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The research and education that has been done on coaching sports have evolved for a long

period of time. In Cassidy Chapter 6, the author has outlined that the most aspiring and
developing coaches have defined their work or followed a guideline by what works for them
(Cassidy, 2008, p. 77). Little focus or consideration is done on what it is it to be a coach,
highlighting the fact that many coaches ignores or does not think about what I do or why I
am here (Cassidy, 2008, p. 77). As defined by Kelchterman, there should be large amount
of time spent on considering who the coach is as well as how the coaches experience and
make sense of practise (Cassidy, 2008, p. 77). This really helps coaches further understand
and view themselves to the pedagogical process. To which more research have been done
on coachs self-esteem and self-image (Cassidy, 2008, p. 78).

The chapter will primarily discuss 2 key concepts with many underlying topics and issues
within that. The first concept is the personal interpretative framework, where it helps makes
a sense of the ways in which coaches can view themselves (Cassidy, 2008, p. 78). Within
that concept, the author has discussed key topics such as the vulnerability that coaches
experience and the consequences of their exposure and reliance upon other individuals
(Cassidy, 2008, p. 78). The other topic that the author discusses is the emotional state of
coachs work and how it challenges the circumstances coachs faces.

Personal Interpretative framework

Kelchterman strongly believes that the personal interpretative framework comprises of a set
of cognitions to which he believes that it is a result of many interacting product rather than
something that is being fixed in nature (Cassidy, 2008, p. 78). His example of the reading
glasses has strongly demonstrated this example, where he describes that the frame of the
glass provides the reality of how the individual is seen (Cassidy, 2008, p. 78). If the glasses
provide a clear view, then people tend to forget about them (Cassidy, 2008, p. 78). Where-
else, if the glasses become hazy or if people starts to comment how outdated the frame is,
then people becomes worried about how they are seen (Cassidy, 2008, p. 78). Keltchterman
strongly emphasise on the individuals professional self-understanding to which he further
expands on the 5 key components (Cassidy, 2008, p. 79).

Professional self-understanding

Kelchterman believes that self-understanding is not just how coaches understand their self
at a given time, but rather it is a result of an on-going interaction and experiences that is he
or she goes through (Cassidy, 2008, p. 79). Through the number of career stories of
respective coaches and teachers, Kelchterman categorises this concept into 5 components.
Self-image, Self-esteem, Job motivation, task-perception and future perspective (Cassidy,
2008, p. 79).


Self-image is simply what image or categorisation coaches have on himself/herself (Cassidy,

Coaching, Understanding Sports, 2008, p. 79). This could not just be based on the coachs
self-perception but also can be treatment they receive from people surrounding them
(Cassidy, Coaching, Understanding Sports, 2008, p. 79).


Self esteem is defined to be the appreciation of the coach based on how well he or she is
doing (Cassidy, 2008, p. 79). Although Kelchtermans states that self-esteem is closely
related to self-image, Keltchterman have strongly emphasised that self-esteem focuses
more on how their feed-back and information is interpreted (Cassidy, 2008, p. 79). To which
he expanded that building a good self-esteem is credited to the development of a mix of
experiences of success and the feelings of being threatened and vulnerability (Cassidy,
2008, p. 79). Kelchterman further adds that the concept of self-esteem also includes an
emotional component to it (Cassidy, 2008, p. 80). To which positive self-esteem is
something that does not only allow people to feel at ease with his job and that negative
comments and judgement from surrounding people can have a severe impact (Cassidy,
2008, p. 80).

Undoubtedly known to be one of the most

famous people in New Zealand, as well as one
of the greatest coach in rugby history. But do
you think Graham Henry (far left) had only
experienced a high road of success and
accomplishments? This photo was taken right
after their shock defeat against France in 2007.
To which Henry described as his most difficult
experience in life. This example demonstrates
Henrys ability to build his character as well
as his self-esteem. Despite, the highly
negative judgement and feeling of
vulnerability, his beliefs and his ability to
succeed is what made him overcame this
obstacle and helped him win the world cup
and accomplish.

Task Perception

Task Perception focuses on coaches beliefs of how their professional programme should run
as well as the duties and tasks that is required to do the job well (Cassidy, 2008, p. 80). To
which they should be asking several questions such as What must I do or What are the
essential tasks in order to become a proper coach (Cassidy, 2008, p. 80). Kelchterman
suggests that task perception is rather characterised by the coaches strongly rooted moral
duties and responsibilities (Cassidy, 2008, p. 80). He had furthered saw that when coaches
had their beliefs challenged, their self-esteem drops, resulting in strong negative emotional
Job Motivation

Job motivation is what is considered as one of the most important component of this
concept (Cassidy, 2008, p. 81). As coaches ultimately decide whether they want to continue
coaching or not. This component strongly inter-relates with task perception, as coaches find
that too can change over time (Cassidy, 2008, p. 81). For example, a coach might initially
decide to coach due to his passion for a particular sport he or she plays (Cassidy, 2008, p.
81). However, through many different experiences and obstacles that person has faced, he
or she realises that their goal does not just remain a passion but something that has a
meaningful effect on education and sports as a whole (Cassidy, 2008, p. 81).

Future Perspectives

Future perspectives is the component which coaches are able to view themselves as
coaches in the near and far future (Cassidy, 2008, p. 81). To which this concept is clear for
us to understand that coaches actions may not just be influenced by important experiences
of the past but also the building expectations they have in their future.

The vulnerable commitment in coaching

Ultimately, it is the coachs exposure to other people ranging from athletes to administrators
that can really expose their vulnerability (Cassidy, 2008, p. 83). Keltchman describes the
situation of vulnerability as which coaches work in a fishball, as he describes that
vulnerability is not only experienced through emotion but also by the structural issues or
conditions of coaching (Cassidy, 2008, p. 83). To which Keltchman believes that there is 3
different elements of vulnerability that can enhance our ability to understand coaching and
how it affects individuals (Cassidy, 2008, p. 83).

The first element is that coaches never have full control of their specific working conditions
(Cassidy, 2008, p. 83). This could include the amount of materials resource they have as
well as the overall ability of their athletes or players they interact with (Cassidy, 2008, p. 83).
For example, coaches can feel very powerless of negative if they feel that their material
resources are very low or few and that it can negatively affect their ability to achieve
(Cassidy, 2008, p. 83).

The second key element of vulnerability is the amount of pedagogue or learning ability of an
athlete affects the coachs practices (Cassidy, 2008, p. 84). For an example, since coaches
does not have an ability to control many factors such as social and personal ones, they tend
to feel vulnerable when they cannot see the fruits or improvement of their players training
and progress (Cassidy, 2008, p. 84). While coaches feel satisfied seeing their players
improve and learn better, vulnerability can take a massive toll as they can blame themselves
and feel very frustrated if they don't perform at the level they desire to (Cassidy, 2008, p.
As a coach, vulnerability is always one of the
biggest fear I have when dealing with teams. In this
picture, I was responsible for coaching a Year 8/9 or
U14 school rugby team which I had a lot of difficulty
dealing with. This experience relate to the 2nd key
element, where I felt so much frustration and
vulnerability of not being able to fully see the fruits
or improvements of my players over the course of
the season. This is largely credited to my inability to
control their social and personal factors such as
their difficulty in handling school work or their
parents control over their children not to play the
sport. Unexpectedly this team have done pretty
badly in their season.

The last key element of vulnerability is about the perception of coaches where they do not
have a strong base of knowledge in order to make or base their particular decisions
(Cassidy, 2008, p. 84). I believe this element of vulnerability is one of the most critical and
important to understand for most coaches. As the phrase over-educated but inexperienced
rings a strong bell in many minds. As coaches uses specific knowledge to justify their
knowledge and experience, can in turn challenge them (Cassidy, 2008, p. 84). Coaches may
have learn many theories or knowledge to coach, but if they don't truly apply them
practically, then it's no use. Vice-versa, coaches do need a very firm base of knowledge, but
also the ability to find the balance of all existing education theories and practices they have
learnt, in order to apply them practically on the field with great success (Cassidy, 2008, p.

The self and emotion in coaching

For long, people have believed that emotion should play little role on how individuals
coaches and their style in which they perform (Cassidy, 2008, p. 84). However, the author
has stated that it is critical to understand that emotion plays a huge role in helping coaches
understand who he or she is (Cassidy, 2008, p. 84). Which he further adds that coaches
experiences strong emotions in order to confront their challenges and obstacle they face.
That it must be understood that tensions and dilemmas, coaches faces are not just
strategically or mentally challenging but also emotionally (Cassidy, 2008, p. 84). Like
mentioned previously in the personal interpretative framework, coaches require a high level
of interactions with their surrounding environment (Cassidy, 2008). To which author strongly
believes that emotions plays a huge role in their ability to make decisions and judgement
(Cassidy, 2008, p. 85). The author summarises that as coaches experience vulnerability,
they would need a high level of emotional stamina (Cassidy, 2008, p. 85). As he finally
concludes that coaches ability to respond and control and their emotional demand is what
makes them great coaches (Cassidy, 2008, p. 85).
Heyneke Meyer (LEFT) and Steven Hansen
(RIGHT). Both had arguably became one of the
greatest coach during the years building up to
the 2015 World Cup. Interestingly, although
both coaches have the greatest respect for
each other, the 2 coaches have a completely
different or polar opposite emotional response
to their surrounding. Meyer is known for his
highly emotional and vocal response during the
game. While Hansen is known to be very quite
and rather emotionless and composed
behaviour. What does this suggest about their
vulnerability and level of emotional stamina?
What is their relation of being great coaches to
particular emotional responses?

Comparison with other readings

In this reading, we can see that it can strongly relates to Cassidy chapter 7 as this chapter
summarises the relationship coaches have with other individuals and groups. To which it
focuses on the coach as the pedagogical performer and how he or she builds their working
relationship with other individuals (Cassidy, Coaching, Understanding Sports, 2008, p. 89).
As the key components of the personal interpretative frameworks such as job motivation and
self-esteem as well as the vulnerability of coaching commitment, strongly demonstrate this
readings concepts of relationship with other individuals and group. The author of Cassidy
chapter 7 also relates and expand on the role of emotion plays when coaches makes
decision (Cassidy, Coaching, Understanding Sports, 2008, p. 90). Known as emotional
labour, coaches does not only help them manage themselves in particularly difficult
situations. (Cassidy, Coaching, Understanding Sports, 2008, p. 92) But also social situations
such as the coachs private lives that occurs in their home (Cassidy, Coaching,
Understanding Sports, 2008, p. 93). Unlike Cassidy chapter 6, this reading has distinguished
the importance of social factors or emotional work that happens both in the workplace and
home (Cassidy, Coaching, Understanding Sports, 2008, p. 92). As Cassidy chapter 6,
primarily focuses on how emotions affects them in their work and their interactions with the
surrounding environment.

Cassidy, T., Jones, R., & Potrac, P. (2008). Understanding Sports Coaching. Coaches selves, 77-87.

Cassidy, T., Jones, R., & Potrac, P. (2008). Understanding Sports Coaching. The coach as a
pedagogical performer,89-101. doi:10.4324/9780203892923

Schofield, D. (2015, October 30). Rugby World Cup final - Sir Graham Henry: 'In 2007 New Zealand couldn't
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Saturday, O. 2., & Chadband, I. (2015, October 23). Steve Hansen and Heyneke Meyer unlikely
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