sahgbhxasghjxgsauhgcjabvchdghcvahsgchagdcgasjgchjsavchgjasvchashcgxashvcxhasvcxhvahghsxhasgxhabxhjsabxhsabxhagsxhbashxgsahvxhsxvhjsaxhjasxhjabxhsaxahxaxhjasjxgbajxbjahxbajshbjhsbxjasbxahgxjashbxjabxjahbxjhabxabxhabshabsxjabxjahbxajhsbxajh

© All Rights Reserved

0 tayangan

sahgbhxasghjxgsauhgcjabvchdghcvahsgchagdcgasjgchjsavchgjasvchashcgxashvcxhasvcxhvahghsxhasgxhabxhjsabxhsabxhagsxhbashxgsahvxhsxvhjsaxhjasxhjabxhsaxahxaxhjasjxgbajxbjahxbajshbjhsbxjasbxahgxjashbxjabxjahbxjhabxabxhabshabsxjabxjahbxajhsbxajh

© All Rights Reserved

- Paper Acum
- ABAQUS Tutorial-steel Plate
- e_mat (1).docx
- syllabus theory of elasticity
- Lecture 07-08 - Solid Mechanics
- The finite element analysis between tire and road
- Araujo Thesis
- Preliminary Report 06
- Elastisitas
- emd_part3
- 9_9. Finite Element Theory for Nonlinear Materials
- Geometrical nonlinear analysis of composite structures A review
- 4_LinearElasticity1112
- Constitutive Modelling of Arteries (Holzapfel and Ogden)
- mechanics of solids week 1 lectures
- Sigma Modeling
- Stress Analysis
- Deformation Stress and Strain Notes
- Formulation of an Elasticity Problem Introduction
- KENPAVE MELCITA.docx

Anda di halaman 1dari 88

DOI 10.1007/s00170-011-3211-z

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

element method and inverse optimization

Meftah Hrairi & Hedi Chtourou & Augustin Gakwaya &

Michel Guillot

Received: 19 May 2009 /Accepted: 31 January 2011 /Published online: 26 February 2011

adapting modeling techniques using the finite

element method to simulate the rigid die H. Chtourou

compaction of metal powders. First, it presents the

1

implementation of the cap constitutive model into Department of Technology, Second order identity

ABAQUS FE software using the closest point IPEIS, Sfax University,

tensor

projection algorithm. Then, an inverse modeling

procedure was proposed to alleviate the problems Sfax, Tunisia

raised by the interpretation of the experimental tests

and to more accurately determine the material :

A. Gakwaya M. Guillot

parameters. The objective function is formed, based

on the discrepancy in density data between the Mechanical Engineering

Department, Laval University,

numerical model prediction and the experi-ment. C

Minimization of the objective function with respect Fourth-order elasticity

to the material parameters was performed using an Quebec City, Canada tensor

in-house optimization software shell built on a

modified Levenberg Marquardt method. Thus, an Keywords Powder

integrated simulation module consisting of an .

metallurgy Compaction

inverse optimization method and a finite element

method was developed for modeling the powder . .

process Finite element

compaction process as a whole. The simulation and

identification module developed was applied to .

Density Inverse

simulate the compaction of some industrial parts. cj

. . Constraint functions

The results reveal that the maximum absolute error identification Cap model

between densities is 2.3%. It corresponds to the .

precision of the experimental method. Abaqus Material

.

parameters Iron powder

M. Hrairi (*)

Nomenclature

Mechanical Engineering Department, International E()

Islamic University Malaysia, Youngs modulus as a

function of compact

Gombak, Malaysia

First order derivatives of

f the weighted penalty

density 1 functions with respect to

the parameters

q

Second order derivatives

of the weighted penalty

functions with respect to

Yield function of the the

Fs tension surface

parameters

Function Fs I 1 a qI1 g exp bI1 ep

f

2

H Elastoplastic

Yield function of the tangent moduli

shear surface I Fourth-order

in the shear failure surface equation

identity tensor

I1 First invariant of

Fc

stress tensor

Function Fc I 1; k s k; k k s k

2 J2 Second invariant

f3

of deviatoric stress tensor

I 1L k &

2 Yield function of the cap

surface J Jacobian matrix of

K() Bulk modulus as a

function of compact density

G

R2

Shear modulus Number of measured data

Number of parameters to

in the cap surface equation

be optimized

q Number of

constraints

cgljm

n, n+1 s

v

632 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

Logarithmic strain

R volumetric

Relative density

Aspect ratio of the cap surface

0 Initial loose

Superscripts

state relative density

R Kirchhoff stress

Unbalanced load vector Cauchy stress tensor cal

calculated using finite

r z Weighted element

Residual vector penalty function e

elastic

r r r exp

1, 2, 3 x Tolerance for experimental

Material parameters describing the aspect convergence (specified k

positive number) iteration

s p

r

ratio of the cap surface R r1 r r2 3 w Non-negative weight pk plastic

Parameter correction

= Helmholtz

Deviatoric stress tensor free energy function

Cost function

* Objective

p function

tk s k s:s

Hardening parameter

Norm of the deviatoric stress tensor

li Plastic

consistency parameters T tangent

Levenberg-Marquardt parameter

Time t

() Trial trial or elastic

T Increment of a quantity prediction

Material parameter (tension cutoff) @

Partial derivative of a

u quantity 1 Introduction

Nodal displacement vector

Subscripts Powder metallurgy

W,D (P/M) has become

Material parameters for hardening rule 0 index for initial widely recognized as a

value robust process for

v

p

producing high-quality

1, 2, 3 indices for parts for a variety of

tension, shear and cap important applications.

failure surfaces This success is due to

the advantages the

" process offers over

respectively cap surface

geometric linearization other metal forming

technologies such as

forging and metal

index for the number of

casting; advantages in

constraints j=1,q

W 1 eDX k material utilization,

material

shape complexity, near-

net shape dimensional

Greek symbols indices for successive

control, among others [

,,, Material parameters for the shear failure Fs I 1 configurations shear

1]. The P/M process can

bI failure surface

a g e 1 qI1 be broken down into

three main manufacturing steps: mixing of the Since these models are a are naturally sensitive to

powder, compaction, and sintering. More than any simple extension of hydrostatic stress and

other operation, it is the compaction, which is classic elastoplasticity, consider the cohesion

generally performed using a set of punches and dies, they are consequently and friction among the

mounted onto a hydraulic or mechanical press that suitable to model the particles of granular

controls the practical application of powder behavior of powders in matter. As a result of the

metallurgy. The semi-finished product resulting from high-density zones but suggestion that the low

the compaction operation is a compact having a unfortunately cannot be strength of powder

used to model the first compacts in shear and

nearly final form but a very weak mechanical

tensile stress field must

resistance sufficient only to ensure its transfer to the stages of compression [

5]. Also, this type of be taken into account,

next step in the process: sintering.X models, such as the

model would require a

plasticity limit that is DruckerPrager cap

The modeling of the compaction operation is used to equivalent during model [ 6], the Cam

optimize not only this step, but ulterior steps as well. In compres-sion and Clay model [ 7], or the

recent years, several types of constitutive models have tension, which is not

DiMaggioSandler

been developed and applied in the analysis of the adequate for granular

compaction of metal powders. Most of the proposed model [ 8, 9] have been

mediums. Granular

constitutive models belong to one of the following two material models, adapted from soil

classes: porous material models and granular material originally developed for mechanics literature.

models. Porous material models are based on the These models are

rocks, soils, and other

classical von Mises model in which some modifications geological materials, are characterized by a yield

are introduced in order to account for the influence of based on a multiple yield criterion, a hardening

function and a flow rule

the hydrostatic pressures on the yield criterion [ 2 4]. criterion approach and

and theyX

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

633

differ by the functional form of the yield surface. In post-processing of the

the DruckerPrager cap model, the yield surface results. In addition, the

In this work, an enhanced

consists of an elliptical cap and a straight failure line. Cap model for simulating sizeable amount of cap

model parameters and

In the CamClay model, both the failure surface and the behavior of powders

experimental efforts

the cap are characterized by elliptic arcs with during rigid die

required that these

different eccentricity. In the DiMaggio Sandler compaction has been

parameters to be

model the failure surface is given by an exponential developed. This model determined, constitute a

function approaching the yield stress of the fully allows for using variable

handicap for this family

dense material at high pressures. elasticity as well as a

of models. From this,

density dependent cap

comes the necessity to

aspect ratio. It was

Because it captures important aspects of the physics of create an alternate

implemented into the

compaction, the DiMaggioSandler Cap model, on calibration procedure for

finite element (FE) code

which the present work is based, is a frequently used the model, based on

ABAQUS as a user

continuum model for modeling the mechanical inverse problems, in

defined subroutine using

behavior of pharmaceutical powders during compaction order to determine the

a return mapping

[ 10 15] as well as in the simulation of metal powder algorithm. The material parameters

directly from production

compaction processes [ 16 20]. Indeed, this model simulations were run by

components. Thus, this

reflects the yielding, frictional, and densification means of an integrated

work creates a complete

characteristics of powder along with strain and computer module that

module capable of using

geometrical hardening which occur during the compac- uses I-DEAS Master

finite elements and

tion process. However, the counterpart of this flexibility Series software for the

inverse optimization to

is the significant amount of experimental work required geometrical definition of

evaluate the density

to properly calibrate the model parameters for a the problem, an in-house

distribution resulting

particular blend of powders [ 21 24]. Moreover, in developed interface

from the compaction

these studies, the elastic moduli, as well as the cap program for the

process.

aspect ratio, were assumed to be constant which was determination of

not suitable to describe the observed nonlinear boundary conditions,

unloading behavior of metal powders and to better ABAQUS software for

represent ductile powder compaction behavior, the FE solution, and 2 Cap plasticity model

4

To formulate the elastic-plastic constitutive

equations in a large deformation framework, one and where y is

should first choose an Helmholtz free energy Shearfailure

function, C is the

appropriate work conjugate pair of stress and strain fourth-order elasticity

measurements [ 25, 26]. The logarithmic strains tensor, I and 1 are the

fourth and second order surface

were chosen because they are the only measures that

identity tensors

permit an additive decomposition of the strain in the

e

respectively, G and K

large deforma-tion range into elastic ( ) and plastic are the shear and bulk

p

( ) deformation tensors [ 25 27].X moduli expressed as a f2=0

function of the powders

e p relative density .

"" " 1

Another main

For the chosen strain measure, the conjugate stress

component of the Capsurface

measure is the Kirchhoff stress which can be constitutive model is the

approxi-mated to the true Cauchy stress tensor in yield functions that

the case where elastic deformations are small separate the purely

compared to unity. The adopted stressstrain elastic behavior from f3=0

hyperelastic solid where the elasticity parameters are The yield surface of this Tensionfailure

Elasticdomain

density dependent: elasto-plastic model has

a moving cap,

intersecting the

e p

s C" C " " hydrostatic loading line,

whose position is a

2 function of plastic

volumetric strain, as

with shown in Fig. 1. The surface

main features of the cap

model include a failure

surface and an elliptical

yield cap which closes

f1=0

the open space between

C the failure surface and

2 the hydrostatic axis. The

@y

2Gr I K r 2 = 3G r 1 yield cap expands in the

1 stress space according T

L()

3 to a specified hardening X()

rule. The functional

forms for these surfaces

areX

2

@"

Fig. 1 Multi-surfaced Cap

f1 I1 T 0 elastoplasticity model

634 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

k

f2

q

s

k

Fs

I1

0 p p

where Fs

f3 Fc I 1; k s k; k Fs k invariant, k s k s : s 2J2 is

I1 0 the norm of the deviatoric stress

2

tensor, is the hardening

a

parameter, , , , , R and T are

2

q I1 I 1 Lk &

bI

ge 1

6 L k

k if k > 0

7

k where FcI1

;

s

; k ksk 0 if k 0

X k k R Fs k

8

failure surfaces, f1 and f2,

respectively, represent the

stress states that may cause

fracture of the powder

compact during its ejection

or its compaction with very

large local distortion. This is

often caused by the different

5

compaction ratios of powder

columns in multilevel parts.

The cap yield surface f3 is

2

R

denoting the ratio of two

elliptical caps diameters.

Traditionally, R was

considered to be constant,

which may be appropriate

for non-cohesive and non-

ductile materials such as

geological materials.

Howev-er, it is not realistic

to model metal powder

behavior using a cap having

a constant axes ratio R. In

this work, R has been

k implemented as an

increasing function of the density. This allows for the proper otherwise desired quadratic rate of

modeling of the behavior similar to that of soils in the low convergence. The scheme

pressure zone. But, when the pressures become important used thus required the

and the density becomes elevated, the plastic yielding updating of the consistent

becomes more susceptible to occur by a shear load than by a tangent stiffness at each

The volumetric plastic strain

hydrostatic load. A flattened cap would be more p

iteration and the use of the

representative of the compacted powder behavior at high " v is the trace of the plastic algorithmic tangent material

strain tensor . It is used to

densities. p

operator [ 30]. Hence, at the

update the actual aggregate end of each time step, the

For strain hardening in the compressive regime, an density using the initial loose current stress state satisfies

exponential function for the effective volumetric plastic the equilibrium of the

p state density 0 as follows: mechanical system with the

strain " v is used to govern the expansive and contractive

behavior of the elliptical cap through the evolution of the external forces in a weak

state variable k. This evolution is given by the hardening rule " sense and complies with the

p r r0 e vp full consistency of the

relating k to the effective volumetric plastic strain " v in a 11 elastoplastic material and

form suggested by the results of the classical hydrostatic frictional contact

pressing test

formulation.X

i 3 Computational algorithm

of cap model In this nonlinear context

p

" v X k W 1 e

DX k

9

where the principal

3.1 Finite element problem unknown is the incremental

p

nodal displacements vector f

where, W and D are two material parameters and " v is the un1g between

The compaction process is

effective plastic strain expressed in terms of the stress first assumed to be a quasi-static configurations n and n+1,

transformation with the final the discrete linearized FE

spatial distribution of density approximation to be solved

(x) as the driving unknown at each iteration k can be

invariant X(k) and defined in a manner that prevents the cap written as follows:

strain from softening: [ 28, 29]. Every material

point undergoes finite strain K

T

deformation and

elastoplastic trans-

formations take place under

( the interaction of the powder k

p components. The u

p corresponding nonlinear

structural FE analysis k

differential elastoplastic

equations in time and space.

p

The time integration in the

present context is due to the

"v

if "v > 0 or if k > 0 and k > I1

discretization of the loading

10 history, while the spatial

integration is normally

performed via Gauss

quadratures at the FE level

and then assembled in terms

of the mechanical degrees of

freedom.X

the NewtonRaphson

method has been used. This

"v choice is motivated by the

presence of strong

0 nonlinearities and the

T

k

u

n1g

k

Km

12

Kg

R

n1g

Kl

f f

T

g

h

i k

635

h i 2

Solve for

k

T

where K m

3.2 Integration of the behavior law

displacement vector

The numerical integration procedure of the behavior model u

was completed according to the closest point projection n 1

an implicit scheme of predictioncorrection and by using an to

operator split method [ 31]. First, the plastic evolution is

assumed to be momentarily frozen and an elastic prediction their values at the

is performed. If the plasticity criterion is violated by the

prediction, then a plastic correction must be performed to

take the yield that occurs into account. This algorithm is

1f un1g k the linearizedk problem:

coded in Fortran 77 and implemented into the ABAQUS configuration n

software using the User Material option UMAT. At each f

iteration, performed for a single load step corresponding to

g

the passing of an equilibrium configura-tion Cn to following

configuration Cn+1, the ABAQUS software calls upon the T

Table 1

Algorithm for the finite element solver

0 f un1g

Rn1g

f Rn1g

Step

Set the iteration counter k to 0

Calculate the residual vector f

k

Step

1 Set k=k+1

Initialize the global Jacobian

K

T

0 k 1

and the nodal k

fu n1g

f un1g f un1g

;k

and

r

in addition

n1ep

@

ep

n 1 3

Hn1

Step

Check for convergence on both the displacement and

s

3

the residual @

"

l

Store all the material point i

variables

residual vector and the material

13

stiffness matrix

equilibrium iteration

If convergence, then set n=n+1 and go to next load

subroutine is done for each

of the numerical integration

point elements. The

@s

increment

schematic is based on the

algorithms proposed by

Simo et al. [ 32] for

implementation of the Cap

model. Since this is a multi- i1

surface elastoplasticity

model, there should be an

intermediate algorithmic

step between the elastic

prediction and the plastic

correction: that of the active

plasticity mode detection.X

If no convergence, then:

The numerical integration of

*For each element:

the behavior law is based on

the integration of the flow

*For each material integration point X

rule according to an implicit

Compute the strain increment

Euler scheme, with time

increment

Retrieve the material point variables sn; kn and rn t between the instants

algorithm by calling the UMAT subroutine tn and tn+1:

and obtain the values of s

n1

16 assumption, designated as the

elastic predictor or the trial

where, li represents the plastic consistency parameter increment

Furthermore, the tensor stress, is given by:

P

and designates the tensor of the plastic strain increment. This

chosen to define the total

tensor is expressed as a function of

the plastic deviatoric strain increment strain increment can sn

Trial p

C : " n1 "n C

1

p

e and the plastic validly be decomposed e

additively into an elastic :"n

p

volumetric strain increment tensor e "n1

and a plastic part:

:

v

e p

e e e

p p 1 p 17

e e 3 "v 1

14 sn C : "n1

3.2.1 Elastic prediction

18

In a similar fashion, the total strain increment tensor is

From a physical point of

expressed as a function of the deviatoric strain increment and view, the elastic prediction

the volumetric strain increment. The same applies to the consists of freezing the

stress tensor that can be broken onto a deviatoric part plastic yield and applying an

elastic increment. This is

s and a spherical part I1:

basically to consider that, at

1

instant tn+1, the plastic strain

" e 3 "v 1 is fixed and equal to the value

15 at instant tn. The stress

1

s s 3 I1 1 obtained following this

636 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

s material tangent moduli

CompressiveCornerMode

corresponds to the stress

Using the stress tensor decoupling principle (Eq. 16), the

variation caused by an

spherical and deviatoric components of the stress tensor are infinitesimal strain

then obtained from the following equation:X ShearFailureMode variationX

Trial

I1 ;n1 I1;n 3K ep

H

"v;n1 f2=0 ds

19 n1

21

Trial

sn 1 sn 2G CapMode

e

n1 TensionCorner d"

f3=0

Trial

been reached. Indeed, the yield function fi; n1 test values Mode

n1

are obtained with this prediction. If all the test values for the

Trial

fi; n1 functions are negative, then the load state was

purely elastic. On the other hand, if some of the test

functions become positive, the real stress state will be

obtained after a plastic correction [ 33].X It is therefore determined by

ElasticMode

TensionFailureMode a simple mathematical

f1=0 derivation of the relation

3.2.2 Plastic correction

between the actualized

stresses and the strains:

The state of the material undergoing elastoplastic deforma-tions T L(K) X(K) p

is generally characterized by loading and unloading conditions. dsn1 C : d"n1 d"

Thus, the plastic loading or the elastic loading/ unloading is 22

formulated according to the Kuhn-Tucker relations that govern Fig. 2 Various elastoplastic modes n 1

within the Cap model

the evolution of the plastic consistency parameters li;n1. These

conditions, that must always be verified, stipulate that at each This formulation requires

instant there must be: the determination of the

plastic strain variation. The

3.2.3 Elastoplastic derivation of this module is

li;n1 0; fi;n1 0 and fi;n1 li;n1 0 ; i 1; 2; 3:

tangent moduli performed differently if the

active mode presents perfect

20

The last step in the numerical plasticity or plasticity with

integration of the constitutive hardening [ 33].X

This equation is used to characterize each of the Cap models evolution equations is

modes: elastic mode, tension mode, shear mode, cap mode, concerned with the

singular tension mode at I1 =T, and singular compression determination of the powder

mediums algorithmic 4 Inverse identification of

mode at I1 = (Fig. 2).X

material contribution to the the material parameters

FE tangent stiffness matrix.

Each mode will be identified in terms of limits to the elastically This contribution is computed Judicious use of the finite

predicted stresses. Then, the plastic consistency parameters that at the integration point level element simulation method

allow calculation of the plastic strain are determined. The stress and is called the elastoplastic rests on the precision and

conditions of each one of the plastic modes is presented in Table 2, tangent moduli. In order to exactness of the behavior

together with the corresponding values of the plastic consistency preserve a quadratic rate of model used. To this end, it is

parameters increments. These values are then used to determine the convergence for the global FE not sufficient for the chosen

plastic strain increment (Eq. 13) and thus, the real stress state (Eq. problem, this moduli should model to be well adapted to

19).X be derived from the the type of behavior being

algorithmic and not from the modeled but additionally, it is

continuum mechanics important to ensure that the

formulation [ 33]. In fact, this model parameters represent

the behavior of the material in question. Traditionally, the Cap However, the practical powders is fairly limited, it is

model parameters are determined from a rheological analysis of application of this hypothesis mostly due to the difficulty in

experimental tests chosen for their suitability to the behavior is a very difficult task for its parametrical and

being studied: resonant frequency, hydraulic compression, mechanical tests that are often experimental characterization.

hydro-static compression, triaxial compression, simple uniaxial not uniform and were aimed Often, because of the

compression, and special tests such as the Brazilian disk test [ at characterizing the material. hypotheses required by the

Furthermore, if the use of the experimental

33 36]. In the identification process, the interpretation of the

Cap model for modeling the characterizationX

experimental trials usually requires the use of the homogenous

compression of ductile

deformation hypothesis in order to thresh out the results.

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

637

Failure mode

Stress state boundaries

Tension

(

Trial

T

l

1;n1

Trial

T I1 ;n1

I

1;n1

9K

sTrial

Fs

T

l 0

2;n1

n1

l 0

3;n1

1

k

Trial

sn 1

k

Fs T

Tension corner

ITrial

1

T

l

1;n

8

1;n

2G

Trial

2G

Trial

T I1 ;n1

l

2

n

1

Trial

T I1 ;n1

l

1n

1

dFs T

>

F

s

T

<

s

n 1

< Fs

T

9K

;

dI1

<

9K dFs T =dI1

l 0

3;n1

>

Shear

:

I1Trial;n1

kn

l

1;n

1

0

T

Trial

Trial

I

1 ;n1

Fs T

I

<

1;n 1

Trial

k

l2 ;n 1

s

n1

k

Fs

>

s

n 1

2G

>

dFs T =dI1

l

3;n 1

>

>

>

>

k

n

Trial

<

Trial

I1;n 1

>

s

n1

< F

skn dFs kn =dI1

>

>

l

1;n

>

Compressive corner

>

Trial

>

Trial

:

I <k

1;n1 n

8

Trial

I1 ;n1

l

2;n 1

kI

n 1:n1

Trial

2G

kn

9KdFs

kn

=dI1

>

s

n

> Fs

kn

Trial

<

9K dFs k n=dI1

l

3;n1

s

n1

Fs k n

l

2;n1

Cap

>

Trial

kn

2G

:

Lkn

< I1

n

Trial

Trial

or

>X

kn

l

1;n

Trial

I

1;n 1

l

2;n1 p

<

s

n1

> Fc

I

1;n1

0

l

3;n 1

R2 F k

"v;n1 s n1

3 I1;n1 kn1

(r1, r2, r3) parameters for the surface and the hardening

approach, the parameter sets available do not reproduce real plasticity Cap model that law of the constitutive

practical situations. Thus, the identification of parameters are represented by the model are estimated by

using the inverse method directly from industrial produc-tion vector p=(E, G, T, a; b; g; means of inverse modeling,

components represents an attractive alternative to the the elastic parameters as

q, W, D, r1, r2, r3).

classical procedure since it emanates from practical sit- well as the shear failure

However, a sensitivity study parameters are

uations and avoids the hypothesis of homogenous defor- of the model showed that,

mation altogether [ 37, 38].X predetermined from an

when dealing with powder experimental material

compaction with no

4.1 Nonlinear optimization process characteriza-X

excessive distortion, only

the harden-ing law and cap

The optimization task is based on the LevenbergMar-quardt surface parameters exert a tion of the cap model [ 41].

algorithm [ 39, 40] in order to determine the parameter preponderant influence on Consequently, the parameter

corrections while the finite element solver handles the the final density prediction vector to be identified is

solution of the direct problem. The principal goal of this in the compact [ 41]. Thus, reduced to p=(W, D, r1, r2,

optimization process is to determine elasticity (E, G), failure only the parameters r3).X

surface (a; b; g; q), hardening law (W, D), and cap surface describing the cap failure

Estimating these parameters involves adjusting the is subject to constraints on

parameters in the finite element models until the calculated the parameters based on the

density vector

cal

coincides as the least square with the

2

i1

constraints are written in the

measured density vector

exp

2

minimizing the cost function with respect to the vector of

parameters p: cj p 0 j 1; q

25

6 p where cj are the constraint

1 X functions and q is the number

m

2 of constraints. The set of p

r ip & which satisfies the constraints

1 is called the feasible region.

T In many problems, it is

r r

23 important to maintain the

feasibility of the parameters

where m is the number of throughout the solution

measurements. The residual process in order to carry out

vector, r, is defined by the finite element analyses. In

the current estimation,

bounds are required to

prevent the parameters from

r rexp rcal becoming negative.

24

638 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

function method, are incorporated directly in the objective

function, , as follows:

*

q q

26 @zj

the optimization process will

6 p 6p z jp stop and the final

optimization is achieved. The

k

parameter correction, p , at

X iteration k is calculated from g

s j 1

j1

equations:

where the weighted penalty functions, zj, are the inverse

barrier functions: T

s 1; n

31

Jk Jk mkI hk

wj T

j 1; q dpk Jk rk gk @p s

27 29

z p where is Levenberg

j cj p

Marquardt damping

parameter (a non-negative

scalar), J is the Jacobian

with j being the non-negative weights. contain the first and the

second order derivatives,

respectively, of the weighted

The nonlinear least squares problem is solved using a modified

penalty functions with respect

LevenbergMarquardt method to account for the weighted

to the parameters. The

penalty functions included in the objective function . Starting elements of J, g, and h are

*

LevenbergMarquardt method deter-mines a sequence of

corrections to the parameters until convergence is achieved

according to specified criteria. The convergence criterion for the Jis

@ri

optimization study is based on the variation of the objective

function value. If differences in the objective function value

between two subsequent iterations is less than a specified P

positive number ,

cal

@ri

6

i 1; m ; s 1; n

p k1 30

6 pk

<x @ps

28

@ps

2

@ zj

34

h

st j 1

scaled vector b are then

defined as:

A

st written as:

s; t 1; n A

32 st

s; t

@p s @p t

1; n

35

A m I dp b

p

Ass A tt

37

dp

dps

p s

s 1; n 38

A

P

ss

1; n, allows to be

controlled in a manner that

is problem independent and

consistent from iteration to

iteration.

bs

Recall that m is the number of measured data and n is the b

Because the parameters are

s

number of parameters.

p A ss contained implicitly in the

s 1; n finite element formulation, a

finite difference approxima-

To facilitate the choice of the LevenbergMarquardt tion of the Jacobian matrix J

36

parameter and improve the conditioning of the in Eq. 29 is made. The

The Jacobian matrix is

recalculated at every

scaled form of Eq. 29 to be solved for p is then

parameters one at a time and

system, Eq. 29 is scaled before it is solved. Defining A and b solving a direct finite

as:X element problem for each

perturbation.X

T

AJ Jh

33 The first derivatives of the

T

bJ rg penalty functions required

to calculate g are given by:

@zj @pt

The second derivatives of

the penalty functions

wj @cj

required to calculate h are

j 1; q ; s 1; n 40

approximated by

39

2 s; t 1; n

@ zj

2 The modified Levenberg

wj Marquardt method and

finite element analysis are

@ cj integrated in the solution

algorithm as shown in Table

@ cj 3.X

@ps identification of the cap

model parameters of iron

2 powder

cj @ps@pt

The method described

3

@ps cj above is applied to

determine the cap material

parameters of MP37HD iron

@ps

powder

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

639

(0) (0)

Initialize the parameters p

(0) (0)

Solve the direct finite element problem at p

0

Initialize the penalty functions weights j. Evaluate the weighted penalty functions z j and the objective function

*(0)

(k)

Calculate the Jacobian matrix J using the finite differences method by solving n direct problems.

(k) (k)

Calculate the penalty function derivatives to form h and g

k k 1 k k

Solve Eq. 29 to determine the correction step to be applied to the parameters, dp and update the parameters p p dp X

k 1

and

(k+1) *(k+1)

Solve the direct finite element problem at p . Evaluate z j

*(k+1) *(k)

Check if <

k k

If false, increase and return to step 4c m 10 m

k 1 k

wj 0:1 wj mk 1 0:1 mk

Verification that the convergence criteria is met

If true, stop

CAX4 shape function is

supplemented by placing

4.2.1 Finite element fine elements at the critical

regions of the part and by

manufactured by Domfer. The MP37HD powder grade used calculation of the answer the fact that the initial mesh

in this study was premixed with 0.375% Acrawax and was oriented in the direction

0.375% ST Lithium as lubricant and has a chemical Considering both loading

composition by weight of Cu 1.80%, graphite 0.75%, and the and geometric symmetries, of compaction (Fig. 4).X

balance is Fe. The industrial part, selected to apply the an axisymmetric element

inverse identification approach to, is one whose geometry needs to be used. Our The FE model consists of

and filling positions for the different tools are given in Fig. preliminary analyses only about 456 elements

3. It is an axisymmetrical part with two levels. The tooling, revealed that the eight-node and 591 nodes. We also

used in the manufacturing of this part comprises a die, a core CAX8 element has a place contact surfaces [ 42]

rod, an upper punch, and two lower punches.X problem with discontinuous at both the powder and tool

equivalent plastic strain at surfaces of Fig. 4. In

its mid-node. Thus, we use addition, since our main

The compaction sequence consists of four steps. The first the four node axisymmetric

two consist of the descent of upper punch 1 and lower punch element and two degrees of objective was the

2. Lower punch 1 stays fixed throughout the entire process. freedom per node CAX4 determination of the

During the third compaction phase, the die and core rod join which provides better compact"s density

the descent of the two punches. In the last step, only the die numerical stability distribution, the simplest

and the upper punch continue to descend. The compaction especially in the presence of and numerically cheapest

kinetics, described by the movement of the different tools way to achieve this was to

high nonlinearities [ 42]. impose nodal displacements

(position in mm), is given in Table 4.X

The lower degree of the atX

Corerod R C

24.5mm L

Upperpunch1 =

Lowerpunch1 14.98mm

Lowerpunch2 A

Fig. 3 Picture, geometry and tooling of the R=32.5mm Die

S 55.52mm

industrial part #1 e

12.7mm

640

Filling position

First step

Second step

Third step

Fourth step

Core rod

48

48

48

29.2

29.2

Die

48

48

48

29.2

22.6

Lower punch 1

25.1

25.1

25.1

25.1

25.1

Lower punch 2

30.42

29.62

20.22

0

0

Upper punch 1

45.4

41.6

30.3

9.6

4.9

To this numerical

distribution, the

experimental distribution

the powder boundary node sets. Also, as it can be seen in Fig. 4,each one of the steps as

, determined using the

exp

large displacement contact with Coulomb friction was adopted indicated in Table 5. This

for the interface regions between the powder cavity and tooling table summarizes the number Vick-ers hardness method [

component sides. Moreover, since very small powder sliding of global equilibrium and 45], is correlated. It is

occurs on punch faces, tied (sticking) contact was adopted for contact iterations required by crucial that the initial guess

these interface regions. Both contact conditions were modeled the solver for each of the four of parameters is reasonable,

using the master-slave contact pair formulation in ABAQUS [ load increments. It also shows e.g., parameters for a

42]. This formula-tion requires the association of the master the average local iterations

different powder mix. The

surface with the stiffer interacting body (tooling component) needed at the integration

optimization procedure has

whereas the slave surface is associated with the second point level by the

to struggle with many local

deformable body (powder cavity). The friction coefficient was implemented algorithm. It is minima which may appear

clear that despite of the

assumed to be equal to 0.2 as in previous studies [ 43, 44] and far from physically

relatively large deformation

its reliability was verified by comparing simulated results with acceptable values. It is

increments, convergence of

experi-mental measurements as discussed in Section 5.X the closest point algorithm normally necessary to start

has required a relatively small the optimization from

Moreover, the initial relative density of the powder is number of iterations.X different starting points to

assumed to be uniformly spread and corresponds to a value check the behavior in the

of 36.5%. The applied load is translated into imposed motion 4.2.2 Parameters neighborhood of the

on the surface of the tools according to Table 4. The tool computed optimum. The

optimization

motion is imposed in increments. For each increment of initial parameter values

motion and for each element, the relative density of the were set close to the values

The optimization strategy obtained through the

powder at the integration points is calculated. Furthermore, consists of solving the direct

in the finite element calculation, the multi-criteria Cap type problem using an initial set traditional experimental pa-

constitutive model and the numerical integration schematic of the parameters, thus rameter estimation

procedure for another type

described above are used.X generating a calculated of powder, namely Distaloy

distribution of the final

AE [ 41].X

Furthermore, the four-step FE problem was solved by density of the compact, .

cal

ABAQUS with a relatively small number of increments for

deformed mesh surface)

Restrictedr

displacement Stickingcontact(slavesurface)

Imposedzdisplacement

Fig. 4 Boundary conditions and initial and

Stickingcontact(master Frictionalcontact(mastersurface)

Frictionalcontact(slave surface)

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

641

Statistic

Step 1

Step2

Step 3

Step 4

merical performance

Needed increments

17

18

18

18

9

9

13

13

12

10

13

14

The correspondence between the calculated density and the simulation of powder

experimental density is hardly automatic. Indeed, the Vickers compaction an attractive

hardness measurement points are spread in a random manner design tool, an integrated

on the parts surface and the meshing nodes, where the simulation module has been

density is evaluated, do not coincide very often. developed. This module is related tasks. It is composed

Consequently, a smoothing technique had to be used in order mainly intended to facilitate of the I-Deas Master Series

to make the two measurement types positions coincide. and to automate some of the CAD software [ 46], the

Three smoothing techniques were investigated: neural tedious modeling- ABAQUS nonlinear FE

networks, krigeage, and interpolation functions. The two first solver [ 47], the ABAQUS-

methods required processing that was external to the Table 6 Values of identified Post post-processing [ 48]

optimization module, thus offsetting the automatic aspect of parameters for the iron powder software, an in-house

the identification procedure. Furthermore, their application to developed pre-processing

this case seemed more complicated and required a higher Parameter

and interfacing program

calculation time. Thus, the interpolation functions that could Initial value IDEQUS [ 49], and finally

Identified value

be used on all the elements of the meshing, since they all an inverse identification

possess the same reference element (quadrilateral element material parameters module

with 4 nodes), was deemed more suitable. INVMOD. The integrated

software layout, as well as

In the case under consideration here, the number of W

0.8 the main functions of its

parameters to be identified is n =5. The number of 0.864 components, is described in

measurements m, must therefore be greater than or equal to D Fig. 8.X

n=5. This condition is guaranteed to always be respected 0.1E-04

since the number of Vickers hardness measurements is 0.4091E-04

r 5.1 Pre-processing

generally quite high (in this case, m=78). Table 6 contains 1

the identified parameter values for the iron powder whereas 1.0 The pre-processing is first

Figs. 5, 6, and 7 represent the evolution of the objective 0.621

performed through I-Deas,

function and of different material parameters throughout the r2

in which the component

18.0

identification process.X geometries are defined and

16.7

r3 then meshed using a semi-

0.5 automatic mapped pattern.

5 An integrated software environment 0.383 User-defined macro

functions, implemented into I-Deas, are then used for the

selection and the identification of the special boundary

regions of the powder cavity and tooling components.

IDEQUS automatically identifies, generates, and pairs off

contact surfaces using the element sets selected by the macro

functions. All the information is written to a universal FE file

which is then completed with additional information and then

translated into the ABA-QUS format by way of the IDEQUS

program.

5.2 Processing

of cost

0.030 0.015

ABAQUS is an FE solver capable of handling both 4

geometric and material nonlinearities, as well as the 8

frictional contact nonlinearities. One of its main advantages 12

is the open facility it offers for the definition of user material 16

models. In fact, the cap material model was

0

0.045 0.025

function Norm

0.040

Iteration

MP37HD

0.035

0.020 Fig. 5 Cost function evolution

642

0.93 MP37HD

4.5E-05

4.0E-05

0.91

3.5E-05

D

W

W

3.0E-05

Parameter

Parameter

0.89

D

2.5E-05

0.87

0.85

2.0E-05

1.5E-05

1

5

9

13

17

Iteration

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647 the physical system under study, e.g., by comparing

density distributions. The experimental densities are

5.4 Inverse identification module determined by means of the Vickers hardness technique.

The numerical density distributions are computed with the

The main task of this module is to identify a selected set of FE model. The a priori unknown material parameters in the

unknown parameters of the numerical cap model. The FE model are iteratively updated in such a way that the

unknown parameters are determined iteratively by mini- computed densities match the measured densities as

mizing a cost function which expresses the discrepancy closely as possible. Figure 9 shows a flowchart of the

between the experimental and the computed response of applied inverse method.X

implemented into

ABAQUS via the UMAT

facility that allows the user r2

to define a constitutive

model and implement its

numerical integration

algorithm as a FOR-TRAN

subroutine. Thus, UMAT is

called by the main program r1

at each element integration MP37HD

point within every

equilibrium iteration of

each load increment in the r3

deformation process. The

global FE problem was

solved using the classical

NewtonRaphson method

with a line-search algorithm

whereas the local material 0.900

integration was handled by

the closest point projection

algorithm.

0.800

5.3 Post-processing

The ABAQUS-Post

software is used mainly for

the visualization of the

predicted density maps

within the compacts. The

stress distribution, as well

as the deformed shape of

the tooling components,

could also be post-

processed by the same

software.

24

22

2

20

Parameter

18

0.700

,r

0.600

Parameters

16

0.500

0.400

12

14

1

5

13

17

0.300

Iteration

coefficients with respect to the

cap surface axes ratio

triaxial load paths as well as find the volumetric plastic hardening parameters W

data points generated by the strain "pv as a function of I1, =0.847 and D=0.4418E-04.

hydrostatic tests were used the hydrostatic component W being a measure of the

to draw the iso-density of stress. For every maximum achievable

6 Validation curves representing the cap isostatically pressed volumetric plastic strain.X

surfaces at different relative p

6.1 Validation of the inverse densities. This fit shows an specimen we determined " v A sensitivity study of the

results with classical tests increasing aspect ratio R as using the initial loose model, based on simulations

a function of density that density and the final planned and analyzed using

The Cap plasticity material follows the empirical measured post compaction

the Taguchi method,

parameters of the iron relationX density (Eq. 11). The

revealed that, when dealing

powder has been identified obtained values were plotted

with powder compaction

by Hrairi [ 41] based on the r against the first stress

Rr r1r r2 3 with no excessive distortion,

classical homogenous tests. invariant corresponding to

0:208 the most influential

The aspect ratio and the 1:148r 38 the hydrostatic pressures

parameters on the final

hardening parameters are 41 that served to produce the

density distribution are

determined by triaxial tests specimen. This fitting

those related to the

and isostatic compaction To determine the premix process (Eq. 9) permitted hardening of the material.

respectively. Data from the hardening law, we had to the determination of the The identified values of the

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

643

Meshing

Fig. 8 Integrated software framework for powder compaction simulation u material

Definepowd n

erand

tooling UMAT

parametersby

A

Graphical B

Identificatio inverse

nof A

macros materials B CapMaterialmodel

andfriction

coefficients

Boundaryregionselectionandidentification

interface N modeling

and o

boundary implementedinto

USER R

Transformth

eIdeas e

universal

file

I

IDEAS N

p

limits AbaqusUser

r

IDEQUS intoan

Abaqusinpu s

tfile oE

s MaterialRoutine

Definitionoftooling

Prescribethedisplacement

Generation

ofaFE

andpowdergeometries

sequenceofeachtool

minimum?

Table 7 as well as their respective

relative influence on the final density

distribution in a compact, as determined

by the sensitivity analysis.X

results of the inverse method and the Difference

classic, homogeneous tests are quite

similar when it comes to the hardening

parameters but differ considerably for

the aspect ratio parameters. This

discrepancy can probably be explained

by the fact of the almost no contribution

of these parameters to the final density

distribution in a compact. As one can see

fromX parameters

No

Boundary

Initialparameter

Yes

Experimentalsetup

calculation

Costfunction

estimates

conditions

Sensitivity

Material

Ta sure-ment of final core rod and die,

FEmodel bl density, is rather two upper

e insensitive to the punches and three

7, values of R (). lower punches. W

th Lower punch 1 0.864

As a result it is

e does not move, 0.847

hard to determine

inf lower punch 2 is 65.6

r1, r2, and r3 as mounted on a D

lu

en accurately as W spring, and there 0.4091E-4

and D. Therefore, is a level in upper 0.4418E-4

ce 8.0

of in addition to the punch 2.X

r

R( final density in 1

the compact, 0.621

) more measurable The compaction 1.148

su responses should sequence is made 1.45

parameters ms be taken into up of three steps. r2

to account in future During the first 16.7

research in order step, lower

4. 38

punches 2 and 3, 1.07

4 to accurately

r3

Parameterestimationstrategy

% determine all the as well as the two 0.383

co parameters of the upper punches, 0.208

m Cap plasticity begin to descend. 1.88

pa Lower punch 1

model.X

re remains fixed

d throughout the

6.2 Application of process. During

to

the results on an the second

a

industrial part

w

ho Table 7 Values and

pp The pressing of a relative importance

gear, as shown in of the iron powder

in parameters

g Fig. 10, is

65 simulated to

Parameter

.6 evaluate the Inverse method

Fig. 9 Flow-chart of the inverse method for

material parameters identification % estimated Classical tests

an material Contribution (%)

d parameters.

8 Manufacture of

% this part requires,

other than the

644

Corerod

Upperpunch1

Upperpunch2

Lowerpunch1

Lowerpunch2

Lowerpunch3

L

2.97

Die

11.45

8.09

2.01

.5

7.3

4.41

24.7

.6

measurements was typically

2

green compacts and the under 3 kg/mm . This

compaction step, the die and the core rod join the descent of logarithm of Vickers results in an inaccuracy of

the punches. At the end of this step, the two upper punches hardness can be correlated approximately 2% in the

continue to descend, thus ensuring the compaction of the part with a linear model: worst cases, i.e., at low

from the top. The compaction kinetics, describing the motion density ranges.

of the various tools (position in mm), is given in Table 8.X r 19:306 log HV

39:831 The computed density

42 distribution, based on the

Results from the simulations are depicted in Fig. 11 together

esti-mated parameters,

with an experimentally measured density distribu-tion using the

Vickers hardness method. This method was applied on Error limits introduced by shows a reasonable

this model, by sample agreement with the

compacted parts according to the prescribed kinematics (Table

preparation factors and by experimental result along

8) leading to the density distributions shown in Fig. 11b. This the hardness measurements the outer boundary and in

Vickers hardness measurement technique was used to obtain can the center. However, along

apparent hardness also called macrohardness, i.e., the average p

hardness of a porous material. Its procedure is well documented be established to 0 :05 results differ more

7:8=n with a confidence

in ASTM E92-82 standard [ 50]. This standard offers various compared to the experiment.

level of 68%. Curiously,

loading from 1120 kgf applied to an indenter of pyramidal As illustrated at some

geometry with face angle of 136. In this work, a 5 kgf load (HVmost of the error is caused critical points in the

by the Vickers

5) was used as recommended in MPIF standard 43 [ 51]7. compact, the maximum

measurement, and thus, can

Measurements were performed on five billets of different absolute error between

significantly be reduced by

densities. Each billet had two faces on which n=15 hardness densities was found to be

measurements were realized in a 35 pattern. Using a linear

taking and averaging n

measurements in a small 2.3% corresponding to the

regression technique, the relative density ofX precision of the

area. The standard variation

on Vickers hardness experimental method.

Lower 0

Filling position Core rod punch 1 Lower punch 3

12.2 8.819

Table 8 Compression kinetics for industrial part First step 43.821

12.2 7.877

#2 Second step 43.821

Third step 31.765 12.2 2.989

27.255 12.2 2.989

Die Lower Upper punch 1

43.821 punch 2 43.595

43.821 14.68 36.385

31.765 11.716 24.355

20.005 0 12.5

Upper punch 2 5.373

24.613 4.411

17.403

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

645

a numerical, b experimental

A

A

C

C

Relativedensity(%)

Relativedensity(%)

63.5

D

65.1

80.5

66.8

81.0

68.5

|85.1 -82.8|=2.3%

81.6

B

70.1

82.2

71.8

82.8

73.5

75.1

83.4

76.8

|82.7 -80.7|=2.0%

84.0

78.5

84.6

80.1

85.2

81.8

83.5

85.7

85.1

86.3

PM part has been performed

material, geometric as well successfully thus

as contact nonlinearities. demonstrating the practical

While the last two industrial applications of the

However, one can notice a big discrepancy between the computational approach.

range of the relative density of simulation results which nonlinearities were handled

Indeed, a comparison

varies from 63.5% to 85.1% and that of the experimental dataautomatically by the between the experimental

which shows a variation between 80.5% and 86.38%. This ABAQUS FE solver, the results and those obtained

difference in range is seen only in the circled zone where first involves a material

model unavailable in by simulation, using

there is a sharp change of section (Fig. 11). The numerical parameters identi-fied

ABAQUS and hence the

simulation rightly predicts this important density gradient elastoplastic cap model had inversely, revealed that the

(63.580.1%). However, no local density measure-ments to be formulated and maximum absolute error

could be achieved in this region of the part. In fact, this integrated into the software between densities was found

region was fractured during its metallographic prepa-ration. in order to be able to to be 2.3% corresponding to

This fracture was predictable from the simulation results that simulate the behavior of the the precision of the

showed an important density gradient near this corner of the metal powder medium. The experimental method. Also,

part. Consequently, a global density measur-ing technique closest point projection the results from the current

was applied to the fractured region. The obtained value algorithm was used for the work show that inverse

(72%) agrees well with simulated results, stating that in that numerical integration of the modeling of the powder-

region, density varies between 63.5% and 80.1%X multisurface plasticity pressing experiment is a

model. Due to its flexibility viable method for deter-

Since the results obtained showed the desired degree of and capacity to represent all mining material parameters.

precision, the meshing initially proposed was deemed adequate the compaction stages, the It serves as an alternative to

and did not require further adjustment. The simulation of this cap material model was the already established

compaction sequence without the necessity for an intermediate shown to yield very good methods and is generally

meshing would not have been possible if the initial meshing had results as far as the final less expensive to carry out.

not been conceived as a function of the kinetics used in the density was the main The concept proposed in

manufacturing of this part. concern and despite the fact this work is a flexible

that the model was not approach for identification

completely characterized. of cap material model and

7 Conclusion This is however expectable can be useful to apply the

since the final density is results to metalworking

This work has been focused on a unified approach for mainly sensitive to the cap industry. The information

parameters identification of P/M specimens in powder hardening parameters which derived can be used for the

compaction process. Thus, it has created an integrated seem to have been correctly subsequent quantitative

simulation environment capable of using finite elements and identified. design as well as

inverse optimization to evaluate the density distribution optimization of the powder

resulting from the compaction process. The problem of rigid die Using this integrated metallurgy processes.

compaction of ductile metal powders involves simulation module, the

simulation of the

compaction of an industrial

646 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

In the current work, the parameters describing the cap failure Wu CY, Ruddy OM, Bentham AC, Szantoa M, Bierb W, Fragec N,

surface and the hardening law of the constitutive model have Hancock BC, Best SM, Elliott JA Hartmannb S, Yosibash Z (2008)

(2005) Modeling the mechanical Experimental based finite

been determined. To be able to determine the elastic moduli behavior of pharmaceutical element simulation of cold

as a function of density and compacting pressure by means ofpowders during compaction. isostatic pressing of metal

inverse modeling, several unloading steps should be Powder Technol 152:107117 powders. Int J Mech Sci 50:405

incorporated in the experiment. This was not done in the 421

experiments carried out here, thus calls for further Wu CY, Hancock BC, Mills A,

investigations. It may be desirable also to have a separate Bentham AC, Best SM, Elliott JA Pizette P, Martin CL, Delette G,

(2008) Numerical and Sornay P, Sans F (2010)

experiment for the shear failure part of the model. Another experimental investigation of

research orientation will be the development of a 3D Compaction of aggregated

capping mechanisms during ceramic powders: from contact

simulation module, capable of modeling general non- pharmaceutical tablet laws to fracture and yield

axisymmetric applications. compaction. Powder Technol surfaces. Powder Technol

181:121129 198:240250

Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the

assistance of Lynn Mason in editing this manuscript. Frenning G (2007) Analysis of Andersson DC, Larsson PL,

pharmaceutical powder compac- Cadario A, Lindskog P (2010)

tion using multiplicative On the influence from punch

hyperelasto-plastic theory. geometry on the stress

References Powder Technol 172:102112 distribution at powder

compaction. Powder Tech

German RM (1994) Powder metallurgy science. Metal Powder Gurson AL, Posteraro RA (1992) 202(13):7888

Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ Yield functions for metal

powders for use in the numerical Peric D (1992) On consistent

simulation of powder compac- stress rates in solid mechanics:

Gurson AL (1977) Continuum theory of ductile rupture by void nucleation and

growth. Part I. Yield criteria and flow rules for porous ductile media. Transactions tion. TMS Conference, San computational implications. Int J

of the ASME. J Eng Mat Technol 99:215 Diego, CA Numer Methods Eng 33:799

817

Shima S, Oyane M (1976) Plasticity theory for porous materials. Int J

Mech Sci 18:285291 Peric D, Owen DRJ, Honnor ME

(1992) A model for finite strain

Chtourou H, Gakwaya A, Guillot

Gurson AL, McCabe J (1992) Experimental determination of yield elasto-plasticity based on

M (2002) Modeling of the metal

functions for compaction of blended metal powder. Adv Powder Metall powder compaction process logarithmic strains:

Part Mater 2:133147 computational issues. Comput

using the cap model. Part II:

Meth Appl Mech Eng 94:3561

numerical implementation and

Abou-Chedid G, Brown S (1992) On the mechanical behavior of metal practical applications. Int J

powder compaction. Adv Powder Metall Part Mater 2:110 Solids Struct 39:10771096 Chtourou H, Gakwaya A, Guillot

M, Hrairi M (1995) Implement-

ing a cap material model for the

Drucker D, Prager W (1952) Soil mechanics and plastic analysis on Erhart T, Wall WA, Ramm E

simulation of metal powder

limit design. Quart J Applied Math 10:157175 (2005) A robust computational

compaction. Net Shape

approach for dry powders under

Processing of Powder Materials,

quasi-static and transient impact

Schofield AN, Wroth CP (1968) Critical state solid mechanics. McGraw AMD-vol. 216, ASME, San

loadings. Comput Meth Appl

Hill, New York Fransisco, CA, pp. 1927

Mech Eng 194:41154134

DiMaggio, FL, Sandler, IS (1971) Material model for granular soils. J Alm O (1983) Mechanical testing

Rossi R, Alves MK, Al-Qureshi

Eng Mech Div 97:935950 of powders and powder

HA (2007) A model for the

compacts. Scand J Metall

simulation of powder compaction

Sandler IS, Rubin D (1979) An algorithm and a modular subroutine for processes. J Mater Process 12:302311

the Cap model. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 3:173186 Technol 182:286296

Weber GG, Brown SB (1989)

Falgon D, Vidal-Salle E, Boyer JC, Peczalski R, Andrieu J (2005) Simulation of the compaction of

Khoei AR, Azami AR, Azizi S

Identification procedure of a hardening law for powder compaction. powder components. Adv

(2007) Computational modeling

Powder Technol 157:183190 Powder Metall Part Mater 1:105

of 3D powder compaction

118

processes. J Mater Process

Michrafy A, Ringenbacher D, Tchoreloff P (2002) Modeling the Technol 185:166172

Simo JC, Ortiz M (1985) A unified

compaction behavior of powders: application to pharmaceutical

approach to finite deformation

powders. Powder Technol 127:257266 Lee SC, Kim KT (2007) A study elastoplasticity based on the use of

on the Cap model for metal and hyperelastic constitutive equations.

Cunningham JC, Sinka IC, Zavaliangos A (2004) Analysis of tablet ceramic powder under cold Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng

compaction. I. Characterization of mechanical behavior of powder and compaction. Mater Sci Eng, A 49:222245

powder/tooling friction. J Pharm Sci 93:20222039 445 446:163169

Simo JC, Taylor RL (1986) A return mapping algorithm for plane stress thesis, University Joseph Fourier-

elastoplasticity. Int J Numer Methods Eng 22:649670 Grenoble I, Grenoble, France

Pavier E, Doremus P (1996)

Mechanical behaviour of a

Simo JC, Ju JW, Pister KS, Taylor RL (1988) Assessment of Cap model: lubricated iron powder. In: Cadle Gelin JC, Ghouati O (1995) An

consistent return algorithms and rate-dependent extension. J Eng Mech TM, Narasimhan KS (eds) inverse method for material

114:191218 Advances in powder metallurgy parameters estimation in the

and particulate materials1996. inelastic range. Comput Mech 16

Hofstetter G, Simo JC, Taylor RL (1993) A modified Cap model: closest Metal Pow-der Industries (3):143150

point solution algorithms. Comput Struct 46(2):203214 Federation, USA, pp 640

Mahnken R, Stein E (1996) A

Mosbah P (1995) Modeling and unified approach for parameter

Chtourou H, Gakwaya A, Guillot M (2002) Modeling of the metal

experimental study of metal identification of inelastic material

powder compaction process using the cap model. Part I: experimental

powders behaviour during models in the frame of the finite

material characterization and validation. Int J Solids Struct 39:1059 element method. Comput Meth

1075 comaction in closed die. Ph.D.

Appl Mech Eng 136:225258

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2011) 56:631647

647

Levenberg K (1944) A method for the solution of certain nonlinear MPIF Standard 43 (1991).

problems in least squares. Quart Appl Math 2:164 168 Method for determination of

hardness of powder metallurgy

Marquardt DW (1963) An algorithm for least squares estimation of products, Princeton, NJ

nonlinear parameters. SIAM J Appl Math 11:431441

du Comportement des Poudres Mtalliques lors du Procd du Compactage.

Ph.D. Thesis, Laval University, Qubec

Sorenson, Inc., Rhode Island

behavior of hard metal powders sliding on cemented carbide walls.

Scand J Metall 12:315322

computational algorithm for 3D contact modeling of large plastic

deformation in powder forming processes. Comput Mater Sci 46:203

220

local density measurement technique to different powder materials.

Proceedings of the World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and

Particulate Materials, vol. 1, part 4, pp.3140

Boston, USA

Boston, USA

simulation of the rigid die compaction of metal powder components.

Proceedings of the Canadian Societyof Mechanical Engineers Forum.

McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

metallic materials

- Paper AcumDiunggah olehHectorMaldonado
- ABAQUS Tutorial-steel PlateDiunggah olehRabee Shammas
- e_mat (1).docxDiunggah olehBromil I. Baguio
- syllabus theory of elasticityDiunggah olehPrashanth Kumar
- Lecture 07-08 - Solid MechanicsDiunggah olehDinesh Kumar
- The finite element analysis between tire and roadDiunggah olehInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Science
- Araujo ThesisDiunggah olehFabricio Ranielly
- Preliminary Report 06Diunggah olehnedli
- ElastisitasDiunggah olehRifqi Amin
- emd_part3Diunggah olehkgrhoads
- 9_9. Finite Element Theory for Nonlinear MaterialsDiunggah olehsaxlamag
- Geometrical nonlinear analysis of composite structures A reviewDiunggah olehshirbhatenj
- 4_LinearElasticity1112Diunggah olehDiego Canales Aguilera
- Constitutive Modelling of Arteries (Holzapfel and Ogden)Diunggah olehcjmbet
- mechanics of solids week 1 lecturesDiunggah olehFlynn Gould
- Sigma ModelingDiunggah olehMehmetDuran
- Stress AnalysisDiunggah olehAwadh Kapoor
- Deformation Stress and Strain NotesDiunggah olehPrasoon Shukla
- Formulation of an Elasticity Problem IntroductionDiunggah olehImran Shahzad Khan
- KENPAVE MELCITA.docxDiunggah olehIvanAguilarGalvan
- Semester project - Experimental method for material characterization of hyperelastic materialsDiunggah olehTirnavosavros T Rex
- Fredriksson (2007)Diunggah olehkavani5
- Finite element analysis of coupled thermoelasticity.pdfDiunggah olehCarlos
- APP ADiunggah olehd_nagarajan
- Chapter 1.pptDiunggah olehMohdFirdaus
- Simulia Abaqus Standard DatasheetDiunggah olehuser923019231831
- Simple StressDiunggah olehMariz Ellaine Baltazar
- Using Finite Element Method in geotechnical design. Soil constitutive laws and calibration of the parameters..pdfDiunggah olehCeline Denaly
- 0. Read MEDiunggah olehharishram123456
- chapter1.pdfDiunggah olehShueib

- EE141 TextDiunggah olehIqbal Muhammad
- PS4Diunggah olehSandeep
- 11341021022_MATH F211- Handout MATH F211Diunggah olehArpit Pradhan
- Tutorial_12&13_MA1012_2009Diunggah olehNuwan Bandara
- Math 2 - Advanced Segment 1Diunggah olehACuomo-Yokel1
- Generating FunctionsDiunggah olehjoshmarkov
- CMIME Question Bank.pdfDiunggah olehnik
- Tomek Bartoszynski and Saharon Shelah- Continuous Images of Sets of RealsDiunggah olehHmsdk
- Matlab_5 (1).pdfDiunggah olehHana Hamid
- THE A VERAGE VALUE OF THE SMARANDACHE FUNCTIONDiunggah olehRyanElias
- 1003.5744v3Diunggah olehTomi Dimovski
- Image Chapter4 Part1Diunggah olehSiraj Ud-Doulla
- jsee13_3 Response of Secondary SystemDiunggah olehhamadani
- h33Diunggah olehJohn
- The P-Version of the Finite Element Method_ch5_ecm003gDiunggah olehapmapm
- Math182.SummerDiunggah olehSteven Diaz
- Ryan Barnett, Ari Turner and Eugene Demler- Classifying vortices in S=3 Bose-Einstein condensatesDiunggah olehPomac232
- Econ2400C Assignment 4 Fall 2014Diunggah olehEarnest Hayes
- HKDSE Mathematics (Module 1) Topic 5: Indefinite IntegrationDiunggah olehDexter Fung
- e j Barbeau More FallaciesDiunggah olehHexagon Vapes
- AdvMath[Unit 2]Diunggah olehIvan Paul Sy
- Math Portfolio 2Diunggah olehCristen
- La Place 3Diunggah olehapi-3704409
- Chapter 1: Vector and FieldsDiunggah olehKiennd
- 37361027 STPM MT Past Year QuestionDiunggah olehtravis17
- operations research 9ed chapter 22Diunggah olehGeorge
- CacchianiDiunggah olehRod_do
- bok%3A978-3-319-05789-7Diunggah olehsemabay
- CFD HandbookDiunggah olehpankarvi6
- Power Flow StudyDiunggah olehBenedict Nemine

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.