.
T h e "common core" p h a s e of
ANCOC h a s been developed by the
FALL 19nA . . 39
Into Final Phase bySP5CraigStrawther

An enthusiastically cheered direct

hit marked the beginning of the final
phase of testing for the 4th Battalion,
2- 3rd Air Defense Artillery, before its
deployment a s the first Patriot battal-
down and yelling-a lot of people were
doing that."
The initial live fire "was oven in
seconds. It was pn direct h t shot. It
wm coming straight in,"' Hustom d.
'-ion overseas. W lmzi~eiledid not nss a n eorplcrsive
The Patriot missile scored a direct hit warhead, for test purposes, when it hit
k2 ,in late August a t White Sands Missile the F-102aimraft drone being used as
-- Range, N.M., during the first live firing -the target. In the. first live fire, the
by a n active-duty unit. The live firing target approached at an altitude of
began a month-long final testing in the a h u a one kilometer and flew just belaw .
.Patriot Follow-On Evaluation (FOE) the s p e d of mund. The missile tra-
I I11 completed before the unit's tenta- veled several kilom&ers before stsik-
2 tive first-of-the-year departure from ing the right wing of the drone.
r i a Fort Bliss, Texas, to Giessen, Germany. Amording to Bus&on, 'The whole
Original plans scheduled the bat- thing would have baen a suceees even if
talion to deploy in January 1984 to y e had just flown clasg ta t h e drone.
r become part of the 32nd Army Air The fa& that we hit the -get was an
: Defense Command. These plans were added he~eaiefit.l ' h ~c l o ~ wyou get, the
shelved when weaknesses discovered better the warhead would do,"
6 in the system's phased array radar, CompuW eigmals inside the qarhead
&, along with other program complica- kll the miserile when it ie close e n ~ u g h
b: tions, led officials to extend the origi- ta deetrhy the target by explaitio~.A
nal operational date by five months. direct hit ia s o t n a e s m r y to dadzby
To allow for any future setbacks, PFC James C a n l p ~ ~IS
l lpreparing to start up
the targat, Hz~etoneplerined.
however, the Army later replaced its the generator that powers the Patriot missile I n Sep%ember, the unit returned to
original calendar schedule with what system's integrated control center during field th;afield to perfom a "ripple fie'' and a
officials termed a "milestone ap- testing. (Photo by SP5 Craig Strawther) "shacrt-look-shoat"' operation. T h e
proach." Under this program, the sys- 'fripple f i ~ e "test%
' the miwile e m ' @ .
tem would only be fielded after three McGregor maneuver area, Fort Bliss, ahity t o launch two missiles in mpia
milestones had been met. Texas. The month of September com- s~ccessionat two iwming &craft.
- Briefly, they required that the equip- pleted the training cycle with the bat- T h e "shoot-look-shoot" tearts t h e
ment be ready to support troop train-
ing; that the troops be properly trained
to operate the equipment; and that the
talion firing four Patriot missiles.
The first live fire on Aug. 28, was
witnessed by media representatives
Patriot's performane@by: firing at a
high+speed. tar@ The sy~tem
at a target identified by radar, &en
*'ehooh" -
and VIPs, as well a s family members of "lwW to see if the missile hit an&
. + . entire system-soldiers

plus equip-
ment-be compatible with Army re- battalion soldiers. The planned family-
d a y event gave family members a
%hootsw another miwile, if neeeslsary.
"It is doing what it has been dmigned
With the first requirement seemingly chance to see what the soldiers had to .dq" said Hmton about the equip
4/3 ADA began the first of three been doing while spending so many ment ibelf. "Thasoldiers @are! making it
training cycles, the "Pilot Phase," on long days and nights away from home, perPam to .i&smadmum eapabili&.
July 16. This two-week exercise was according to LTC Robert E. Huston, There are always .minorhuman e d -
followed by 30 days of "Search and commander, 4/3 ADA. nearing things $hat can b~ c k q d in
Track" maneuvers conducted a t White Commenting o n t h e direct h i t , future prod~.impmv;ame&t+, As the
Sands Missile Range and the North Huston said, "I was jumping up and soldiem b m e moEe familiar withit,
there are always ways to makeit easier high degree of proficiency in making they have been able to maintain their
to operate." the equipment do what it is designed to morale and spirit throughout."
The battalion 53,EPlAJ John Michael do." That includes, said the commander,
Hutchison. added. "We have found that Hustan emphasized. 'The soldiers all 485 of the battalion's soldiers. as
the only way to achieve a high level of have praatic2 their d'flls and opera- well as support people. "Everybody
sophistication is time on the equip- tion of equipment extensively and are has pulled together as a team to dem-
ment, We have been pleasantly sur- seemingly proficient atit. In fact, if you onstrate that we are, indeed, ready to
prised that, because the equipment has consider the amount of field duty that go to Germany."
held up and has been available to the these soldiers have had, I am extremely
soldiers, we have been able to achieve a proud, and sometimes amazed, a t how

radar set.
Patriot missile launching stations silhouette the horizon as PV2 Michael Gotzke hooks up a heavy expanded mobility tactical truck for the system's
FALL 1984 ..,t
+" f-'
Regiment pinned down by Japanese his ability to perform them in peace
machine guns. Taking i n the situation a n d war.
a t a glance, he shouted to his men, "Get You will be introduced to the rudi-
the hell off the beach! Get up and get ments of these skills in our system of
moving. Follow me!" military schools. Through a self-
The moment was captured in a U.S. education process, such a s a profes-
Army in Action poster that inspired sional reading program in tactics, mil-
the well-known "Follow Me" statue a t itary issues and history, you must d e
the U.S. Army Infantry School. Yet, velop your professional awareness and
Newman never considered himself one a n appreciation of the need to master
of history's "bronze" men. "There are these skills. But it is only i n the unit,
born leaders," he wrote, "but I was not under repeated teaching and guidance
one of them. So I planned what I should by the chain of command, that you will
do to be a leader, for I was a com- really begin to develop the skills and
mander, and a man has no right to be a the confidence you need.
commander unless he is also a leader." Tactics and Operations
I n other words, leadership is some- Our Army fights combat battalions
m thing you must work at. I have some and supports them with combat sup-
(BG Stanislaus J. Hoey, former assist- guidelines to pass on to you that may port companies. Tactics is how we fight
ant commandant of the U.S. Army Air help. These guidelines were given to me those combat battalions and their in-
Defense Artillery School, Fort Bliss, when I was a fledgling lieutenant, and ternal companies, platoons, sections
Texas, and deputy commanding general were recently restated by my boss, LTG and squads. Combat unit leaders a t all
of the 32ndArmy Air Defense Command, Charles Graham, who refers to them a s levels must be masters of tactics-how
Federal Republic of Germany, will retire the "Tools of the Trade." They have to organize their soldiers, use their
this fall. The article below, written at the sustained me throughout my career. weapons and limited supplies effi-
end of his career, contains his advice to To become a leader, you must first ciently, fight their units and win. Sim-
junior air defense artillery officers at the become fundamentally competent in ilarly, operations is how we provide
beginning of theirs.) the profession of arms. You cannot act support i n our combat support and
with confidence until you are a master combat service support companies.
This year 456 newly commissioned of YOU' ~rofession- To become ComPe- Support u n i t leaders m u s t know
second lieutenants pinned on t h e tent inthe profession of arms, YOU must operations-how to provide that sup-
crossed cannon and missile insignia of master eight basic leadership skills: port under all conditions and in spite of
Air Defense Artillery. If you were one any obstacles. The combat unit must
Tactics and Operations have that support when and where it is
of them, you will soon discover that the Terrain Appreciation, Land
rank insignia on your collar is really a required so, collectively, the Army can
Navigation and Map Reading destroy the enemy and win. When war
symbol of servitude-servitude to your Weapons
country and to the soldiers you will begins, it is too late to read the field
Communications manual. The "how to do it" knowledge
command during your career. You will Maintenance
learn that the American soldier is a must be engraved in the leader's mind
Survival Tasks
proud soldier who demands profes- by study, practice and field experience
Troop Leading Procedures i n a combined-arms environment.
sional competence from his leaders. Estimates and Orders
The qualities that make a successful Terrain Appreciation, Land
leader are difficult to quantify, and the Without these "Tools of the Trade," Navigation and Map Reading
bond between the successful leader and you cannot hope to become a successful Our Army fights on or close to the
the led borders on the mystical. GEN leader or competent commander. ground. Even our helicopters fight and
George S. Patton once said, "I don't Within the civilian community, we survive next to the ground. Thus our
know what leadership is, but I have it." trust professionals to apply their skills leaders must understand the ground,
If leadership is something you don't and to be masters of their trade. For how to move about onit and how to use
have, you must set about acquiring it, example, a surgeon is trusted to safe- a map. We must use the ground to our
for you cannot become a competent guard our lives because of his profes- advantage and to the enemy's disad-
commander without becoming a com- sional training, knowledge, skill and vantage. This requires a thorough
petent leader. Luckily, leadership is a experience. knowledge of terrain, land navigation
trait that can be acquired. Military officers a n d non- and map reading. The map is a key tool
MG Aubrey S. Newman made his commissioned officers are profession- of our trade. It is a picture of the terrain
name synonymous with leadership als too. Our profession is the profession with which we can plan for fire, maneu-
on the beach where GEN Douglas of arms. As soldiers-leaders, we are ver and movement. All too often our
MacArthur staged his historic return expected to master certain fundamen- leaders become so familiar with their
to the Philippines. Newman, than a tal skills of our profession. Mastery of particular training areas that land nav-
regimental commander, arrived on the
beach and found the 34th Infantry
these skills provides the leader with
fidence in himself and in
I .
igation and map reading are forgotten.
Then when the unit is required to oper-
-zy + i ..AIR
ate in a n unfamiliar environment, such Upon receipt of a mission, a good This is not a new notion:
a s the National Training Center or on leader schedules his time so he can "Troops are strongly influenced
a n exercise overseas, they fail. Good allocate one-third of the available time by the example and conduct of
leader-trainers plan map reading and for his planning and issuance of orders their leader. A leader must have
land navigation training so that it is and two-thirds of the time for his sub- superior knowledge, will power,
innovative and challenging. ordinate leaders to prepare for the mis- initiative and disregard of self. . . .
sion. A good leader issues the warning Mutual confidence between the
The Army's mission is to destroy the order a s soon a s possible. He formu- leader and his men is the surest
enemy. Our weapons are the "tools of lates a tentative plan weighing the basis of discipline." FM 100-5,Oper-
advantages and disadvantages of pos- ations, May 22, 1941.
the trade" which we use to accomplish
this mission. As leaders, we must per- sible courses of action. Simultaneously, Leadership training should be a part
sonally know how to employ and to subordinate leaders use this guidance, of every unit's training plan. Specific
maintain all weapons in our unit. For following the warning order, to prepare time should be set aside for training in
example, leaders must be able to select and conduct any necessary movement. each of the leadership skills. Make a n
A good leader conducts a reconnais- estimate of your own capability. Grade
primary, alternate and supplementary
firing positions for their assigned ma- sance. In the offense, he conducts it a s yourself from "A" to "F." The goal
chine guns, construct the positions them- far forward a s physically possible. He should be a n "A." The minimum stand-
selves, prepare range cards and per- uses binoculars and a map for inacces- ard should be a "B." Do the same with
form operator maintenance. Leaders sible areas. During a delay, he recon- your subordinate leaders, and then con-
must know how to call for and adjust noiters subsequent positions to the duct leadership training to bring all to
supporting fires; call for and direct air rear. In the defense. he reconnoiters the desired level.
strikes; properly employ light anti-tank primary, alternate and supplementary Training the leaders i n the unit will
weapons; arm anti-personnel and anti- positions. develop their confidence. Only when
tank mines and emplace, record and Once a best course of action has been they have confidence can they lead
determined, a good leader completes effectively.
clear a minefield. In addition to a thor-
ough understanding of their own the plan and prepares the operation I hope the "Tools of the Trade" will
weapons, they must also know the order., assembles subordinate leaders help you stay oriented to the "real"
weapons of the enemy. and issues the order. Upon completion mission: making all Army units mis-
of that order, the subordinate leaders sion capable. To you, that means the
Survival Tasks should still have two-thirds of the a i r defense artillery unit must be
A leader must know how to survive available time for preparation. trained to ARTEP standards and to
on the battlefield. He must be physi- accomplish its assigned missions. The
Estimates and Orders
cally fit so he can fight aggressively. unit must have technically competent,
He must know how to camouflage his Estimates are a n ongoing process for
motivated, disciplined and physically
men and equipment and ensure con- the combat leader. He continually con-
and mentally fit soldiers trained to
tinuous improvement of his unit's posi- siders the significant factors of mis-
soldier's m a n u a l s t a n d a r d s a n d
tion. Hand in hand with camouflage sion, enemy, terrain a n d weather,
molded into cohesive, highly coordi-
are light a n d noise discipline and the troops and other assets available, time
nated teams. Most importantly, the
masking of thermal signatures. What and space. These factors are then con-
unit must be led by professionally qual-
can be detected c a n be destroyed. sidered in light of their advantages
ified, tactically and technically profi-
Knowing when to dig in, where to dig and disadvantages. Estimates keep
cient, dedicated officers, such as you,
in and the assets available increases him continually prepared for the unex-
and non-commissioned officers who
survivability. Sometimes digging in pected.
truly care for the men and women who
means making a tired soldier with a n Orders are the communication of a
serve under them.
entrenching tool dig his primary, alter- leader's intentions and directions. The
nate and supplementary fighting posi- Army uses the five-paragraph field BG Stanislaus J. Hoey is the chief of
tions a t the end of a n already fatiguing order format. Leaders should always staff, Second U.S. Army, Fort Gillem,
day. This is the essence of "taking care follow that format because it improves Ga. Commissioned in artillery in 1954,
of the troops." A leader must be secur- the clarity and understanding of the he was assigned to Fort Bliss, Texas,
ity conscious 100 percent of the time. order. Good leaders ensure their subor- in 1958, first as a student and then as
While in static positions, good security dinates not only understand the spe- battery executive officer with the 1st
comes in the form of observation posts cific instructions but, most impor- Guided Missile Group. Hoey servedas
during the day and listening posts at tantly, understand how the leader vis- a military advisor with the 23rd lnfan-
night. During moves, flank security ualizes the operation to be executed. try Division at Ouang Duc, Republic of
should be present. Security can be en- Thus, in the heat and confusion of bat- Vietnam, in 1963. He commanded the
hanced with the use of recognition sig- tle, subordinates will comply with both 6th Battalion, 562ndArtillery, and the
nals, both visual and audible. A leader the letter and the spirit of the order. 69th Air Defense Artillery Group in
must know first aid and how to fight the FederalRepublic of Germany. Pro-
Leadership Training
and survive in a n NBC environment. moted to brigadier general in 1980, he
Once you have mastered the eight
served as deputy commanding gen-
Troop Leading Procedures basic leadership skills, it will become
eral of the 32nd Army Air Defense
Troop leading procedures arethe time your responsibility to teach them to
Command and became assistant com-
tested logical processes a t every level of others. It is the responsibility of lead-
mandant of the U.S. Army Air Defense
command to prepare for and accom- ers a t all levels to teach their subordi-
Artillery School i n 1 9 8 2 . Hoey
plish the mission. Troop-leading proce- nates these skills; it cannot be deferred
accepted his present assignment
dures are what leaders do to make tac- to service schools or to chance that the
Jan 16, 1984.
tics and operations happen. junior leader will learn it on his own.
FALL 1984
Anti-Aircraft Artillery at
Remagan: 'An Obstinate LO^'^,^^^.,,,^^..^^^.^
"Leave the artillerymen alone,"
Napoleon said. "They are a n obstinate
lot." American anti-aircraft artillery-
men lived up to Napoleon's estimation
of them i n their defense of t h e
Remagen Bridge in Germany in the
closing days of World War 11. For al-
most two weeks after U.S. infantry
seized the bridge, which the Germans
tried but failed to blow up, anti-aircraft
artillery (AAA) units protected it and
an adjacent American-built pontoon y

bridge against both conventional and .%-

jet aircraft until a bridgehead was con-
solidated on the east bank of the Rhine.
This "obstinate lot" wrote a proud and
professional page in the history of the
-&I1 ---
When American and German armies The bridgeat,.F... agen four hours before itcdlab,, March 17,1945(top). The bridge buckledand
fell into the river (bottom) only a few hours before repairs would have been completed.
fought a t Remarcen. which lava on the

black silos. A few yards from the east

end of the towers, the railroad entered a
tunnel through a steep hill called
Erpeter Ley. As the Anglo-American
armies approached the Rhine, the
, ~lmidgeat 'Remagen was one of the few
bridges across the river still

nothing to chance, the

d devised, before the war,
demolition plan. The plan
included the installation of a n electric long been a t his post at the bridge. itself were to be issued in writing by the
faze connected with explosives by a Friesenhahn knew the demolition officer bearing tactical responsibility
cable encased in thick metal pipe. But, plan, but only a few days before a n for the area !The officer responsible for
even if the electric fuze failed to work, a order had arrived that complicated his the bridge that morning was CPT Willi
primer cord could be lit by hand to set task. Because a bridge over the Rhine Bratge, who had only 36 men, Friesen-
off emergency charges. At the end of a t Cologne, 25 miles north of Remagen, hahn's engineers and some unreliable
1944, engineers had designed a plan to had been prematurely destroyed when militiamen to defend the bridge. Bratge
blow an anti-tank ditch across the an American bomb had set off a charge, had radioed Army Group B for instruc-
Remagen end of the bridge to forestall Oberkommando der tions earlier that morning and had
an armored attack until the main demo- (OKW) had ordered that demolitions be been assured the situation at Remagen
p@ns could be set off. put in place only when the. fighting was not considered particularly threat-
man troops continued front had come within eight kilometers ening, a n assessment with which
dge through the morn- of a bridge, and the igniters were not to Bratge disagreed. He was happy, there-
afternoon of March 7, be attached until "demolition seems fore, to relinquish command to MAJ
was destined to become a unavoidable,'" Hans Scheller, who arrived a t 11:15
y. CPT Karl Friesenhahn, In addition, both the order to prepare a.m. with orders to relieve him. -
engineer commander, had the explosives ary'gZ%hwdernalitionsrder Scheller was reluctant to blow the
- -.

bridge even though there were reports Americans crossed, Hodges called LTG which to move up the engineer bridges,
that the Americans had reached the Omar N.Bradley a t 12th Army Group. the divisions to exploit the crossing,
bluff overlooking the bridge. An artil- Bradley replied, "Courtney, this will and the AAA units to defend the bridge
lery captain arrived to say his artillery bust him wide open ....Shove every- against airborne and, possibly, water-
pieces were still coming up to the west thing you have into it." GEN Dwight borne attack. To get to the bridge, AAA
bank, and Scheller didn't want to blow D. Eisenhower reacted no less urgently gunners used every available road
the bridge and trap the guns on the when he heard the .news of the cross- space, even if only one battery could be
west bank of the Rhine. ing: "Go ahead and shove five divi- moved a t a time.
At 1 p.m. 2LT Emmet J. Burrows, sions across, Brad." Once a t the bridge, a n initial AAA
looked down from a bluff to the west Within 24 hours, 8,000 Americans defense, which included 90mm AAA
and above the bridge. Burrows, a n were on the east side of the Rhine, and guns and automatic weapons, was set
infantry platoon commander with the First Army, instead of occupying up. Searchlights and SCR-584 radar
Task Force Engeman, 9th Armored the Rhineland while the Third Army were employed upstream i n river-
Division of LTG Courtney H. Hodges' and British 21st Army Group made surveillance roles to detect German
U.S. First Army, saw that the bridge assault crossings of the Rhine, became efforts to mine the river.
was intact. Burrows' company com- the initial allied spearhead into the At first, the enemy's air effort
mander, 1LT Karl H. Timmerman, heart of Germany. And then came the against the defense was persistent but
called for the division's task force com- artillery. usually executed by aircraft operating
mander, COL Leonard Engeman. The singly or in pairs, and no concerted
9th Armored Division Combat Com- There was no opportunity to attacks by large formations were at-
mand B (CCB) operations officer, MAJ build up an AAA defense in tempted. On the afternoon of March 8,
Ben Cothran, also arrived on the bluff depth near the shore before 11 Junkers (Ju) 87s and one Messer-
and saw the bridge still standing. "My the crossing. schmitt (Me) 109 struck against the
God!" he said. "I've got to get the old bridge. The famous Stuka, the Ju-87,
man." The old man was BG William M. Actually, the artillery was already could carry one 1,102-pound bomb and
Hoge, CCB commander. Soon a t the there. During the afternoon of the four 110-pound bombs, and its maxi-
scene, Hoge told Engeman, "I want crossing on March 7, some sections of mum speed was 217 mph. The 482 AA
you to take that bridge as soon as the 482nd AAA Automatic Weapons AW Battalion (SP), a s a result of a
possible." (AW) Battalion Self-Propelled (SP) remarkable action. claimed all 12 of
About 3:15 p.m., Engeman heard arrived a t the bridge. By 3 p.m., March these aircraft a s destroyed and seen to
from CCB's other column which had 8, the majority of the 482nd was in crash.
entered a nearby town called Sinzig. A position with six guns on each side of On March 9 in daylight, 17 enemy
German civilian had told them that the the bridge. The AAA gunners were aircraft were over the area, again
bridge a t Remagen was going to be neither alone nor unendangered. De- singly or in pairs. These aircraft, show-
blown precisely a t 4 p.m. Although the spite constant German artillery fire on ing more caution than their ill-fated
Germans did not in fact have a precise the morning of the 8th, the 634th AAA predecessors, took violent evasive
schedule, BG Hoge acted on the rumor. AW Battalion Motorized began to pre- action and flew a t lower altitudes than
Timmerman's company fought pare positions on the east bank, and those of the previous day. All attacks
through Remagen a n d neared the the 413th AAA Gun Battalion (Motor- were repulsed, and claims for the day
bridge about 4 a.m. ized) moved into position on the west were 12 enemy aircraft destroyed, in-
At about the same time, Scheller dic- bank of the Rhine. cluding Heinkel (He) 111, Me-109, and
tated the written order to blow the This rapid deployment should not go Focke-Wulf (Fw) 190 types. ..
bridge. After he read it, Bratge shouted unnoticed. Unlike a carefully planned On March 10, General Field Marshal
the order to Friesenhahn, who turned river crossing against a strong enemy Albert Kesselring assumed command
the key to activate the electric circuit position, there was no opportunity to of German forces in the west. He con-
and set off the explosives. Friesenhahn build up a n AAA defense in depth near ferred with Luftwaffe commanders,
turned it three times but nothing h a p the shore before the crossing. urging them to knock out the Remagen
pened. He then called for a volunteer However, American AAA units had Bridge and any other bridge the Amer-
who went out on the bridge, ignited the not been totally unprepared for defense icans might (and did) build. On March
primer and dashed back to the east should there be a n opportunity. On 10 and 11, 47 and 15 aircraft, respec-
side. March 1, all AAA units were alerted to tively, made scattered attacks i n unfa-
There was a sudden booming roar. the plan for concentrating First Army vorable weather. Both high- and low-
Timbers flew wildly i n the air. The AAA units if and when the retreating level bombing was attempted, accom-
bridge lifted as if to rise from its foun- German army should fail to destroy a panied again by violent evasive action.
dations. Covering himself against the bridge. Anti-aircraft commanders of No damage was done, and claims for
flying debris, Friesenhahn breathed a the 111, V and VII Corps were advised the two days amounted to 29 aircraft
sigh of relief. The job was done. But that when the necessity arose, the AAA destroyed and seven probables.
when he looked up again, the bridge units defending the crossings of the On the night of March 11to 12,Amer-
was still there. Roer River west of the Rhine, airfields ican anti-aircraft assets were increased
Timmerman's Company A, 27th and all other Army areas would be by the addition of the 639th AAA AW
Armored Infantry Battalion, was soon made available to augment the auto- Battalion, and the 110th and 134th
across the bridge and on the east bank. matic weapons within their corps. AAA Gun Battalions. This raised the
(Scheller escaped on a bicycle and rode But getting AAA units from the Roer total defenses to 16gun batteries (all on
to higher headquarters to report that to the Rhine a t Remagen was not easy. the west bank) and 25 automatic weap-
the bridge was a o t blown; Bratge and The road net presented a difficult prob- ons batteries (equally divided between
Friesenhahn became POWs.) As more lem. Only one narrow road existed over east and west banks).
FALL 1984
Improvement in the weather during the fight, for from that date enemy air- area and was exempted from having to
the day of March 12 coincided with a n craft did not press attacks on the bridge impose hold-fires for friendly aircraft,
increase to 84 aircraft in the scale of from low altitudes. No .balloons were all of which were ordered to avoid the
attack. In addition to types previausly lost as a result of enemy fire, but 20 area. The radius of this zone was 15,000
employed, one Me-262, the first turbo were destroyed by friendly anti-aircraft yards, and its ceiling was 10,000 feet.
jet-powered aircraft over Remagen, fire in .the area. Since only one well-aimed bomb
was seen. Again, no formation bomb- By March 14, the gun defense had could have destroyed the Remagen
ing was attempted, and most raids been built up-to the following forinida- Bridge or the pontoon bridge which
were executed a t low level. Not with- ble concentration: had been hastily constructed adjacent
standing the enemy.use of cloud cover, to the railroad bridge, AAA cd'kmand-
claims of 31 destroyed and eight prob- ers believed that the only means of pro-
a b l e ~mere reported. tedingthe bridges at night was to keep
On March 13, enemy activity in- enemy aircraft completely out of the
creased ta 97..airmaft, but-there was no area. Therefore, it was decided that a n
change in-tactics baause Ule Germans umbrella-type night barrage would pro-
were unM11ng to risk deliberate bamb- vide adequate protection. The number
h g runs without which hits on a pin- of automatic weapons in the vicinity df
pfat target were unlikely. The em- the bridges could put out such a high
ployment of four Arado (Ar) 234 jets on volume of fire that even the most dar-
raunnaissance marked the first a p ing Luftwaffe pilot could hardly be
pearance of this type aircraft over the .expeded to face it. This proved to be
bridgehead. Claims on this day were 31 true, and no aircraft penetrated any of
destroyed and 13 probables. the barrages fired.
By the morning of March 14, the A line running northeast and south-
974th Balloon Barrage Squadron, west was projected to separate the
Royal-AirForce, arrived. The squadron bridges in the area a n d h segregate fire
made a notable contribution to the units into two umbrella sectors. All
defenses of Remagen. Twenty-five bal- The totals seem to suggest that the units northwest of this line fired at the
loons were immediately sent aloft Americans were serious about keeping azimuth of the bridge in their sector; all
within a circle .of 2,000 yards radius the bridge. fire units southeast of the line fired at
from the bridge and were flown day At the same time of the buildup of the azimuth of the.bridge in the south-
and night. The British contribution these defenses, the Remagen Inner east sector. A high barrage was used
marked a significant turning point in Artillery Zone was declared a special when aircraft attackedabove6,OOOfeet,
and a low barrage was used when air- barrage was the fact that it gave all- March 20; attacks against the Rema-
craft attacked below 6,000 feet. round protection and could engage a n gen area ceased.
For either barrage, circles with radii attack from several directions a t the Adolf Hitler know why the
of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 yards were same time. The barrage fire protected bridge had not been blown in the first
drawn around each bridge. To produce the bridge during the most critical place. Fairly paranoid by then, he sus-
the low barrage, all 40mm or 37mm period of the bridgehead operation. pected it was the work of treachery,
guns within the 1,000-yard circle fired On March 14, the Germans dis- and he convened a military tribunal to
a t a quadrant elevation of 20 degrees. patched 80 raiders by day and 14 by investigate the matter. Four heads
All 40mm and 37mmguns between the night. The Americans recognized a t rolled, including that of MAJ Hans
1,000-yard and 2,000-yard circles fired least 67 a s jets, which indicated a com- Scheller, last seen escaping from the
at a quadrant elevation of 25 degrees, plete change of tactics. These aircraft bridge on a bicycle and who was any-
and all 40mm and 37mm between the made bombing runs with great speed thing but a traitor. CPT Bratge might
2,000-yard and 3,000-yard circles fired (the Me-262-1-1Aflew 539 mph, the Ar- have considered himself lucky to be a
a t a quadrant elevation of 30 degrees. 234B-2 430 to 461 mph). They usually POW of the Americans since he too was
The Quad 50s within each circle of attacked a t altitudes between 1,000 and given a death sentence. CPT Friesen-
these radii fired five degrees higher 2,000 feet. Again, single aircraft and h a h n , also a POW, was acquitted
than the 40mm or 37mm guns. The small fights were employed, but the i n absentia.
high barrage was similar except that speed of the jets was a severe test for Anti-aircraft defense a t Remagen
all guns fired 20 degrees higher. the artillery a s indicated by a propor- contributed greatly to the success of
During the firing of either barrage, tionate reduction i n anti-aircraft the initial Rhine bridgehead. The
the elevation and azimuth trackers of claims, which totalled only five de- German air force flew 442 sorties but
the 40mm a n d 37mm guns slowly stroyed and 13 probables by day and had not been able to cut the flow of I
rotated their hand wheels one turn in six destroyed and one probable by American troops and supplies crossing I
either direction of the center point, and night. On the other hand, the reluc- Remagen bridges. Anti-aircraft gun-
the Quad 50s varied azimuth and ele- tance of the jet pilots to reduce speed on ners claimed 142kills and 59 probables
vation five degrees in each direction of the bombing- run was without doubt a and, after 13 days, the Luftwaffe gave
the designated point. primary cause of their inaccurate aim. up and ceased to enter the Remagen
An automatic weapons officer sta- March 14 marked the climax of the area. The American artillerymen, a n
tioned in a 90mm gun battery SCR-584 German effort a t Remagen. On March "obstinatelot," had accomplished their
radar site relayed warnings and com- 15, the enemy abandoned the jet as- mission.
mands to fire automatic weapons by sault and committed only 12 aircraft.
radio. When a n enemy aircraft was On the 16th, there was only a single
tracked to within 10,000yards of either sortie. IAAA Units Emp.loyedinthe Rami@m Areal
bridge, he ordered a standby for either Having failed by air, yet always re-
low barrage or high barrage, depend- sourceful, the Germans tried other
ing upon the altitude of the aircraft. If means of retaliation, both by land and
the aircraft was below 4,000 feet, he water. On March 16, a tank-mounted,
gave the command to fire when it 550mm piece called "Karl Howitzer"
approached to within 6,000 yards. The flung a 4,400-pound projectile at the
barrage was limited to only 10 seconds bridge but only damaged nearby
of fire. If the aircraft should again houses. From March 12 to 17, they fired
attempt to attack, the barrage was 11 V-2 (the V was for Vergeltungs-
repeated. When the aircraft left the waffen, or vengeance) rockets from the
area, the officer waited five minutes Netherlands, one of which hit a house
and then gave orders to resume normal 300 yards east of the bridge, killing
alert status. three Americans, the first and only tac-
This automatic weapons barrage tical use of that weapon in World War
was fired on five nights. On three 11.
nights, it was fired three times. The The railroad bridge, weakened by
average ammunition expenditure per Scheller's unsuccessful demolition at-
night was 320 to 400 rounds of 40mm tempt and U.S. artillery and t a n k
and 20,000 rounds of .50-caliber ammu- rounds which had hit the bridge during
nition per battalion. In addition to the its capture, collapsed unexpectedly a t
20 balloons destroyed by barrage fire, 2:30 p.m. on March 17. That night, the
friendly troops suffered six casualties Germans came by water. Seven frog-
from falling rounds. The anti-aircraft men with oxygen masks, flippers and
commanders agreed that the automatic Dr. Thomas J . Keiser is the U.S. Army
plastic explosives slipped into the
weapons barrage had accomplished its Rhine to blow up the pontoon bridges, Air Defense Artillery School branch
purpose, for enemy pilots, after seeing but a n anti-aircraft searchlight battery historian at Fort Bliss, Texas. He re-
the umbrella of fire above the vital spotted them, and the frogmen became ceived his bachelor's degree frorn
areas, failed to press home their POWs. Indiana University, his master's frorn
attacks. Promiscuous anti-aircraft fire On March 18,12 aircraft, six a t night, the University of Notre Dame, and his
did not occur, since there was no auto- attacked the anti-aircraft guns taking doctorate from the University of Read-
matic weapons fire permitted a t night a considerable toll. On thenights of the ing, England. He has taught U.S. his-
other than the barrage fire. One espe- 19th and 20th, the enemy lost 12 out of tory for the University of Maryland in
cially meritorious point in favor of the 20 and six out of 15 respectively. After Europe.

Army's N~edSbyMsGElsieDarling
Since i t s introduction i n 1977,

in me to
nowtluskillsand h e cammandm
hpmved cwnrellcgand mmagsmsnt tool

RETAIN, the Army's automated re-

enlistment and assignment system,
has significantly improved the Army's about soldiers' futures. the re-enlistment NCO may place the
re-enlistment program. Now, a new The automation will not change re- soldier's name on a waiting list for a n
capability is being added to RETAIN classification approval authorities. assignment to a location of the sol-
which will expand the system from re- Those actions requiring written ap- dier's preference. As assignments be-
enlistments to reclassifications. proval by Department of the Army will come available, the appropriate as-
The enhancement, known a s the skill continue to be forwarded to the Mil- signment branch a t the Military Per-
alignment module, was developed to itary Personnel Center. sonnel Center will make a n assign-
help the Army correct military occupa- ment offer. Again, if a satisfactory
tional specialty imbalances. Imbal- H o w it Works match cannot be made in three offers,
ances are overstrengths and under- Eight months before a soldier's expi- the soldier will no longer be eligible for
strengths in MOSs compared to the ration term of service, the re-enlistment the re-enlistment option.
Army's requirements in each of its NCO will review and update the infor- If a soldier changes his mind after
more than 350 specialties. In the past mation on the soldier's personnel data selecting a n option and assignment for
imbalances were often created as sol- record. Changes may need to be made which a reservation is made and the
diers "migrated" from one MOS to in certain data elements such a s apti- action is cancelled, he will be disquali-
another through re-enlistments and tude scores, date eligible for return fied from that re-enlistment option.
reclassification actions. from overseas and re-enlistment waiv-
The skill alignment module i s a ers. Updating datain the RETAIN sys- For the Soldier
management mechanism that grades tem does not automatically change the The skill alignment module system
Army jobs by skill level so that the only soldier's enlisted master file. As al- will allow the soldier to see what his
re-enlistment and reclassification op- ways, standard installation and divi- alternatives a r e for re-enlistment
tions offered to the soldier are those sion personnel system input is required based on his qualifications and where
which meet the Army's needs. The to update the master file. his potential can best be used within
change is that RETAIN focuses on the Once the data is updated, the com- the Army. With this information, the
individual's preferences while the skill puter will screen the soldier's record soldier can make a more timely and
alignment module will focus on the and produce, within 24 hours, a re- realistic decision by selecting the op-
Army's requirements and balance the enlistment worksheet that will have tion which provides him the greatest
skills within the enlisted force. While information on the soldier's qualifica- opportunities.
helping the Army solve its imbalances, tions, the strength status of his MOS Under this system, a soldier will not
the new system will have definite ad- (over, short or balanced), selection re- be forced to change his MOS at time of
vantages for the soldier. I t will guide enlistment bonus availability, promo- re-enlistment. He may elect to remain
him to understrength MOSs that have tion opportunities, availability of as- in a n overstrength MOS and his skills
better opportunities for assignments, signments in the soldier's primary be used based on the Army's needs.
bonuses and promotions. MOS and re-enlistment options avail- Force modernization and alignment
The fully automated system will save able. Re-enlistment options and oppor- of the enlisted force structure are high
much time and energy for commands tunities for soldiers in overstrength priority issues for the Army. Materiel
and installations that coordinate with MOSs will be limited compared to those and human resources are too precious
the Military Personnel Center by tele- in understrength MOSs. to be mismanaged. The Army is deter-
phone. The system will handle volun- After t h e soldier selects a re- mined to realign soldiers by skill and
tary and involuntary reclassifications enlistment option from the worksheet, grade to satisfy manpower require-
for soldiers in grades E-5 and below t h e r e - e n l i s t m e n t NCO will use ments. The skill alignment module is a
and medical reclassications for sol- RETAIN to reserve the assignment of positive step towards accomplishing
diers in grades E-8 (non-promotable) the soldier's preference. If a desired just that.
and below. location is not available, but other
TXe skill alignment module can im- locations are, the soldier may select
mediately make available to military from those offered. If a match cannot
personnel offices, commanders and re- be made after three searches, the re-
classification boards a list of MOSs enlistment option is withdrawn and is RETAIN Customer Assistance Office,
based on Army needs. This will be a no longer available to the soldier. Re-enlistment Control Branch, Mili-
valuable management tool for coun- If no locations are available when
selors who make important decisions the search for a n assignment is made,
residence only; there is no correspon-
dence course for this stage of training.
Warrant officer candidate schools are

Preuents Hard Knoclrs

a t Fort Rucker, Ala; Fort Sill, Okla.;
and Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.
Upon arrival a t the school, the indi-
vidual is placed in a warrant officer
candidate status for six weeks, during
by CW2 Michael Cochrane
which time the enlisted grade insignia
is exchanged for that of a warrant
' . 7
officer candidate. The candidate wears
this insignia until he completes the third
stage and becomes a warrant officer.
The candidates are given a brief
overview of the course by one of the
training and counseling officers. Each
student receives a warrant officer can-
didate handbook t h a t explains the
rules, guidelines and standards, such
a s the honor system, study times, room
and wall locker display and discipline
matters. Students face a mentally de-
manding academic curriculum. Courses .
The Army, in 1983,established a new duct a n in-process review (IPR) and consist of 52 hours of leadership and
Warrant Officer Training System to invited members from the major com- ethics to prepare them for their new
fill a n institutional abyss which had mands and all MOS-producing schools place in the Army. If candidates do not
existed since the first warrant officer to attend. meet course requirements, they are re-
appointments in the early 1900s. The The IPR was held a t Fort Lee, Va., turned to their enlisted rank without
new system marks the end of direct between Aug. 29 and Sept. 2,1983. The loss of pay.
appointments and the beginning of a committee met in working groups to The third stage centers on technical
highly structured system of instruction restructure the training system, then certification by the proponent. At this
to produce keenly qualified warrants to briefed TRADOC officials on its pro- juncture, the proponent school is re-
meet the ever-increasing demands of ~osals. sponsible for ensuring the technical
today's Army. The proposals emphasized entry-level ability of the candidate. Once candi-
Before the system was inaugurated, training. Only five of the 64 technical dates have successfully completed this
there were many warrants who did not MOSs had a n entry-level course for stage, they are appointed warrant offi-
receive formal military instruction after newly appointed warrant officers. That cers i n the U.S. Army.
being appointed. In most cases, it was meant that 59 different MOSs had The new training system guarantees
left up to the individuals to obtain on- warrant officers who went to their first that new warrant officers arrive a t
the-job training for the skills they assignment knowing little about what their first assignments with a well-
needed. was expected of them. rounded education and a greater aware-
In a sense, the training was a some- The committee made it clear that the ness of what is expected of.them.
times haphazard, catch-as-catch-can Army could not continue to take sol- The same committee that constructed
system that was restricted in scope and diers, who had been identified as among the entry-level training is currently
barely adequate to address the war- the best in their field, train them the working on advanced course training
rant's special needs. After a few hard same way they had in the past and and senior-level training, both of which
knocks, the warrant officer adapted to expect them to be able to keep up with are geared toward fine-tuning the spe-
his new environment, was promoted, today's ever-changing force structure. cial skills and repsonsibilities of war-
then received orders for a new assign- Therefore, to improve the training rant officers.
ment. Generally, when the warrant system, a n entry-level, three-tiered sys- Applicants under the improved pro-
arrived a t the new unit, he or she had tem was developed. All warrant officer gram were enrolled in the first warrant
no idea what the new job might be. I t candidates must progress through this officer entry-level course this October;
could be the continuation of the same system to receive a n appointment. a course to produce top-notch warrants
job just left, or it could be a job in a The first stage, the application pro- without the many hard knocks suf-
higher-level position. cedure, has been streamlined by doing fered in the past.
Commanders throughout the U.S. away with the local board action. It
CW2 Michael Cochrane isan instruc-
Army Training and Doctrine Com- was decided that recommendations and
tor and training developer assigned to
mand questioned whether the Army endorsements by local commanders
the SHORAD Branch, Tactics Depart-
could continue the wav warrant offic- were sufficient to consider the appli-
ment, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery
ers were trained and whether it could cant for appointment. Once the appli-
School, Fort Bliss, Texas. He curently
expect warrant officers to meet the cation is approved, the individual
holds the MOS of 2 2 4 8 0 8 (SHORAD
changing needs and challenges of the moves on to the second stage-attend- system technician). He was the
modern Army. Concerned about the ing a warrant officer entry course. This
USAADASCH project officer for the
program, GEN William R. Richardson, course is mandatory for each applicant review of education and training of
TRADOC commander, appointed a regardless of field or MOS. The appli-
warrant officers.
committee of warrant officers to con- cant must attend the entry course in
FALL 1984
Army's ATBM Scores IFF Training Gets Increased Emphasis
An experimental Army missile scored what is The U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery School
believed to be the world's first successful inter- is placing increased emphasis on Stinger and
cept of a n incoming ballistic missile warhead, Chaparral identification, friend or foe (IFF) train-
Pentagon officials announced. ing. Several actions have been taken by the school
According to officials, the intercepting missile to improve the proficiency of personnel assigned
was launched from Meck Island, part of the to field units using the AN/PPX-3 interrogator set.
Kwajalein missile range in the southwest Pacific. w A three-man mobile training and certification
Once above the atmosphere, the intercepter sepa- team was organized last summer. The objective of
rated from its booster rocket, and its long-wave the team is to instruct and certify programming of
infrared sensor and guidance computer locked the Mark XI1 IFF system to personnel in MOS
onto the target warhead. The dummy warhead 16P, 16R and 1 6 s in duty positions a s Chaparral
was carried by a U.S. Minuteman intercontinental or Stinger platoon sergeants, squad leaders or sec-
ballistic missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base, tion chiefs of Chaparral/Vulcan battalions. Per-
Calif. sonnel holding those MOSs who are assigned to
The homing overlay experiment is managed by moving target simulator operations and to basic
the Army's Ballistic Missile Defense Systems non-commissioned officer courses throughout the
Command, Huntsville, Ala. I t represents a decade Army also will receive this training.
of research and development in optical and data To ensure that all instructors are technically
processing technology. (ArNews) competent to instruct all aspects of I F F program-
Recognition Lessons Delayed ming, a technical orientation course for all per-
Fielding of visual aircraft recognition training sonnel involved in instructing and writing about
extension course lessons was scheduled to be com- the I F F system was developed. The first course,
pleted during August and September 1984. Because which includes extensive hands-on training, was
of contractor problems with the mass production, given in June 1984.
the shipment of this 13-lesson series will be w KI-1A equipment is being added to the TDAs
delayed. The lessons are now expected to be fielded of the SHORAD Weapons Department and the 1st
during December 1984 and January 1985. Air Defense Artillery Training Brigade.
Chaparral Modifications Proposed w An IFF training motion picture which covers
Proposals h a v e been made to modify the programming procedures i s being produced and is
Chaparral air defense system during FY85 and expected to be completed by the third quarter of
FY86. Modifications will be limited to improve- FY85.
ments of existing parts or replacement with items w I F F training is being incorporated into the
currently designed or in production. MANPADS sustainment program.
Planned improvements are: w Changes to Stinger and Chaparral technical
w the pneumatic system, including the compres- manuals, fielded in May and June 1984, now
sor, to correct a low mean time between failure reflect a single programming procedure and con-
conditions of the air compressor and the asso- tain operating instructions for the KI-1A system.
ciated pneumatic components. w I F F procedures for Chaparral and Stinger
the incorporation of a forward-lookinginfrared have been incorporated in FMs 44-4 and 44-18-1.
night vision capability. Required changes for the FAAR/TADDS doctri-
a weapon display unit to provide the gunner nal field manual, FM 44-6, have been identified
with cueing information. and will be included in a future revision.
w nuclear, biological and chemical protection for A required operational capability (ROC) to
the gunner in the launching station and for the establish a need for a hand-held interrogator test
five crewmembers when they are in the vehicle's device for Chaparral and Vulcan h a s been sub-
cab. mitted.
w fuel replacement in the missile rocket motors w New Chaparral/Stinger/Vulcan unit ARTEPs
with a smokeless propellant to reduce missile now include I F F programming evaluation pro-
signature. cedures.
w elimination of asbestos in the rocket motor The new SQT for the affected MOSs will
I case insulator. include I F F tasks.
N e w Enlistees Have Longer Obligation specialties, according to Accession Training and
Soldiers enlisting after June 1, 1984, incur a n Retention Management Division officials of the
eight-year military obligation, a two-year increase Military Personnel Center.
t h a t officials say will ultimately strengthen the Commanders should nominate qualified sol-
Individual Ready Reserve. diers for courses beginning in FY85 within 30 days
The new policy increases the time soldiers re- after they attain E-5 or E-6 promotion list status.
main "on call" with the ready reserve after they The course helps soldiers qualify for the next
leave active duty or reserve units. The Individual higher skill level in their primary MOS.
Ready Reserve provides the nation's primary First priority for acceptance into the primary
source of additional trained personnel available course will go to soldiers selected for promotion to
during emergency mobilization. grade E-5. Soldiers in grade E-4 serving i n E-5
Some 250,000 persons are i n the Army's Indi- positions for which the training is necessary will
vidual Ready Reserve today. Officials say no sub- be given secondary consideration.
stantial increases will occur a s a result of the new Soldiers selected for promotion to grade E-6 will
obligation until after 1990. be given first consideration for the basic course.
The new obligation is not retroactive and does Soldiers in grade E-5 will be given secondary con-
not lengthen the Individual Ready Reserve time sideration if they are serving i n E-6 positions for
for servicemembers who enlisted prior to June 1. which the training is necessary.
(ArNews) Soldiers may request the course a s either "tour
of duty en route" or "TDY and return."
N e w Rules for Midterm Soldiers Some 115 courses, varying in length from two to
Midterm soldiers failing t o meet new re- 19 weeks, will be conducted a t stateside combat
enlistment trainability standards will not be per- support a n d combat service support installations.
mitted to re-enlist, say Military Personnel Center Soldiers completing the courses incur a six-
officials. Those soldiers will be restricted to exten- month service obligation. (ArNews)
sion, but only until they attain eligibility through
retesting of the armed services vocational apti- Group Studies Officers' Development
tude battery or skill qualification tests. A soldier An Army study group h a s been formed to evalu-
can be extended up to, but not beyond, April 1, ate the professional development system for com-
1985. missioned a n d warrant officers. The study will
After the soldier is retested a n d meets midterm focus on military training, education, assignments
criteria, the following actions may be taken. If a n d socialization of t h e active a n d reserve
within the eligibility window for re-enlistment components.
(three months of normal separation date), he may The group will examine the officer professional
re-enlist in any option for which he qualifies. If not development philosophy and system to see if they
within the eligibility window, his extension can be meet the needs of the Army now a n d in the future.
cancelled, allowing him to re-enlist for a n y option They also will evaluate whether training a n d edu-
otherwise qualified. Credit will be given for in-the- cation are provided a t a career stage when they
window re-enlistments, provided the extension can be most useful, a n d whether they contain the
cancellation is processed through the standard right content i n light of Army missions.
installation personnel system a n d before the re- To assist in the study, a survey of general offic-
enlistment is processed. ers a n d 23,000 other randomly selected commissi-
Payment of a selective re-enlistment bonus is oned officers is underway, inquiring about their
authorized if all requirements are met. However, professional development i n relation to career
a n y time remaining on a n extension is previously duties. The surveys were mailed Aug. 15.
obligated conditions service, and bonus money is All officers may contribute individual ideas,
not paid for that time. (ArNews) suggestions a n d criticisms directly to the study
group by writing: The Professional Development
Course Applications Accepted of Officers Study Group, Office of the Chief of
Enrollment applications for primary and basic Staff, Army, ATTN: DACS-PDOS (CAFRITZ),
technical courses are being accepted from soldiers Room 3D673, The Pentagon, Washington, DC
i n the combat service or combat service support 20301-0200.

FALL 1984
Personnel Needed for Attache Duty graphy and Computer Science. The individual
Enlisted personnel in grades E-6 and E-7 are selected will be responsible for the design, admin-
needed to fill worldwide positions in the Defense istration a n d instruction of computer science
Attache System. The military occupational spe- courses and for the development and management
cialty requirement for all enlisted positions is 71L, of systems to support computer-based research in
administrative specialist. the department.
Noncommissioned officers i n other administra- In addition to relevant academic qualifications,
tive MOS/CMF may apply if qualified and willing the committee will consider the scope and quality
to be reclassified in MOS 71L. An additional skill of military experience and other evidence of mil-
identifier of E4 is awarded following completion of itary competence. Completion of Command and
attache training. General Staff College is highly desirable. Candi-
Tour lengths are two or three years. NCOs who dates lacking a doctorate degree should have a
successfully complete a n attache tour can satisfy master's i n computer science or a closely related
the experience prerequisites for appointment to discipline and be qualified and willing to complete
warrant officer i n MOS 961A, attache technician. work toward a doctorate degree in computer science
Interested personnel are encouraged to review within two years.
all of the prerequisites and application procedures Officers interested i n applying for this position
contained in AR 611-60, Assignment to Army may obtain application information by contact-
Attache Duty (May 15,1983, edition only). NCOs ing LTC J. K. Burns, Selection Committee secre-
desiring additional information or assistance after tary, Office of the Dean, USMA, West Point, NY
reviewing AR 611-60may call the Enlisted Assign- 10996 by Nov. 30, 1984. Telephone: Commercial
ment Coordinator, MSG Tom Chorba, Fort Meade, 914-938-2105;AV 688-2105.
Md., AV 923-5314 or AV 923-6805.
Common Skills Testing in AIT
Army Looking for Club Managers Some of the skills t h a t new soldiers learn early
The Army needs soldiers in grades E-5 and E-6 in basic training and phase 1 of one-station unit
to fill openings in the club management career training (OSUT) are perishable. According to
program, according to Military Personnel Center Army officials, too often these skills deteriorate
officials. to a n "unacceptable" level before the students
Applicants must have less than 16 years of ser- graduate.
vice and have had previous experience in food Arecent Army study revealed t h a t if these basic
service, business administration or financial skills are not reinforced in later training, they are
managements. often forgotten before new soldiers graduate from
Soldiers selected will receive on-the-job training advanced individual training (AIT) or phase I1 of
in a club manager position before attending a OSUT. To counter this "skill decay," the U.S.
nine-week course a t Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind. Army Training a n d Doctrine Command-.h a s
Before submitting applications, soldiers should begun a program within initial entry training that
contact their local personnel office and follow the will provide soldiers refresher training and eval-
procedures outlined i n Chapter 7, AR 614-200, uation for 30 basic common skills.
Selection Of Enlisted Soldiers For Training And These 30 skills will be evaluated during the final
Assignment. four weeks of AIT and OSUT. They are the same
Applications should be submitted through corn- skills in which new soldiers are currently tested
mand channels to: before they graduate from basic training and
Commander, USAMILPERCEN, phase I of OSUT. Soldiers who don't meet the
ATTN: DAPC-OPA-C, performance standards for a selected skill will
200 Stovall Street, receive reinforcement training and be re-evaluated
Alexandria, VA 22332-0400. before they depart AIT or phase I1 of OSUT.
(ArNews) Besides beginning reinforcement training i n
those areas, TRADOC is also integrating many of
USMA Needs Associate Professor the tasks into field training exercises. The purpose
T h e Superintendent of t h e U.S. Military of these steps is to help the command meet its
Academy h a s announced t h a t the Academy h a s objective: ensuring that all soldiers demonstrate
extended until Dec. 31,1984, its search for a sea- the ability to perform the 30 selected basic com-
soned, midcareer officer to serve a s permanent mon skills before they leave initial entry training
associate professor i n the Department of Geo- for their first unit assignment. (TRADOC OCPA)
Apache Tests Weapon Systems lets. The new M-855 ball round, which incor-
The AH-64 Apache attack helicopter blazed its porates a steel penetrator in the bullet's nose, can
way to Yuma Proving Ground, Ariz., in August to penetrate helmets a t almost three times the dis-
initiate first article testing on its weapon systems. tance of the standard M-193 ball round. When
First article testing, a s required by Department fully loaded for firing, the weapon weighs 22
of Defense on any new production item, ensures pounds.
that government specifications are met by the Deployment of the M249 squad automatic
contractor. weapon will greatly improve firepower and sur-
The first Apache rolled off the Hughes Helicop- vivability of the infantry squad on the modern
ter, Inc., production line in fall 1983. Armed with battlefield. (ArNews)
Hellfire anti-armor laser-guided missiles, a 30mm
automatic gun and 2.75-inch rockets, it will be the Future Stinger Role Under Study
Army's primary helicopter, succeeding the Cobra The Army is studying the adaptation of the
attack helicopter. The Apache, which is equipped Stinger missile for dual-role air-to-air and air-to-
with the basic tank-killing abilities of the older surface defense suppression on its AH-1 Huey-
Cobra, has the latest computer and fire-control Cobra, UH-60 Black Hawk and AH-64 Apache
technologies. helicopters. The Army is well along in equipping
Six additional Apaches will arrive a t Yuma its OH-58D Kiowa scout helicopters with either the
Proving Ground before December 1984 for pilot Stinger or another lightweight missile.
training. Instructor pilots will be trained' and, in
turn, will train other Army pilots.
The Army is scheduled to buy 515 Apaches Navy Contracts Vertical Lift Aircraft
before the end of the decade. (Outpost)

Night Vision for Sea Stallion

The Naval Air Systems Command has con-
tracted the building of five night-vision units with
forward-looking infrared radar for the CH-53E
Sea Stallion helicopter. The Navy and Marine
Corps will use the system, already in production
with the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, for
search and rescue missions. The hardware allows
flight crews to navigate and fly faster a t very-low
altitudes under cover of darkness or in adverse
The first night-vision-equipped Sea Stallion is
scheduled to fly in mid-1986. (Armed Forces Journal)
The Naval Air Systems Command has awarded
Army Fields New Automatic Weapon the Bell-Boeing JVX Team a $23.4-million con-
T h e Army's new M-249 s q u a d automatic tract for the second stage of preliminary design for
weapon (see Page 56, Summer 1984, Air Defense the joint services advanced vertical lift aircraft
Artillery) has been fielded to the 82nd Airborne (JVX). The contract complements and extends the
Division, the first combat unit to receive the phase-one design effort that began in April 1983.
weapon. The target of the program is to achieve first flight
The new machine gun, developed a t the Army by August 1987.
Armament Research and Development Center, The JVX i s a multiservice program to develop a
Dover, N.J., is designed to fill the need for a n common vertical lift aircraft that can be used by
automatic weapon in the infantry squad. the Army for long-range logistics and cargo mis-
The M-249 has twice the effective range, and a t sions, by the Air Force for special operations, by
700-850 rounds per minute, has six times the rate the Marine Corps for amphibious assault and by
of fire of the M-16A1 rifle that it replaces. The the Navy for combat search and rescue and spe-
squad automatic weapon fires 5.56mm heavy bul- cial warfare.

FALL 1984 53
(Courtesy of Sikorsky Aircraft)

ACAP Helicopter Takes First Flight Beyond demonstrating the feasibility of a high-
The world's first all-composite-aidkame heli- performance composite airframe, the ACAP heli-
copter made its first public'flight at West Palm copter is designed to meet stringent ballistic-
Beach, Fla., i n mid August. T.he aircraft, de- tolerance criteria. It also is intended to have its
veloped under the Army's Applied Technology occupants survive a 42-foot-per-second vertical
Laboratory's advanced composite .airframe pro- impact and roll-over, through a combination of
gram .(ACAP) and built by United Technologies' impact-absorbing landing gear, long-stroke seat
Sikorsky Aircraft, flew for 20 minutes. supports and crushable fuselage structure.
The Army set a n ACAP target weight savings of Composites, which are layers (plies) of fabric-
22 percent, a cost savings of 17 percent and a like materials impregnated with resins, have a
reliability and maintainability savings of 20 per- number of distinct advantages over metal struc-
cent, all compared to a n equivalent "baseline" tures. They are stronger and stiffer on a pound-for-
metal airframe. The ACAP helicopter bettered all pound basis and are highly resistant to corrosion
ofthese with 24 percent in weight savings, 23 per- and fatigue.
cent in cost savings and more than 20 percent in T h e mechanical properties of composite
reliability and maintainability. materials-such as stiffness and strength-are
The hericopter has 65 percent fewer parts and 75 tailored to the requirements of specific locations
percent fewer fasteners than a n equivalent metal o n the airframe by varying the number of plies,
airframe. This greatly reduces the overall labor their orientation to each other and the type of
required for the aircraft and cuts the assembly composite material used.
f -.
Air Force Tests New Helicopter ter in the world. I t uses components of the Army's
UH-6OA Black Hawk utility helicopter and the
engine a n d transmission components of t h e
Navy's SH-60B Sea Hawk.
The Night Hawk also incorporates special nav-
igation, terrain following, survivor location and
defensive systems t h a t will make i t unique among
helicopters. (Air Force Magazzne)

Testing of OH-58D Begins

Developmental and operational testing of the
OH-58D advanced scout helicopters began re-
A prototype HH-GODNight Hawk helicopter h a s cently a t Yuma Proving Ground, Ariz.
begun a three-year flight-test program a t Edwards The OH-58D, a n Army helicopter improvement
Air Force Base, Calif., t h a t is expected to verify it program aircraft, gives the field commander ad-
a s the Air Force's new combat and special opera- vanced scout capabilities that enhance his em-
tions helicopter. ployment of existing air and ground assets on the
The HH-GOD is being developed to give the Air modern battlefield. Specific mission functions in-
Force extended capabilities to rescue downed air- clude target location, acquisition, identification
men and other personnel in all types of weather and designation. To fulfill these roles, existing
and terrain, including hostile environments. I t OH-58s are being upgraded with dynamic compa-
will also provide a n advanced rotary-wing aircraft nents, sensors, integrated controls and displays.
for day, night and adverse weather for use by Air The 41-month full-scale engineering develop-
Force Special Operations Forces. ment program will end in March 1985. Production
When operational, the Night Hawk will be is underway a t Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., Fort
equipped with the most advanced and sophisti- Worth, Texas, for the first 16 aircraft. The Army
eated cockpit and avionics system of any helicop- plans to buy 578 OH-58Ds i n the next seven years.

New Attack Helicopter Shown

The new 530MG Defender helicopter is equipped
with a pair of advanced electro-optical systems
developed by Hughes Aircraft Company. They are
the mast-mounted sight version of the airborne
TOW missile system, which can be used to launch
missiles from behind protective cover, and the
Hughes night-vision system, which enables the
aircrew to fly nap-of-the-earth and low-level night
missions over rough terrain. This is the first
helicopter to be equipped with both of these electro-
optical systems.
The night-vision system turret below the nose
houses a forward-looking infrared system t h a t
projects a n image on the pilot's helmet visor so
that he can see the world outside his cockpit at
night or in reduced visibility conditions. Hughes
Aircraft Co. h a s supplied these systems to Hughes
Helicopters, Inc., for integration into the 530MG
Defender for a one-year worldwide demonstration
tour. (Courtesy of Hughes Atrcraft Co.)

FALL 1984
Air-to-air Javelin Development Stopped

Redeye currently in service. The three bidders are

Shorts, offering the new Javelin; General Dynam-
ics, offering the Stinger-Post; and Bofors, offering
the RBS-70 in one of the newest versions.
The request calls for delivery of 20 launching

The New Zealand army is participating in the

Australian program a s a n observer. I t is believed
that adoption of one of the three missile systems
by Australia will be followed by selection of the
same system for New Zealand's requirements.
(NATO's Sixteen Nations)
The British have stopped funding the develop-
Great Britain To Decide on MLRS ment of a n air-launched version of the Javelin
The British government h a s not yet made a manportable anti-aircraft missile following a deci-
decision on the procurement method of the multi- sion not to fit the weapon to Gazelle helicopters.
ple launch rocket system (MLRS). I t was thought The British army h a s ordered the Javelin in its
a t one time that the system would become opera- manportable version a s a successor to the Blow-
i ~ hin 1985. N ~ the~
tional within the ~ r i ~ army , pipe, and it had been thought t h a t the missile
MLRS is not likely to enter serviceuntil 1989 a t the be further for a
mounted air-to-airrole. However, the British Min-

rnanufactured-in the United States, in Europe or mounted missile cost-effective. The Gazelles have
by a combined effort. a short in-service time left.
France, West Germany, Italy and Britain have Various options for air-to-air weapons are
signed a memorandum of understanding with the now being considered for the next generation of
United States for the joint development and pro- helicopters.
duction of the system. According to the British The British Royal Navy, however, has rushed
master general of the ordnance, arrangements for the Javelin into service to protect its warships
European production is likely to be agreed upon patrolling in the Persian Gulf. I t is reported that a
detachment of Royal Marines have been trained
i n the use of the weapon. The marines were origi-
nally scheduled to receive Javelin next year, after
Sidewinder SAM for West Germany initial deliveries to the British army.
West Germany intends to start.development of a
surface-to-airversion of the Sidewinder missile for
delivery in 1986. Swiss Get Improved Rapier
This Chaparral-like system, based on the AIM- The first British Rapier low-level defense sys-
9L Sidewinder, will be used by Luftwaffe base tem has been handed to the Swiss army. Enough
commanders to supplement Rheinmetall 20mm equipment was delivered to allow the first officer
MK Rh 202 twin-gun systems and Rolands. training course to start in July, followed by the
The Sidewinder system, which will be remotely first troop training in October.
operated from a fire-control post, will comprise a A development program for the Rapier included
four-missile trailer equipped with a TV camera. the addition of a.radar display unit to provide the
Firing information will be taken from various operator with a visual threat assessment, a n

system. (Jane's Defence Weekly)

Much of the training will have to rely on simula- Peru Buys Mirage 2000
tors, as no live firings can be made in peacetime A contract with Dassault-Breguet has been
within the confined borders of Switzerland. settled, and the first of 26 Mirage 2000s is due to
An air defense battalion within each of the arrive in January 1985. The Mirage 2000 is
Swiss army mechanizeddivisionswil' beequipped a single-seat, multirole fighter. Reports are that 40
with Rapier. Each battalion will be divided into a AM-39 Exocet missiles also have been purchased.
mobile headquarters battery and two mobile anti-
aircraft batteries. Peru was the first South American country to
buy supersonic Dassault fighters when it pur-
Japan To Test AD Weapons chased Mirage Vs in the 1960s.
Japan has scheduled operational testing of a
series of new air defense weapons a t Chitose Air New Aircraft For India
Base on Hokkaido Island. MiG-29 Fulcrum. Several mentions have been
The test unit is equipped with the Japanese made in worldwide publications that the Soviet
Type 81 Tan-Sam (shod-range) missiles and six Union will begin delivering MiG-2gs to the Indian
sets of Stinger systems. Later test programs will air force late this year or spring 1985.According to
cover the Vulcan air defense gun? a ground anti- a n Associated Press report, Indian pilotswill go to
aircraft version of the M-61 20mm Gatling gun the Soviet Union for training. It makes no refer-
and a follow-on program of 30 more Stingers. ence to license manufacturing of the MiG-29 in
Singapore Selects Super Puma Meanwhile, in the Soviet Union, there seems to
The Singapore air force has selected the French be some seriousproduction problems in the manu-
Aeros~atialeSuper Puma a s its new search and facturing of the MiG-29 and the Su-27 Flanker.
rescue helicopter. Twenty-two have been ordered, JaneJsDefence Weekly in August that the
and Singapore has retained the option to purchase of the MiG-29 was being delayed be-
12 more. Five Super Pumas will come directly from cause of a lack of specialized radars. It also said
France, while the remainder will be assembled, that a of engineshas disrupted produc-
with French technical assistance, by Singapore tion of the Su-27.
Aircraft Industries.
An-32 Cline. India received three An-32s ear-
lier this year, making it the first client-country to
Venezuela Gets New 40mm acquire this advanced multirole medium-range
tactical transport aircraft for its air force. The
An-32s are reportedly the first of 95 such aircraft
to be exported from the Soviet Union.
11-76 Candid. Last year's announcement that
India was to procure a n unspecified number of
11-76s is far more important than was earlier
assumed. There are now strong indications that
the order covers not only the basic 11-76transport
aircraft but also the derivative airborne early
warning version, the Mainstay. If these indica-
tions are confirmed, India will be the first export
customer for the Mainstay. Deliveries are not
expected for a t least another two to three years
since the Soviets are still developing the aircraft.
Mirage 2000. The first of 40 Mirage 2000s were
The first of 36 Breda L-70 40mm twin-gun sys- due to arrive in India in September-
tems ordered by Venezuela was delivered last
summer. Venezuela, which is Breda's first cus- Soviet Helicopters Update
tomer for this version of the gun, will operate them Testimony given last summer in Congress
in conjunction with Flycatcher radar fire-control placed the Soviet air force's Mi-24 Hind strength
systems. a s 1,035 and Mi-8 Hip strength a s 1,615. It must be
Thailand and another undisclosed South Amer- noted that these figures are supplemented by the
ican country are also thought to be negotiating for considerable Aeroflot helicopter fleet whose Hips
the purchase of the system. are capable of using the same versions of the

FALL 1984
strap-on weapons pods and minelaying equip- ered 22 helicopters to Cuba in 1983, including two
ment a s the combat helicopters. Mi-2 Hoplite transports, four Mi-4 Haze anti-
The Mi-28 Havoc, a new attack helicopter sim- submarine helicopters and 16 Mi-17 Hip-H assault
ilar in size and appearance to the AH-64 Apache, transports.
has been described by the Department of Defense
a s typical of the Soviet Union's new more powerful Soviets Continue R F Weapon Development
helicopters with improved armament and signifi- I n the 1984 Soviet Military Power, Secretary of
cantly improved performance. Defense Caspar W. Weinberger reports that the
First official mention of the Mi-28 was in the Soviets are continuing a n intensive effort aimed
1984 Soviet Military Power. The report described a t the development of high-power microwave and
the Havoc a s slightly slower than the Mi-24 Hind millimeter-wave sources for radio frequency (RF)
(186 mph vs. 198 mph) but with a n improved com- weapons. Soviet RF technology has now advanced
bat radius (149 miles vs. 99 miles). to the stage where it could support development of
With a low-profile Apache-style fuselage, the a prototype, short-range weapon. The report indi-
Havoc will not have the Hind's troop-carrying cates that "many Western weapons systems would
capacity. About the only other details to emerge so be vulnerable to such a weapon, which not only
far describe a three-bladed tail rotor and tail- could damage critical electronic components but
dragger landing gear. also inflict disorientation or physical injury on
There have been reports from Afghanistan that personnel."
the Havoc has seen limited operational employ- The RF weapon development is part of a pre-
ment during the offensive against the Afghan viously announced Soviet directed-energy de-
rebel forces in the Panshir region. velopment program which includes high-energy
NATO sources indicate the Soviet Union deliv- lasers and particle-beam weapons.

Soviets Deploy New AD System

Dr. Robert Cooper, director of the Defense He said that the new system h a s two interceptor
Advanced Research Projects Agency, reported to missiles: one for use against aircraft and one that
the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee last has been tested and built ABM capability.
summer that the Soviet Union had begun deploy- An artist concept of the system, which has been
ing a new anti-aircraft system which could be designated SA-X-12,is pictured above.
rapidly converted to anti-ballistic missile defense.
THE REPORT OF THE PRESI- lence has often been endemic, it may Harbor: 1941, this volume takes a
DENT'S NATIONAL BIPARTI- be naive to hope for a moderate, sweeping look a t the final 600 days
SAN COMMISSION O N CEN- democratic and peaceful solution to of World War 11. Collier weaves
TRAL AMERICA the area's problems in the foresee- together eyewitness accounts by
by The President's National Bipar- able future. obscure heroes and heroines from
tisan Commission (with a foreword There are a number of assertions several countries with the political,
by Henry A. Kissinger) in the report that can be questioned. military and diplomatic doings of
Macmillan Publishing Co., New To mention only two, at several familiar figures such as Roosevelt,
York, 1984.176 pages. $7.95. points the commission insists that Churchill, S t a l i n , Eisenhower,
In January 1984, the Kissinger the United States has no objections Hitler and Rommel. Heroism is the
Commission on Central America, to social reform or even revolutions theme, but scenes of appalling
appointed the previous July, sub- in Latin America, provided only destruction dominate the book.
mitted i t s report to P r e s i d e n t that they are indigenously based Photos.
Reagan. After a brief review of cur- and supported. Such a n assertion is
rent conditions in Central America, disingenuous, for few revolutions THE HARRIER
the report discusses the region's his- can succeed without a t least some by Bill Gunston
torical development and U.S. policy outside assistance. It might be re- Arco Publishing, Inc., New York,
toward the area. It then delves more called, for example, that the Ameri- 1984. 64 pages. $1 1.95.
deeply into economic, political and can Revolution required French as- This latest in Arco's modern fight-
social developments of the past two sistance. Furthermore, it is difficult ing aircraft series, The Harrier gives
decades, reviews security issues and to believe that the United States the history of the aircraft and brings
concludes with a chapter titled, would have no objection to a leftist readers up to date with plans for
"The Search for Peace." Through- revolution, even one that had no new versions for the U.S. Marines
out, the commission makes both outside ties. If the U.S. government and Britain's Royal Air Force.
general and specific suggestions to was willing to intervene to oust Although the design is more than
guide American policy. Salvador Allende in Chile, who 20 years old, the British Aerospace
Briefly stated, the commission came to power in 1971 not by revolu- Harrier, in different versions, is still
finds a serious crisis rooted in the tion but by a democratic election, one of the most important aircraft in
region's terrible poverty, totally in- would it not be even more tempted to the West today. It performed bril-
adequate health care, repressive oust leftists who came to power liantly in the Falklands conflict,
and corrupt governments, and revo- through revolution? playing a central part in the recov-
lution supported, a s the commission Secondly, the commission is fond ery of the island. Because it can take
charges, by Cuba and the Soviet of saying that the Sandinistas be- off and land vertically, the aircraft
Union. The commission hopes that trayed the Nicaraguan Revolution. does not need prepared airfields or
the United States will respond to the It may be correct, for there are many huge aircraft carriers. Though
crisis by helping create conditions Nicaraguans who welcomed the small, it packs a big punch in its
that, over time, will abate political overthrow of Anastasio Somoza, combat role.
instability and revolution. It also only to dislike the turn of events
urges a political dialogue with the when the Sandinistas consolidated CHEMICAL WARFARE
Sandinista government in Nicara- their control. But it is a good bet that Government Publications Outlook,
gua, and it hopes to encourage the the current Nicaraguan rulers still U.S. Government Printing Office,
revolutionaries in El Salvador to enjoy substantial internal support. Washington, D.C., S / N 008-020-

I enter a peaceful political process. In

the meantime, however, it recom-
mends that substantial amounts of
If they did not they would not feel a s
free to distribute arms to the popu-
lace a s they do.
00996-2, 1984. 16 pages. $1.25.
The Soviets possess a n extensive
arsenal of chemical weapons, deliv-
military supplies be sent to the The report is a n important docu- ery systems and protective equip-
region to keep the pressure on ment that should be read by anyone ment comparable in quality to ours
I revolutionaries. with a n interest in our national pol- and a n extensive chemical force
Americans of widely differing so- icy toward Central America. structure which exceeds reasonable
cial and political views can be ex- -Dr. Kenton J. Clymer defensive requirements. Our mili-
pected to support the commission's University of Texas at El Paso tary vulnerability in this area, the
recommendations for expanded hu- increasing use of chemical weapons
manitarian assistance to Central THE FREEDOM ROAD: 1944-1945 across the world and the general
I America. But its insistence on addi- by Richard Collier desire for rapid completion of a

I tional military spending will surely

be challenged. In a region where
democracy has never flourished (ex-
Atheneum Publishers, New York,
1984. 342 pages. $1 7.95.
Following the author's 1940: The
viable ban on chemical weapons,
make the chemical defense a n d
weapon%modernization program
cept in Costa Rica) and where vio- Avalanche and The Road to Pearl crucial to our nation's security.

FALL 1984
between ground ADA systems and inflicted considerable damage. In
Closing the enemy aircraft requires that the
threat must be anticipated by care-
other words, the battalions need a
Stinger MANPAD section manned
filr Defense GaD ful positioning of weapons, detected
by sophisticated radar and coordi-
by air defense soldiers. If it is not
employed organically, then the sec-
by CPT John R. Drebus nated by complex electronics. tion should be consolidated for train-
Perfect placement of weapons ing and support only. Each battal-
The Redeye air defense missile presumes perfect knowledge of ion should be doctrinally assured of
was fielded in the 1960s with the enemy intentions, in other words, having their team reattached for
primary goal of providing combat perfect intelligence. This is highly combat.
units a simple, effective, organic unlikely. Should a n air attack occur As part of a combat maneuver
means of defense against enemy air other than a s anticipated, it is too organization, the Stinger crews
attack. late to shift ground
- assets to counter should be mounted on something
Even though i t is a "tailpipe" sys- it, and we must live (or die) with more substantial than the current
tem more suitable for revenge than what is in place. As for the sophisti- vulnerable jeep and trailer. A more
defense, it provides the combat sol- cated electronics, poor availability suitable mount would be the M-113,
dier with the confidence that he can rates and enemy suppression can be particularly a s they are made avail-
a t least fight back against the most expected to eliminate a sizable por- able by the fielding of the M-2 and
advanced aircraft. tion of that capability. The result is M-3 infantry and cavalry fighting
This confidence may soon disap- that many of the bubbles drawn on vehicles.
pear, however. During the past sev- situation maps to portray the "imper- Since the Stinger is considerably
eral years a disturbing trend in air meable" ADA umbrella are certain more effective than the Redeye, Air
defense artillery doctrine and employ- to burst once the battle is engaged. Defense Artillery is unlikely to will-
ment has developed. In its haste to The air defense tacticians point ingly relinquish these assets now
develop the division air defense artil- out that those maneuver units not that they have been successfully
lery organization a n d integrate allocated ADA assets still have the consolidated. If this proves to be the
weapons capabilities, the ADA com- capability of massing small arms case, there is another less satisfac-
munity has aggressively sought to fire. Consider the odds, however. tory alternative-retain the Redeye
consolidate all air defense systems, Compared with their World War I1 (less crews) in the maneuver units.
including the manportable ones. counterparts, modern high- The Redeyes would be dispersed
These weapons would then be allo- performance warplanes carry 30 throughout the battalion and car-
cated based upon a n overall air d e times more ordnance, fly several ried within the combat vehicles
fense plan with no assurance that a times faster and can linger on sta- until needed. They would be used for
unit would receive a n y specific tion four times longer. Both rotary- self-defense only, which means they
assets. Judging from the direction wing and high-performance aircraft would be maintained under a per-
that force structuring is heading, it now deliver guided or smart ord- manent "weapons hold" status. The
is possible that artillery and maneu- nance that allows them to attack training of non-ADA soldiers to fire
ver battalions may find themselves from comfortable standoff posi- the weapons should not prove diffi-
with the right but not the means to tions. cult because of the Redeye's rela-
defend against air attack. The new M-1 Abrams tank, on the tively simple design. Extensive air-
Many arguments have been pro- other hand, sports the M-2 .50- craft identification and complex
ferred to support consolidation of caliber heavy machine gun of World command coordination would not
the MANPAD systems. These in- War I vintage a s its primary air be required. If the Redeye is to be
clude the massing of ADA fires a t defense capability. Compare and used against only those aircraft ac-
the area of greatest perceived threat, contrast. Massing small arms fires tually shooting a t you, aircraft iden-
expanding the role of MANPAD is difficult with dispersed forma- tification becomes academic, and
from self-defense to a n attrition mis- tions and could result only in dis- you already have the authority to
sion and improved training of air closing positions of the weapons. shoot back.
defense skills. While some of these The maneuver battalions deserve MANPAD appears to be the best
arguments have merit, they also a more adequate solution. They need last line of self-defense against the
create potential deficiencies. a n air defense weapon t h a t will aerial threat. Removing this capa-
Air defense i s exactly that- assure a t least minimal effective bility from the control of the combat
defense. Unlike tactical fighter air- protection for all units, not just battalions is akin to denying them
craft which can seek out their foe those that happen to fit the area the right of self-defense.
and react with comparable mobility, ADA plan. This weapon should be
ground ADA systems must wait small and lightweight, relatively CPT John R . Drebus isan armor cap-
until the enemy aircraft are within easy to employ, simple to maintain tain stationed in Munster, lnd.
range and then engage. They can and can preferably defeat or dis- (Reprinted from Armor, the magazine of mobile
only react. The mobility differential courage the enemy before he has warfare, M a y-June 1984)

of critical static assets farther to the tion indirectly by air defense units
rear. The "Army of Excellence" force defending static rear assets. Critical
structure design reorganizes the static assets can better be protected
Chaparral batteries from the divi- by denying enemy aircraft low-level

Maneuver sion SHORAD battalions into Corps

air defense artillery brigade Chap-
approaches and stand-off firing posi-
tions. Depending on the planned

ODeratlons by CPT Terry Reed

arral battalions. Hence, it is crucial
that the SHORAD battalions retain
their organic MANPAD systems in
operations, not all maneuver units
and other critical combat support
and combat service support units
order to have a gun-missilemix. All will have the same priority for air
"Closing the Air Defense Gap" by available weapons are needed to defense. For example, . units in re-
CPT John Drebus, the reprinted arti- provide air defense for combat units. serve, tactical operationscenters and
cle from Armor magazine which Second, air defense must take offen- trains that typically have had dedi-
appears on the preceding page, is sive action to accomplish its mis- cated air defense in the past, will
most welcome. I t shows a healthy, sion in the air-land battle. Unlike now have to use passive air defense
professional interest by a combat Captain Drebus' perception, air d e (camouflage and hide techniques)
arms brother in the critical matter of fense is not "exactly that - defense." and small arms self-air defense only
air defense for combat units. Air The SHORAD battalion commander when under direct enemy air attack.
defense artillerymen share his con- plans air defense operations in con- Captain Drebus' World War I1
cern about the extremely dangerous cert with the maneuver scheme of historical example shows the Ger-
air threat, the relative limitations of operations. Using the factors of man unit under attack by Russian
Redeye and the mobility and sur- mission, enemy, troops, terrain and aircraft survived because of passive
vivability of its prime mover. How- time (METT-T),air threat tactics are air defense measures. Doctrine for
ever, he is somewhat misinformed anticipated and operational plans small arms self-air defense does not
on the rationale and doctrine behind are developed that support the oper- call for use of small arms from well
the manportable air defense (MAN- ation. The objective is to seize the hidden positions that would give
PAD) consolidation. initiative to destroy enemy aircraft away the unit's location.
First, the decision to consolidate en route to their ordnance release Available force structure simply
MANPAD into the division short- points and to deny them low-altitude doesn't allow for allocations of
range air defense (SHORAD) battal- approaches and stand-off firing posi- MANPAD for each maneuver bat-
ion was in no way tied to the 9th tions. talion or battalion task force. How-
Ipfantry Division Artillery organi- Enemy aircraft can attack division ever, some degree of self-air defense
f ation. Rather, it was predicated on units a t any time, from any direc- protection for division and brigade
/ many of the very factors discussed tion, a t any altitude, using air aven- headquarters elements, division artil-
.i by Captain Drebusin his article. For ues of approach that.maximize ter- lery, heavy mortar sections and mil-
instance, centralization of command rain masking. "Perfect intelligence," itary police operations is now plan-
and control of air defense weapons although desired, is virtually im- ned by providing these units with a
allows the SHORAD battalion com- possible even with the best radar non-dedicated MANPAD (Redeye)
mander, who serves a s the division surveillance networks. By the same capability.
air defense officer, to provide the token, "perfect placement of weap- These one-man, non-air defense
best possible air defense coverage ons" is not possible in all cases. Bet- Redeye "shooters" a r e for self-
for those assets most critical to the ter kill probabilities are possible defense only. They will be in a per-
success of the maneuver operation. where aircraft early warning is avail- manent weapons hold control status
I t permits far better tactical em- able. With alerting and cueing infor- which will prevent them from firing
ployment of scarce air defense weap- mation, gunners can attack enemy except in self-defense and will not be
ons, centralizes command and con- aircraft at the maximum range. tied into the air defense artillery
trol and logistics, and it solves the Captain Drebus' claim that poor command and control net.
training problems that existed in availability rates of radars will de- Again, the air defense artillery
divisions where Redeye teams were grade SHORAD operations simply community should be pleased that
organic to maneuver units. Many is not true. The forward area alert- the other combat arms are concerned
division commanders supported this ing radar is the SHORAD battal- about adequate air defense i n sup-
reorganization. ion's organic early warning sensor. port of maneuver operations. It is
The best air defense for a division Its mobility is somewhat limited by sincerely hoped that this response to
can only be planned using a gun- its rime mover. but statistics show Captain Drebus' article will resolve
missile mix of weapons. This com- that its operatibnal availability is any misconceptions regarding dedi-
plementary coverage is required to 87 percent, worldwide. cated and non-dedicated MANPAD
counter the armed helicopter and Tactical employment requires defense.
t h e high-performance, close air- good air defense planning and the
support threat. MANPAD consoli- flexibility to adjust to changes a s CPT Terry M . Reed is attached to the
dation provides additional offensive they occur in the heat of battle. The 4th Battalion, 1 st Air Defense Artillery,
air defense weapons for tactical focus for air defense is now on maneu- Fort Bliss, Texas, as the officer in
employment well forward for early ver units. No longer will maneuver 1 charge of a planning cell preparing for
engagement and thickens defenses forces only have air defense protec- the SGT York Follow-on Evaluation I.

FALL 1984
Coming in the Winter Issue . . . Patriot Deployc

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