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MDTS 5705 : Aerodynamics & Propulsion

Lecture 1 : Characteristics of high speed flight

G. Leng, MDTS, NUS

References

Jack N. Nielsen, “Missile Aerodynamics”, AIAA Progress in

Astronautics and Aeronautics, v104, 1986

Michael J. Hemsch (ed), “Tactical Missile Aerodynamics :

General Topics”, AIAA Progress in Astronautics and

Aeronautics, v141, 1992

Michael R. Mendenhall (ed), “Tactical Missile Aerodynamics :

Predicition Methodology”, AIAA Progress in Astronautics and

Aeronautics, v142, 1992

Gordon E. Jensen, David W. Netzer, “Tactical Missile

Propulsion”, AIAA Progress in Astronuatics and Aeronautics,

v 170, 1996

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Training Programme

1. Characteristics of high speed flight

or understanding the flight environment

  • 2. Missile lift and drag

or the aerodynamic forces on the missile

  • 3. Missile propulsion for high speeds

or rockets, ramjets and scamjets

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1.1 The Earth’s Atmosphere

Question : Is the Earth’s atmosphere uniform ?

 

0 km

20 km

Air pressure (N/m 2 )

101 325

6000

Air density (kg/m 3 )

1.225

0.1

Air temperature ( o C )

30

-60

Question :Any implications for missiles ?

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1.2 Aerodynamic forces

Aerodynamic forces on a flight vehicle scale as :

Aerodynamic force

V 2

 
   
Aerodynamic force   V
Aerodynamic force   V

Air speed

Air density

Note the dependence on V 2

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For missiles, there are two important aerodynamic forces

Axial force

A

=

½ V 2 S C A

Normal force

N

=

½ V 2 S C N

N V
N
V

A

These forces are aligned with the missile body and not the velocity

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The symbols are :

S

:

C

A

:

C

N

:

½ V 2 :

reference area (m 2 ) e.g. missile cross section area

axial force coefficient (non dimensional)

normal force coefficient (non dimensional)

dynamic pressure ( N/m 2 )

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Equivalently we can represent the aerodynamics forces as lift and drag forces aligned with the velocity

Lift force

L

=

½ V 2 S C L

Drag force

D

=

½ V 2 S C D

L V
L
V

D

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Example : Estimate C L for the AGM 65

Flight conditions

mass

:

300 kg

speed

:

320 m/s

altitude

:

S.L

diameter

:

0.3048 m

S.L.

S

=

For level flight,

C L

=

=

=

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1.3 Aerodynamic flow parameters

Missile airspeeds can range from 10 0 10 3 m/s

Aerodynamic properties are determined by the Mach number M

1.3 Aerodynamic flow parameters Missile airspeeds can range from 10 – 10 m/s Aerodynamic properties are

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Question : Why does the speed of sound come in ?

1. Air is compressible.

2. A moving missile disturbs the surrounding air

3.These disturbances e.g. pressure variations, take a finite time to propagate at the speed of sound through the surrounding air

4. The Mach number measures the importance of this compressibility effect .

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1.3.1 Classification of flow regimes via Mach number

M

< 0.8

subsonic

incompressible aerodynamics

0.8 < M < 1.2

transonic

localized compressibility effects

1.2 < M

< 5

supersonic

compressible aerodynamics

M

> 5

hypersonic

aerodynamic heating

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Example : Disturbance propagation M < 1

Consider the distances travelled by the disturbance and the missile in 1s

a V 0 G. Leng, MDTS, NUS
a
V
0
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Example : Disturbance propagation M < 1 Consider the distances travelled by the disturbance and the

distrubance

missile

What about the

disturbance created mid way ?

Example : Disturbance propagation M > 1

Consider the distances travelled by the disturbance and the missile in 1s

a  0 sin  = =
a
0
sin 
=
=

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distrubance

missile

V

a/V

1/M

So for M > 1, there is a discontinuity in the flow field “seen”

by the missile

Air properties like pressure, temperature and density changes sharply across the discontinuity or shock

So for M > 1, there is a discontinuity in the flow field “seen” by the

Schlieren photo of shock waves

Light is refracted

differently because of changes in air density

Question : Can you estimate the Mach number ?

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The shape of the shock wave depends on the shape of the object

The shape of the shock wave depends on the shape of the object blunt nosed object

blunt nosed

object

detached

shock

Shocks created by high speed flight can be annoying ....

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1.3.2 Effects of a shock (sonic boom)

On the ground

On humans

1.3.2 Effects of a shock (sonic boom) On the ground On humans G. Leng, MDTS, NUS

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Condensation due to sudden changes in air temperature and pressure

Condensation due to sudden changes in air temperature and pressure G. Leng, MDTS, NUS

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1.4 The placement of lift surfaces

Question : Can this missile fly at Mach 3 ?

 = 25 o
 = 25 o

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The angle of the attached shock is related to the Mach number by :

 

sin

=

1/M

At Mach 3,

=

sin -1 (1/3)

 

=

19.5 o

 = 19.5 o
 = 19.5 o

Is this a good design ?

What is the max speed of this missile ?

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Now can you comment on the design of this configuration ?

Now can you comment on the design of this configuration ? G. Leng, MDTS, NUS

G. Leng, MDTS, NUS