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ASSIGNMENT COVERSHEET

UTS: ENGINEERING & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


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48660
SUBJECT NAME NUO CHEN
11926666

Dynamics and Control

SURNAME FIRST NAME


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11926666@student.uts.edu.au

NAME OF TUTOR TUTORIAL GROUP DUE DATE


28/9/2017

ASSESSMENT ITEM NUMBER/ TITLE

Assignment 4 Lab report


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NUO CHEN 28/9/2017


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UTS: Engineering & Information Technology (2014) Assignment Cover Sheet


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UTS: Engineering & Information Technology (2014) Assignment Cover Sheet


Experiment 1: Free Vibration (By using Natural Frequence( ), spring constant (k) and
damping coefficient (C)
Parameters and Value:
Free mass: 1.437 Kg
Free mass displacement scaling: 15.08 mm/V
Forcing displacement (2X); 3.0 mm pk-pk

Graphs of the free decay responses for = 0,1,2 3

Displacement vs Time for Current I0

Xn=3.51
Xn+1=3.22

Xn=(3.51-0.1)/2 * 15.08 = 25.7114 mm Xn+1 = (3.22-0.25)/2 * 15.08 = 22.3938 mm

Displacement vs Time for Current I1

4.00
Xn=3.33 [
3.50
Xn+1=3.04

3.00

2.50
2.00


1.50
1.00
]
0.50

0.00
(0.54)

(2.92)

(7.43)
(0.01)
(0.27)
(0.80)
(1.07)
(1.33)
(1.60)
(1.86)
(2.13)
(2.39)
(2.66)
(3.19)
(3.45)
(3.72)
(3.98)
(4.25)
(4.51)
(4.78)
(5.04)
(5.31)
(5.57)
(5.84)
(6.10)
(6.37)
(6.63)
(6.90)
(7.16)
(7.69)
Xn = 3.33/2 * 15.08 = 25.1082 mm Xn+1 = (3.04-0.5)/2 * 15.08 = 19.1516 mm

Displacement vs Time for Current I2


3.50E+00
Xn=3.01
3.00E+00

2.50E+00 Xn+1=2.40

2.00E+00

1.50E+00

1.00E+00

5.00E-01

0.00E+00
-7.48E+00

-3.88E+00
-1.00E+01
-9.64E+00
-9.28E+00
-8.92E+00
-8.56E+00
-8.20E+00
-7.84E+00

-7.12E+00
-6.76E+00
-6.40E+00
-6.04E+00
-5.68E+00
-5.32E+00
-4.96E+00
-4.60E+00
-4.24E+00

-3.52E+00
-3.16E+00
-2.80E+00
-2.44E+00
-2.08E+00
-1.72E+00
-1.36E+00
-1.00E+00
-6.40E-01
-2.80E-01
Xn = 3.01/2 * 15.08 = 22.6954 mm Xn+1 = (2.40-1) /2 * 15.08 = 10.556 mm

Displacement vs Time for Current I3


3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50 Xn+1=1.68

1.00

0.50
Xn=0.11
0.00
(5.06)
(3.96)
(4.18)
(4.40)
(4.62)
(4.84)

(5.28)
(5.50)
(5.72)
(5.94)
(6.16)
(6.38)
(6.60)
(6.82)
(7.04)
(7.26)
(7.48)
(7.70)
(7.92)
(8.14)
(8.36)
(8.58)
(8.80)
(9.02)
(9.24)
(9.46)
(9.68)
(9.90)

Xn = 0.11*15.08 = 1.6588 mm Xn+1 = 1.68 * 15.08 = 25.3344 mm

Calculation of angular natural frequency ( )


From graph of Displacement vs Time, There are 10 period of function and we can know that
total time duration is 9.73s.
Which T = 9.73 /10 = 0.973 s
fn = 1/0.973 = 1.02775 Hz
= 2fn = 2 x 1.02775 = 6.4575 rad/s
Calculation of spring constant k

=/

k= ^2 *m = 6.4575^2 * 1.437 = 59.9219 N/m

Calculation of damping coefficient by using formula below:


=
+ 4^2

Cc= 2* *m = 2*6.4575*1.437=18.5589 Ns/m

Damping constant c for I0:


25.7114
= ln 22.3938 = 0.138

0.138
= =0.021959
42 +0.138^2

c = 0.021958* 18.5589 = 0.407 Ns/m

Damping constant c for I1:


25.1082
= ln 19.1516 = 0.2708

0.2708
= =0.043059
42 +0.2708^2

c = 0.043059 * 18.5589 = 0.799 Ns/m

Damping constant c for I2:


22.6954
= ln 10.556
= 0.7655

0.7655
= =0.12
42 +0.7655^2

C = 0.12 * 18.5589 = 2.22 Ns/m

Damping constant c for I3:


1.6588
= ln 25.3344 = 2.72

2.72
= =-0.466
42 2.72^2

c = -0.466 * 18.5589 = -8.64844 Ns/m


Discussion
The aim of this experiment is calculating the variables such as period, natural frequency and
damping coefficient and then by using all the variables to determine the damping constant c
of each different experiment. By using the damping current from graph and the mass
displacement scaling we can get the displacement of the vibrating object. According to the
four graph that with four different current that we set which is I0, I1, I2 and I3. We can get
that when the damping current is increase the system become more stable which the energy
is not applied to the system and the object stops vibrating become faster.

This simulate experiment gives us a lot of information about the vibrating system application
and the experiment we did can be regard as the real work example. It is like the real-world
example by using damping. By calculating the necessary variables, we can prevent the
vibration damage to the product or anything need to avoid vibrating.
Experiment 2: Forced Vibration

Forcing System Response(V) System Response(mm) X/X


Frequency
r f I1 I2 I3 I1 I2 I3 I1 I2 I3
f/fn Hz V V V mm mm mm X/X X/X X/X
0.4 0.668 0.28 0.28 0.26 4.2 4.2 3.92 1.40 1.40 1.31
0.6 1.0 0.36 0.36 0.34 5.43 5.43 5.13 1.81 1.81 1.71
0.8 1.3336 0.68 0.62 0.42 10.25 9.35 6.33 3.42 3.12 2.11
0.9 1.5003 1.45 0.92 0.42 6.79 13.87 6.33 2.26 4.62 2.11
1 1.667 1.71 0.94 0.4 25.79 14.18 6.03 8.60 4.73 2.01
1.1 1.8337 0.66 0.58 0.36 9.95 8.746 5.43 3.32 2.92 1.81
1.2 2.0004 0.4 0.38 0.3 6.032 5.73 4.52 2.01 1.91 1.51
1.5 2.5005 0.18 0.18 0.22 2.71 2.71 3.32 0.90 0.90 1.11
2 3.334 0.1 0.1 0.14 1.508 1.51 2.11 0.50 0.50 0.70

X/X' VS r
10.00
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.5 2

I1 I2 I3

Experiment 2 Discussion
According to the graph of the I1 I2 and I3, the highest vibrating peak happened when r equal
to 1. When the r equal to 1, it has the same value of the natural frequency which the
resonance phenomenon occurs. Another phenomenon can be also found during the
experiment, when the system has more damping current applied on, the system has lower
amplitude response. At last, when the system has more damping added, the system will
become stable slower.
Demonstration A discussion
Experiment A demonstrate the resonance vibrating of the tuned mass damper on the
vibrating beam rig. When the external force vibrating frequency reached same value of
natural frequency of system, the resonance phenomenon occurs and the amplitude of the
resonance increasing. During the experiment, the counter weights will measure the rotation
of the external force till the mass block is fixed to the vibrating rod. When the external force
vibrating frequency equal to the natural frequency w0 the system starts to resonance. There
are several ways to reduce the resonance of the system. Firstly, reduce the external force
frequency w0. Secondly, release of the mass block of the second mass. When the mass block
of the second mass is released, the system become a dynamic absorber which means that
system can changed from 1 degree system of freedom become 2 degree system of freedom.
It can absorb the external force from the second mass and the system has less possibility to
resonance. Because the 2 degree system of freedom now has two natural frequency and also
two modes comparing to the previous. Another result is that the 2 degree system now can
vibrating with more wide frequency without resonance. It is a good method to reduce the
resonance happened in the real world example. This method can be applied to real example
such as bridge and building. When the building and bridge set with damper can prevent
resonance in the natural disaster such as earthquake and typhoon.

Demonstration B discussion
Experiment B demonstrate us the multiple degrees of freedom system. In the experiment,
there are 3 masses block added to the different level of the system and formed to 3 degree
of freedom system. In result, there will be three different modes of vibrating of the system
and each mode has the different resonance frequency. For example, the first mode of the
system,

Figure 1
The figure1 shows the masses all vibrating in one direction and it has the lowest resonance
frequency.
Figure 2

The figure 2 shows the second mode of the system with only top and bottom stage vibrating
with resonance. The middle stage of the system remains steady state.

Figure 3
The figure 3 shows the last mode of the system that it become the dynamic absorber. The
water bottle was added to the top part of the system and when the system starts to vibrating,
the water in the water bottle absorb the vibrating energy and the system vibrating with a
very low frequency which can make the system not easily reached the resonance.