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Poems are pieces of writing written in separate lines that usually have figurative language,

repeated and irregular rhythm, rhyme. They convey experiences, ideas, or emotions in a
vivid and imaginative way.
Poems also have sound devices. Sound devices are tools used by poets to convey and
reinforce the meaning or experience of poetry through the skillful use of sound. After all,
poets are trying to use a concentrated blend of sound and imagery to create an emotional
response. In poetry, the words and their order should evoke images, and the words
themselves have sounds, which can emphasize or otherwise clarify those images.
Since poetry is basically rhythmical, it heavily relies on sound devices to create a musical
effect. The following are types of sound devices:

1. Onomatopoeia. This is a sound device which refers to the use of words whose
sounds suggest their meanings.

The bang of a gun The buzz of a bee
The hiss of a snake The pop of a firecracker

2. Alliteration. This is the repetition of the same initial consonant sounds of at least
two words in a line of poetry.

Example: the frog frolicked frivolously on the forest floor.

Little skinny shoulder blades sticking through your clothes
struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet

3. Assonance. This is the repetition of vowel sounds at the beginning, middle or end of
at least two words in a line of poetry.

Example: Hear the mellow wedding bells (excerpt from by Edgar Allan Poe)

4. Consonance. This is the repetition of consonant sounds at the middle or end of at least
two words in a line of poetry.

Example: He fumbles at your spirit

As players at the keys
Before they drop full music on;
He stuns you by degrees (by Emily Dickinson)

Aside from the sound devices, figurative language is also very common in poetry.
Figurative language is language that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is
different from the literal interpretation.

There are many different types of figurative language. The most common types are simile
and metaphor.

Simile is a clear and direct comparison between two things that are not alike. It often uses
the words like or as. Your teeth are like stars (an excerpt from a poem written by
Denise Rogers) is an example of simile.

Metaphor, on the other hand, is a comparison made between two different things without
using the words like or as. The night is a big black cat (an excerpt from a poem written
by G. Orr Clark) is an example of metaphor.
In this lesson, we will focus on the other types of figurative language such as personification
irony, and hyperbole.

Other types of figurative language are:

1. Personification. This is the attribution of human qualities, nature or characteristics to

something nonhuman or inanimate objects; or the representation of an abstract quality in
human form.

When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze
(excerpt from I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud by William Wordsworth)
The sun smiles in the morning.

2. Irony. This refers to the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally
signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.

Examples: There are roaches infesting the office of a pest control service.
Your dress will only look elegant if you will not wear it.

3. Hyperbole. This is an extreme exaggeration used to make a point; exaggerated

statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.

Examples: My eyes widened at the sight of the mile-high ice cream cones we
were having for dessert.
I have a mountain of dirty laundry to wash.
Feature of Poem Meaning Example
ALLITERATION repeated vowel sounds in a All at once, everybody
line or lines of poetry shouted,
The cow said mooh, mooh,
The snake said hiss, hiss,
The frog said kokak, kokak,
And they were very happy.
ASSONANCE exaggeration or His mind is as clear as mud
overstatement not intended Her heart is so soft as
to be taken literally concrete
CONSONANCE repetition of consonant Bashful Mimosa
sounds at the beginning of --- Its tiny-green leaves
the words in lines of poetry move as I touch them gently
Seemingly shy to a newly-
met stranger
Fold themselves quickly and
thereafter, sleep
(excerpt from The Actuality of Life
by Denn Marc P. Alayon)
ONOMATOPEIA use of expression which My beard grows down to my
means the exact opposite; toes,
the words used suggest the I never wears no clothes,
opposite of their literal I wraps my hair
meaning Around my bare,
And down the road I goes.
(My Beard by Shel Silverstein)
PERSONIFICATION words sound alike because I greet everybody, take a
they share the same middle seat, and eat
or ending consonant sounds And prepare to meet them in
a suite
IRONY giving human qualities or Should Shylock come
attributes to non-living ashore rest assured
objects, abstract ideas or he would surely shinely in
qualities showing his short shirt
HYPERBOLE words that imitate the sound How it swells! How it dwells!
they are naming or sounds On the future! how it tells
that imitate another sound Of the rapture that impels
(excerpt from The Bells by Edgar
Allan Poe)
A film, also called a movie or motion picture consists of moving pictures that have been
recorded so that they can be shown at the cinema or on television.

A film tells a story or shows a real situation. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an
There are different forms of film such as:
1. Action
2. Adventure
3. Comedy
4. Crime and gangster
5. Drama
6. Epics/Historical
7. Horror
8. Musical/Dance
9. Science Fiction
10. War
11. Fantasy

Lights is a convention of films used to create a specific atmosphere. It is a very important

aspect for shaping meaning in films. It can manipulate a viewers attitude towards a setting
or a character. The way light is used can make objects, people and environments look
beautiful or ugly, soft or harsh, artificial or real. Light may be used expressively or
realistically. A dark lighting can bring an ominous feel whereas bright lighting can bring a
cheerful atmosphere

Blocking was originally a theater term that refers to the positioning and movement of the
actors in the stage. An essential part of rehearsal, blocking is necessary for a smooth
In cinema, camera and lights are added to the equation. Blocking in a motion picture
involves the precise synchrony and movement of the actors in relation to camera and lights.
The director is the one responsible for blocking. He must guide the cast to accommodate
his vision for the arrangement or composition of the frame.

Sketch the Scene

One efficient way to block actors and camera is to use drawings. Hand-drawn pictures are
fine, although computers make the job easier. Floor plans and storyboards are often
combined for a faster process but also to help the crew visualize everything needed for the
shoot to happen.
Floor plans are used to design the layout of a scene with actors and camera positions. Floor
plans are quite convenient when shooting a scene with an elaborate setup. A number of
actors and complicated camera movements (dollies, cranes) constitute a good definition of
elaborate setup.
Storyboards are also common. They are a collection of frames that tells the story visually.
The frames illustrate the more important shots in the movie. Storyboards are quite
convenient when the directors are explaining exactly what type of composition they desire.

Attention to Body Language

Deciding on the positions of the subject and camera are only the first and second steps of
blocking. The third is body language - posture. A director must pay close attention to how
actors use their bodies and what is signified by their postures and gestures. Quite regularly,
professional directors instruct actors on how to move their hands and legs and eyes.

by Joyce Kilmer

I think that I shall never see

A poem lovely as a tree.
A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the earths sweet flowing breast;
A tree that looks at God all day,
And lifts her leafy arms to pray;
A tree that may in Summer wear
A nest of robins in her hair;
Upon whose bosom snow has lain;
Who intimately lives with rain.
Poems are made by fools like me,
But only God can make a tree.


If I had a hundred dollars to spend

Or maybe a little more,
Id hurry as fast as my legs would go
Straight to the animal store.
I wouldnt say, How much for this or that?
What kind of a dog is he?
Id buy as many as rolled an eye,
Or wagged a tail at me!
Id take the hound with the drooping ears
That sits by himself alone;
Cockers and Cairns and wobbly pups
To be my very own.
I might buy a parrot all red and green,
And the monkey I saw before,
If I had a hundred dollars to spend,
Or maybe a little more.