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ANATOMY AND

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE
CIRCULATORY &
VASCULAR SYSTEM

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


COMPONENTS OF
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
HEART
Pumps blood into blood vessels
Located in mediastinum

BLOOD VESSELS
Carry blood throughout the body

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


Blood flow through the Heart

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


BLOOD VESSELS
Functions:
Transport of gases, nutrients and
essential substances to the tissues
Transport of waste products from
cells and tissues to appropriate sites
for excretion
Works with heart and lymphatics
PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH
BLOOD VESSELS
Types:
ARTERIES
-carry oxygenated blood to the
different parts of the body
VEINS
-carry de-oxygenated blood back to
the heart
PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH
BLOOD VESSELS
ARTERIES
Aorta (largest artery)
Branches of aorta:
carotid arteries
subclavian arteries
celiac trunk
mesenteric arteries
renal arteries
iliac arteries

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


BLOOD VESSELS
VEINS
Large collecting
vessels, such as the
subclavian vein,
jugular vein, renal
vein and iliac vein
Vena cava (the 2
largest veins, carry
blood into the heart)

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


BLOOD VESSELS
ANATOMY
All blood vessels
follow the same
histological make-up.
3 BASIC LAYERS
TUNICA INTIMA (inner
lining, endothelial lining)
TUNICA MEDIA
(vascular smooth
muscle)
TUNICA ADVENTITIA
(outer connective tissue)

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


BLOOD VESSELS
STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS
ARTERIES Transport oxygenated
blood away from the
Walls contain smooth heart
muscle fiber
ARTERIOLES Transport blood from
Tiny branches of arteries arteries to capillaries
that lead to capillaries Main regulators of blood
flow and pressure
VENULES
minute vessels that drain Drains blood from
blood from capillaries and capillaries into veins, for
into veins. return to the heart

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


BLOOD VESSELS
VEINS
walls consist of 3 layers of
tissues that are thinner and Transport deoxygenated blood
less elastic than arteries. towards the heart
Include valves that prevents
blood from flowing in the
reverse direction.
CAPILLARIES Supply tissues with
Tiny blood vessels, supplied components of and carried by
with blood by arterioles and the blood and also to remove
drained by venules waste from the surrounding
cells
Exchange of oxygen, carbon
dioxide, water, salts etc.
between the blood and
surrounding body tissues

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


BLOOD VESSELS
COMPARISON BETWEEN ARTERIES AND VEINS
ARTERIES VEINS
Transport blood away from Transport blood towards the
the heart heart
Carry oxygenated blood Carry de-oxygenated blood
Narrow lumen Wide lumen
More muscle/elastic tissue Less muscle/elastic tissue
Transport blood under high Transport blood under low
pressure pressure
Have valves

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS
IV access is essential to
manage problems in all
critically ill patients

Peripheral IV line consists


of a short catheter
inserted through the skin
into a peripheral vein

Peripheral vein is any


vein that is not in the
chest or abdomen

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS
ACCESS
In the event that
the upper
extremities are
inaccessible, the
veins of the
dorsum of the foot
or the saphenous
vein of the lower
leg can be used

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


CENTRAL VASCULAR ACCESS

In circumstances in which no
peripheral IV access is possible, a
central IV can be started.
1.Internal jugular vein
2.Subclavian vein
3.Femoral vein

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


CENTRAL VASCULAR ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


CENTRAL VASCULAR ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


CENTRAL VASCULAR ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


CENTRAL VASCULAR ACCESS

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


POINTERS:
Generally, IVs are started at the most
peripheral site that is available and
appropriate for the situation..
Preferred site in the emergency
department is the veins of the forearm
In trauma patients, it is common to go
directly to the median cubital vein
In circumstances in which no peripheral IV
access is possible a central IV can be
started.

PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH


POINTERS:
Some patients have anatomy that poses a
risk for fluid extravasation and peripheral IVs
should be avoided in these situations.
For patient with severe abdominal trauma, it
is preferable to start the IV in an upper limb.
For patient with cellulitis of an extremity, the
area of infection should be avoided.
An extremity with an indwelling fistula or on
the same side of a mastectomy should be
avoided.
PHILIPPINE HEART CENTER DIVISION OF NURSING EDUCATION & RESEARCH