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Lecture 29: Hodograph

Dept. of Mechanical Engg., NIT Calicut.
Introduction
The velocity distribution in plane plastic flow is represented
graphically by a plane diagram called hodograph.
Every fixed point in physical space is mapped to the origin in
hodograph plane called pole of the hodograph (point O).
Hence, the velocity of any point P is represented by the magnitude
and direction of the vector OP in the hodograph plane (see the
figure in next slide).
Importance of hodograph:
Assures that the field is kinematically admissible (satisfies velocity
boundary conditions and incompressibility condition).
Using them, slipline fields can be checked for positive plastic work.
To determine the regions where maximum energy is expended.
To predict the distortion of material as it passes through the field.

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Slipline Field and Hodograph

(a) Physical Plane (b) Hodograph Plane

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Some Basic Considerations
In drawing a hodograph, it may be noted that:
In leaving a field of changing pressure, there may or may not be a
sudden change of velocity.
The magnitude of velocity everywhere along a given slipline is a
constant, though the direction may change.
In a field of curved sliplines, both direction and magnitude of velocity
change.
There is always shear at the boundary between the deforming
material inside the field and rigid material outside it.
The vector representing the velocity discontinuity must be parallel to
the discontinuity itself.

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Example 1: Slipline Field and Hodograph
for Plane Strain Indentation

Slipline Field Hodograph

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Example 1: Slipline Field and Hodograph
for Plane Strain Indentation contd.
Downward velocity of punch: V0
*
Discontinuity in velocity along OA: VOA
Difference in velocity at any point (in the deforming material) at
the interface between deforming material and rigid material
outside shall be tangential to the interface.
Since the velocity outside is zero, the absolute velocity is same as
the velocity jump.
The magnitude of velocity remains constant, but the direction
changes along the interface AEB.
It is seen that there is no abrupt change in velocity along OB.
Intense shear, and hence maximum dissipation, occurs along OA
and AEBC. Energy is dissipated in gradual deformation in OAB.
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Example 2: Plane Strain Extrusion

Slipline field showing lines of intense shear (a) and hodograph (b)
We will consider this problem in more detail in the next lecture.
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Metal
Distortion
Analysis
(a) Slipline field (b) Hodograph
Distortion of
metal can be
determined from
a slipline field and
its hodograph.
As an example,
consider a plane
strain extrusion
case:
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Metal Distortion Analysis contd.
In the slipline field, triangle right to AO is a dead-metal zone.
An element entering the field suffers velocity discontinuities
tangential to the arc at corresponding points.
The velocity discontinuities at all the points along the arc are of
same magnitude.
There is also a velocity discontinuity along GO, so that the exit
velocity is horizontal.
Stream lines can be drawn for each particle as shown in figure (c).
By considering a vertical grid line, and following the distortion of
each point in the line, distortion can be established.
Greatest distortion occurs at the surface.
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References
Chakrabarty, J., Theory of plasticity, Butterworth-
Heinemann.
Hosford, W.F. and Caddell, R.M., Metal Forming,
Cambridge University Press.
Dieter, G.E., Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw Hill.
Hoffman, O. and Sachs, G., Introduction to the Theory of
Plasticity for Engineers, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford University
Press.
Johnson,W. and Mellor, P.B., Plasticity for Mechanical Engineers,
van Nostrand Company Ltd.