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SATUAN ACARA PENGAJARAN

MATAKULIAH : IMUNOLOGI
KODE/SKS : KK 172 / 2 SKS
SEMESTER : VII
PERTEMUAN : III
DOSEN: WAHYU HENDRARTI,SSi,MKes,Apt
MATERI : INISIASI RESPON IMUN

SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU FARMASI (STIFA)


MAKASSAR
2015
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Kompetensi Utama :Mampu dalam penguasaan dan pengembangan


teknologi bidang farmasi dan kontrol kualitas.
(KU,2c)
Kompetensi Pendukung :1. Memiliki penguasaan dan keterampilan bidang
bahasa asing dan teknologi informasi. (KP,5c)
2. Mampu mengembangkan diri dalam
pengembangan obat dan sediaan bahan alam.(KP,8e)
Kompetensi Lainnya: Mampu untuk memotivasi dan memfasilitasi
masyarakat. (KL,11e)
Sasaran Belajar (TIU): Setelah mempelajari matakuliah ini mahasiswa
diharapkan dapat mengenal, memahami dan
menjelaskan mekanisme pertahanan tubuh terhadap
penyakit infeksi, sel kanker, penyakit autoimun
melalui sistem imun, pencegahan dan pengobatan
penyakit infeksi dan non infeksi menggunakan agen-
agen imun dan vaksin.

Capaian Pembelajaran (Learning outcomes):


1. Mampu menerapkan konsep teoritis berbagai bidang ilmu kefarmasian
dalam melakukan riset bidang kefarmasian
2. Mampu membangun hubungan interpersonal dan kerjasama dengan
berbagai pihak
3. Mampu mengambil keputusan yang tepat berdasarkan anlisis informasi
dan data, mampu bertanggung jawab atas pekerjaan sendiri, dan dapat
diberi tanggung jawab atas pencapaian hasil kerja tim
4. Mampu mengikuti perkembangan iptek untuk meningkatkan
pengetahuan, keterampilan dan kemampuan diri secara berkelanjutan
Sasaran Pembelajaran (TIK): Mampu menjelaskan dan memahami Inisiasi
respon imun
Materi Pembelajaran: (1) Pengenalan, pemrosesan, presentasi antigen
(2) Presentasi antigen kepada sel T
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Materi III
INISIASI RESPON IMUN
Patogen dan Antigen

GAMBARAN UMUM
A. Sistem kekebalan merupakan suatu sistem yang melibatkan banyak molekul dan sel
dengan satu tujuan membedakan antara unsur dirinya sendiri & unsur asing.
B. Sistem Pertahanan Tubuh:
a. Nonspesifik/innate
1. Pertahanan fisik/mekanik
2. Pertahanan biokimia (sekresi) & humoral
3. Pertahanan seluler
b. Spesifik/adaptive
1. Humoral
2. Seluler
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Pertahanan Biokimia (sekret tubuh)


Kulit: pH rendah (as. laktat sebum) & as. lemak denaturasi
Permukaan mukosa kulit, saliva, air mata & ASI:
Enzim lisozim hancurkan dinding sel
Enzim laktooksidase & as. neuraminik E. coli & stafilokok
Sal. napas: Mukus menangkap bakteri, peptida antimikroba
Saluran Cerna: HCl lambung, peptida antimikroba, enzim proteolitik cegah infeksi
mikroba
Vagina: pH rendah & Semen: spermin mencegah gram +
Serum: laktoferin & transferin mengikat besi (metabolit esensial mikroba seperti
pseudomonas)

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Pertahanan Non Spesifik (Innate Immunity) & Pertahanan Spesifik


(Adaptive Immunity)

Antomi Aktivasi Limfosit (The anatomy of lymphocyte activation)

Anatomi dan Fungsi Jaringan Limfoid (Anatomy & Functions of Lymphoid


Tissues)
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A. Organ Limfoid

B. Anatomic Organization of B and T Lymphocytes


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C. Morphology of lymphocytes

D. Morphology of plasma cells


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Pengembangan Limfosit (Development of Lymphocytes)

A. Pengembangan Sel B
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B. Pengembangan Sel T

Gambaran Umum Respon Imun


A. Respon Imun Humoral (cairan)
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B. Respon Imun diperantarai Sel

Pengenalan (Inisiasi), Pemrosesan & Presentasi Antigen


A. Fase Respon Imun Adaptif (Phases of adaptive immune responses)
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Capture and Display of Microbial Antigens by APC ~ Antigen


presenting cells (dendritic cells)
Reason:
the number of naive lymphocytes specific for any antigen is very small (1 in 105 or 106
lymphocytes) & quantity of the available antigen may also be small, special mechanisms
are needed to capture microbes, to concentrate their antigens in the correct location,
and to deliver the antigens to specific lymphocytes.
Dendritic cells are the APCs that display microbial peptides to naive CD4+ and CD8+ T
lymphocytes and initiate adaptive immune responses to protein antigens.
Dendritic cells located in epithelia and connective tissues capture microbes, digest their
proteins into peptides, and express on their surface peptides bound to MHC
molecules, the specialized peptide display molecules of the adaptive immune system.
Dendritic cells carry their antigenic cargo to draining lymph nodes and take up
residence in the same regions of the nodes through which naive T lymphocytes
continuously recirculate. chance of a lymphocyte with receptors for an antigen
finding that antigen is greatly increased
Dendritic cells also display the peptides of microbes that enter other lymphoid tissues
(spleen)
Intact microbes or microbial antigens that enter lymph nodes and spleen are
recognized in unprocessed (native) form by specific B lymphocytes.
There are also specialized APCs that display antigens to B lymphocytes.

Antigen (Mikroba)
mempunyai
reseptor utk
terikat pada
Limfosit

Pengenalan Antigen melalui Reseptor Antigen, signalin ke limfosit utk memulai aktivasi
(proliferasi & difrensiasi)
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Proses Pengenalan & Presentasi Antigen dengan respon Sel T


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Proses Pencaplokan, Presentasi Antigen dan Respon Sel T

Proses Biosintesis MHC (Kelas I & Kelas II)


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Antigen-Presenting Cells
APC: cell populations that are specialized to
capture microbial and other antigens
display them to lymphocytes
provide signals that stimulate the proliferation and
differentiation of the lymphocytes.
The major type of APC that is involved in initiating T cell responses
Dendritic cell
Macrophages
B cells present

Dendritic Cells

Important APCs for activating naive T cells


linking innate and adaptive immune responses.
Have long membranous projections and phagocytic capabilities
widely distributed in lymphoid tissues, mucosal epithelium, and
organ parenchyma
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Part of the myeloid lineage of hematopoietic cells and arise from a


precursor that can also differentiate into monocytes but not
granulocytes
Two population of DC:
Conventional dendritic cells (majority)
Located in skin, mucosa, and organ parenchyma
in respond to microbes become mobile, migrate to
lymph nodes, and display microbial antigens to T
lymphocytes.
Function in both innate and adaptive immune
responses and link between these two components
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells
early cellular responders to viral infection
recognize nucleic acids of intracellular viruses and
produce soluble proteins called type I interferons,
which have potent antiviral activities.

Maturation of mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells


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Antigen-Presenting Cells for Effector T Lymphocytes (macrophages, B


lymphocytes, nucleated cells)

Macrophages: present antigen to helper T lymphocytes at the sites


of infection helper T cell activation production of molecules
activate the macrophages to eradicate microbes that are ingested
by the phagocytes but resist killing
B cells: present antigens to helper T cells in lymph nodes and
spleen cooperation of helper T cells with B cells in humoral
immune responses to protein antigens.
Nucleated cell that infected by microbes: present antigen to Cytotoxic T
lymphocytes (CTLs), effector CD8+ T cells activated CTL that can
recognize antigens become activated to kill infected cell.

Antigen Recognition by Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes specific for a large number of antigens exist before


exposure to the antigen
When an antigen enters, it selects the specific cells and activates
them called the clonal selection hypothesis.
First suggested by Niels Jerne (1955), most clearly enunciated by
Macfarlane Burnet (1957), as a hypothesis to explain how the
immune system could respond to a large number and variety of
antigens.
clonal selection hypothesis: antigen-specific clones of lymphocytes
develop before and independent of exposure to antigen.
A "clone" refers to a lymphocyte of one specificity and its progeny. A
characteristic of the immune system is that a very large number of
clones is generated during the maturation of lymphocytes, thus
maximizing the potential for recognizing diverse microbes.
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The clonal selection hypothesis

Activation of Nave T cells by peptide-MHC presented by APC


The activation of naive T lymphocytes requires recognition of
peptide-MHC complexes presented on dendritic cells.
The nature of the antigen that activates T cells (i.e., peptides bound
to MHC molecules) ensures that these lymphocytes can interact
only with other cells (because MHC molecules are cell surface
proteins) and not with free antigen.
This feature is necessary because all the functions of T
lymphocytes are dependent on their physical interactions with
other cells.
To respond, the T cells need to recognize not only antigens but also
other molecules, called costimulators, which are induced on the APCs by
microbes.
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Antigen recognition provides specificity to the immune response,


and the need for costimulation ensures that T cells respond to
microbes (the inducers of costimulatory molecules) and not to
harmless substances.
B lymphocytes use their antigen receptors (membrane-bound
antibody molecules) to recognize extra cellular antigens of many
different chemical types and present antigen to T cells
Engagement of antigen receptors and other signals trigger
lymphocyte (T & B ) proliferation and differentiation into
activated CD4 or CD8
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Phases of the cellular immune response

SUMMARY
B lymphocytes recognize soluble antigens and develop into antibody-
secreting cells.
Helper T lymphocytes recognize antigens on the surfaces of antigen-
presenting cells and secrete cytokines, which stimulate different
mechanisms of immunity and inflammation.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize antigens on infected cells and kill
these cells.
Regulatory T cells suppress and prevent immune response (e.g., to self
antigens).
NK cells use receptors with more limited diversity than T or B cell
antigen receptors to recognize and kill their targets, such as infected
cells.
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Protective immunity against microbes is mediated by the early


reactions of innate immunity and the later responses of adaptive
immunity.
Innate immune responses are stimulated by molecular structures
shared by groups of microbes and by molecules expressed by damaged
host cells.
Adaptive immunity is specific for different microbial and nonmicrobial
antigens and is increased by repeated exposures to antigen
(immunologic memory).
Humoral immunity is mediated by B lymphocytes and their secreted
products, antibodies, and functions in defense against extracellular
microbes.
Cell-mediated immunity is mediated by T lymphocytes and their
products, such as cytokines, and is important for defense against
intracellular microbes.
Lymphocytes are the only cells capable of specifically recognizing
antigens and are thus the principal cells of adaptive immunity.
The two major subpopulations of lymphocytes are B cells and T cells,
and they differ in their antigen receptors and functions.
Specialized antigen-presenting cells capture microbial antigens and
display these antigens for recognition by lymphocytes.
The elimination of antigens often requires the participation of various
effector cells.
Referensi:
1. Abbas A.K., Lichtman A.H., 2005, Cellular and Molecular Immunology,
5th Ed., WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
2. Asuten K.F., Burakoff S.J., Rosen F.S., Strom T.B.,2001, Therapeutic
Immnulogy, 2nd Ed., Blackwell Science. USA.
3. Roitt I., Brostoff J., and Male D., 1998, Immunology 5th Ed., Mosby,
London.
4. Roitt I., 1997, Essential Immunology, 9th Ed., Blackwell Co., London.
5. Brown F., Dougan, Hocy E.M., Martin S.J., Rima, B.K., and Trudgett A.,
1993, Vaccine Design, John Wiley & Son,West Sussex.
6. Selected Journal Articles.
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SOAL-SOAL

1. Patogen adalah zat atau bahan yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit


termasuk mikroorganisme. Tuliskan yang termasuk
a. Golongan Patogen beserta contoh masing-masing!
b. Apa perbedaan pathogen dengan Antigen?
c. Apa hubungan Antigen dengan Sistem Imun?
2. Tuliskan dan jelaskan mengenai Sistem Pertahanan tubuh Non Spesifik
(Innate Immunity) dan Spesifik (Adaptive Immunity)!
3. Asam lambung dan enzim proteolitik termasuk pertahanan tubuh:
a. Seluler b. Adaptif c. Spesifik d. Humoral
4. Pada saluran napas jika terjadi serangan pathogen biasanya akan
disekresi mukus. Sekresi mukus termasuk pertahanan tubuh secara
a. Adaptif b. Fisik c. Biokimia d. Seluler
5. Sel-sel fagosit mempertahankan tubuh kita dari serangan pathogen. Sel-
sel fagosit termasuk dalam pertahanan tubuh:
a. Seluler Adaptif b. Seluler Non spesifik c. Humoral Adaptif
d. Humoral Non Spesifik
6. Sel-sel Fagosit tubuh kita antara lain:
a. Sel B b. Sel T c. Makrofag d. Sel NK
7. Sel-sel Fagosit berbentuk Polymorphonuclear (PMN) yaitu:
a. Neutrofil b. Makrofag c. Monosit d. Sel NK
8. Sistem Pertahanan tubuh terdiri dari Sel dan Molekul. Contoh Molekul
yang berperan pada system pertahanan tubuh yaitu:
a. Antibodi b. Natural Killer c. Limfosit d. Eosinofil
9. Sistem Pertahanan tubuh terdiri dari Sel dan Molekul. Tuliskan masing-
masing 5 contoh system pertahanan tubuh yang berbentuk Sel dan
Molekul!
10. Sel Fagosit yang berperan dalam pertahanan tubuh terhadap cacing :
a. Basofil b. Neutrofil c. Eosinofil d. Makrofag
11. Sel Fagosit yang bersirkulasi di darah ( 1 jam) dan bermigrasi ke
jaringan berubah bentuk menjadi makrofag yaitu:
a. Basofil b. Neutrofil c. Eosinofil d. Monosit
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12. Sistem pertahanan tubuh nonspesifik (innate immunity) biasanya


berlangsung..setelah infeksi sampai dengan
a. 20 menit b. 12 jam c. 12 hari d. 12 bulan
13. Tuliskan Klasifikasi Organ Limfoid beserta contoh organnya masing-
masing!
14. Organ limfoid terdiri dari limfoid generative (primer) dan limfoid perifer
(sekunder). Organ limfoid primer terdiri dari:
a. Bone marraw, Timus b. Bone marraw, Spleen c. Spleen, Tonsil
d. Limfo nodus, Timus
15. Untuk pengenalan antigen ke sel T memerlukan mediasi sel lain. Sel
tersebut biasanya disebut:
a. Sel B b. Sel Dendritik c. APC d. MHC
16. Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) yaitu sel yg mempresentasi antigen ke
a. Sel Fagosit b. Sel NK b. Sel Dendritik d. Sel Makrofag
17. Sel yang dapat bertindak sebagai Antigen Presenting Cell (APC) yaitu:
a. Sel B b. Sel T c. Sel Dendritik d. Sel NK
18. APC akan memulai proses iniasiasi system imun. Tuliskan proses kerja
APC!
19. Pengenalan antigen ke sel T melalui APC memerlukan suatu molekul
yang disebut co-stimulator. Molekul yang bertindak sebagai co-
stimulator pada penyajian antigen ke sel T antara lain, yaitu:
a. Antibody b. MHC c. B7 d. Komplemen
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20. Terangkan secara sistematik gambar berikut ini:


a. Innate immunity: mulai masuknya antigen, sel atau molekul yang
bekerja serta waktu yang diperlukan oleh imunitas ini setelah infeksi
b. Adaptive immunity: pengenalan antigen, aktivasi, dan cara eliminasi
antigen serta waktu yang diperlukan untuk proses imunitas ini
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21. Terangkan tentang gambar di bawah ini:


a. Proses masuknya antigen, pengumpulan antigen dari jaringan dan
darah
b. Sirkulasi Sel-sel Nave (sel B dan sel T)
c. Proses aktivasi dan pengenalan Respon imun adaptif
d. Bagaimana cara kerja sel T dan Sel B?
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22. Terangkan tentang proses penyajian Antigen sampai menimbulkan


respon dari gambar di bawah ini:
a. Peranan antigen self dan Antigen/peptide asing
b. Bagaimana respon sel T?