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e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha

Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)


Bernabas Bio, I Nyoman Suardana, I Made Kirna

Chemistry Education Department

Ganesha University of Education
Singaraja, Indonesia

e-mail:, suardana,

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang bertujuan untuk menganalisis kesulitan
belajar siswa Kelas X di SMA Katolik Santo Paulus Singaraja pada topik struktur atom dan
faktor-faktor penyebabnya. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan kuesioner dan
pedoman wawancara. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan memberi skor pada setiap
jawaban angket kemudian menghitung persentase terhadap jawaban sangat setuju dan
setuju. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1) beberapa kesulitan belajar siswa dalam
mempelajari materi struktur atom, yaitu menentukan kelemahan dan kelebihan masing -
masing model atom (88,7%), menganalisis percobaan Rutherford (86,7%), menuliskan
lambang nuklida sebuah unsur (83,3%), percobaan sinar katoda (80%), membedakan
antara model atom yang satu dengan yang lainnya (70%), menjelaskan masing-masing
model atom (63,3%), mengelompokkan unsur-unsur ke dalam kelompok isotop, isobar, dan
isoton (63,3%), menuliskan konfigurasi elektron dari ion (60%), menuliskan konfigurasi
elektron unsur netral (56,7%) dan menjelaskan isotop, isobar, dan isoton (53,3%); (2)
beberapa faktor penyebab kesulitan belajar siswa, yaitu karakteristik konsep yang bersifat
abstrak (77,8%), kebiasaan siswa mengabaikan gambar (76,7%), kebiasaan belajar siswa
untuk menghafal (73,3%), kurangnya media pembelajaran (66,7%), dan sumber belajar

Kata Kunci: kesulitan belajar, kesulitan belajar kimia, struktur atom, analisis kesulitan belajar

This research was a descriptive research that aimed to analyze learning difficulties of
students at grade X at SMA Katolik Santo Paulus Singaraja and its factors in learning atomic
structure. The data were collected by using questionnaire and interview guide. The data
were analyzed descriptively by giving score to each respond of students and calculating the
percentage of students' answers which were consisted of strongly agree and agree. The
results of research showed: (1) several students' difficulties, namely in explaining the
weakness and strangeness of each atomic model (88.7%), analyzing Rutherford's
experiment (86.7%), writing nuclide symbols (83.3%), analyzing cathode ray tube
experiment (80%), distinguishing among atomic models (70%), classifying elements into
group of isotopes, isobars, and isotones (63.3%), explaining atomic models (63.3%), writing
electron configuration of ionic (60%), writing electron configuration of neutral element
(56.7%) and explaining isotopes, isobars, and isotones (53.3%); (2) several factors
affecting learning difficulties of students, namely abstract concept (77.8%), learning habits
for ignoring the picture (76.7%), learning habits for memorizing (73.3%), lack of learning
media (66.7), and lack of learning resources (53.3%).

Keywords: Learning Difficulties, Chemistry Learning Difficulties, Atomic Structure

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

INTRODUCTION students have low interest to study subjects
Atomic structure is a chemistry topic that are included in the natural sciences
which is learned at grade X SMA/MA at old program, namely Chemistry, Physics, and
semester. This topic is regarded as the Biology. It can only be learned in class X,
difficulty topic. Zoller, 1990; Harrison and including the Chemistry subject. Thus it can
Treagust, 1996 in Sirhan (2007) reported be said that the students' interest in SMA K
that atomic structure was one difficult topic St. Paulus to study Chemistry is lower.
for studentss. This is because of most Based on information obtained by
concepts in atomic structure related to the researchers, students of grade X of this
abstract concepts which make the studentss school have low learning achievement in the
feel difficult to learn. Chemistry subjects, especially in studying
Nowadays, any assumption of most atomic structure. Mostly students (57%)
students toward atomic structure topic as have score below the minimum criteria that
the difficult topic and make them boring. has been determined by the chemistry
According Kurniawan (2006) this is due to: teacher on the topic of atomic structure that
(1) mostly senior high school students is equal to 76. Moreover, students in these
cannot think abstract, (2) the luck of the schools also have lack of motivation to
using of learning media about atomic study including in the study of chemistry.
structure, (3) methods for delivering For example, when the teacher explains to
material are monotonous, less interesting the class, there are many students who
and not associated with the technological seriously follow and understand the subject
advances that exist or are not associated matter, but there are also some students
with daily life make students bored and who do not follow it seriously so do not
tired, (4) students' engagement in the understand the subject matter. In the
learning process are not optimal or the lack discussion groups, only some students who
of a learning experience in learning atomic participate actively and the others tend to be
structure topic. passive students. Thus, when the exercise
Difficulties on the topic of atomic session, the students who follow the
structures was found in grade X at SMA learning process seriously can do it, but the
Katolik Santo Paulus (SMA K St. Paulus) students who do not follow the learning
Singaraja at academic year 2013-2014. This process cannot do it.
school is located at Kartini street No. 1 This indicates that students are still
Singaraja-Bali. Based on its location, the having difficulties in studying atomic
school is very strategic to the sustainability structure. Generally, this material has
of the Teaching and Learning Process several characteristics as follows: (1) an
(TLP). However, it is not a guarantee of a abstract concepts (invisible), i.e. about
quality of education because there are other electrons, protons, neutrons, isotopes,
factors that influence the learning process. isobars, isotones, and model of the atom;
A few years ago, this school is one of the (2) understanding of the concept, i.e. the
favorite school in Buleleng regency. But configuration rules and atomic theory; (3)
l a t e l y, t h e s c h o o l t h e a c h i e v e m e n t the application of the concept, i.e. electron
decreased. Therefore it is very necessary to configuration of elements. These
be more serious attention from peoples to characteristics of the atomic structure topic
improve the school achievement. can be as one of the affecting factor of
Based on the information obtained, students' learning difficulties.
the last few years the school did not have Learning difficulties experienced by
Natural Sciences Program. This is due to students can be interpreted as a difficulty of
lack of supporting facilities for natural students in receiving or absorbing a lesson
sciences program, such as laboratory tools on atomic structure. If learning difficulties
and materials included in it. In addition, the are ignored, then the learning objectives will

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

not be achieved perfectly and can affect subject needs to be learned for the specific
students' achievement. Kirk and Gallagher aims, namely provide knowledge,
(in Riani, 2007:33) stated that "learning understanding, and abilities for students that
difficulties always causes students do not are required for following the high level of
achieve their academic field, their failure in educat ion as well as f or developing
achievement does not really mean that the sciences and technology. The goals of
students are not capable in learning, but chemistry subject can be achieved by
many factors influence it". students through various approaches,
Generally, there are two major namely inquiry approach in form of scientific
factors affecting learning difficulties, namely inquiry process. The process of scientific
(1) internal factors (from students itself), inquiry aims to foster the ability to think,
including; intellectual ability, affection wor k and behave and com m unicat e
(feeling and self confidence), motivation, scientific as one of the important aspects of
maturity for learning, learning habits, life skills. Therefore, learning chemistry
recalling ability, and sensing ability; and (2) emphasizes providing direct learning
external factors (from outside of students experience through the use and
itself), including teacher, learning quality, development of science process skills and
learning instruments or facilities, family attitudes (BNSP, 2006: 177).
environment, and society environment. For Nowadays, the chemistry subject is
overcoming these difficulties, the students considered as a difficult subject. Most of
need the solution and help especially in people especially the students think that
overcoming their learning obstruction. The chemistry is very difficult to be learned.
learning difficulties should be introduced Sometimes, they feel afraid to learn
and be overcome as soon as possible so chemistry. Carter & Brickhouse (1989, in
that the instructional goals can be achieved Nahum, 2004) stated that many students
as well as suspected can increase the say that chemistry is difficult. These
quality and students achievement. perceived difficulties are part of the context
An analysis for the learning in which these students develop chemical
difficulties on the atomic structure topic is concepts and problem-solving skills.
very important to be done. Atom is the According to Chang (2010) stated that
smallest characteristic part of an element. It general chemistry is commonly perceived to
means that the characteristic of an atom will be more difficult than most other subjects.
same with the characteristic of the material T h e r e i s s o m e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f or t h i s
that composed from it. Learning the atomic perception. For one thing, chemistry has a
topic is very important due to this topic is very specialized vocabulary. Sirhan (2007)
basic concept for further chemistry topic, also stat ed t hat "Chem istr y is oft en
e.g. periodic table system and chemical r e g a r d e d a s a d i ff i c u l t s u b j e c t , a n
bonding. A molecule or compound has their observation that sometimes repels students
own characteristic due to its composing from continuing with studies in chemistry".
atoms are different. Besides that, electricity Mostly think that studying chemistry is like
nature of a material can be explained from learning a new language and also it is
atom, which composed of protons, considered to learn the abstract concepts.
electrons, and neutrons. Marsita (2010) stated that "the complex and
Learning difficulties that are abstract concepts of chemistry science
e xp er i en ce d by st ud e nt s ca us e t he cause the students assume that the
students' understanding on atomic structure chemistry subject is a difficult subject".
in specific and chemistry subject in general. Besides that there are three aspects in
Chemistry subject explicitly as a subject that learning chemistry, namely microscopic,
is learned since grade X until grade XII (for macroscopic, and symbolic aspects. Mostly,
natural sciences program). Chemistry the concepts of chemistry are microscopic

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

concepts (abstract concept) so that it makes learning difficulties of senior high school
st udent s has diff icu lt ies in le ar ning students in learning atomic structure"
A research was done by Umaida
This research is a descr ipt ive
(2009) with the title "Study of learning
research that focused on students' learning
difficulties and concept understanding of
difficulties and its affecting factors in
atomic structure on students at SMA Negeri
studying the atomic structure. Research
8 Malang" showed that mostly students
method used in this research is descriptive
have difficulties in learning atomic structure
method with the using of a qualitative
especially at subtopic the development of
approach. According to Nazir (in Sapuroh,
atomic theory including (a) determination of
2010) "with a descriptive method, the
experiment that support atomic theory of
r esearchers explain or describe the
Thomson (87.2% in class X and 84.2% in
variables that have been studied through
class XI), (b) determination of concept as
data taken from the research, then analyzed
the foundation of modern atomic theory
and drawn the conclusions as a result of
(89.5% in class XI), and (c) determination of
research". A qualitative approach is a
the definition of atomic orbital (61.5% in
research paradigm to describe the event,
class X dan 71.1% in class XI). On the
the behavior of a person or a situation at a
subtopic of subatomic particles include (a)
certain place in detail and deep in narrative
determination of the characteristic of
electron (84.6% in class X dan 86.8% in
class XI), (b) determination of experiment This research was conducted from
that support the finding of proton (74.4% in March until June 2014 located at SMA K St.
class X dan 84.2% in class XI), (c) Paulus Singaraja-Bali. Subjects in this study
determination of mass number definition were 30 students of class X and a
(74.4% in class X dan 76.3% in class XI), Chemistry teacher at SMA K St. Paulus
(d) calculating average mass of isotopes of Singaraja, while the research objects were
e l e m e n t s ( 8 4. 6 % c l a s s X ) , d a n ( e ) the students' learning difficulties of class X
determination of isotopes abundance based on the atomic structure of matter and its
on relative atomic mass (84.6% in class X). affecting factors.
On the subtopic electron configuration The instruments used in this study
includes: (a) determination of electron are a questionnaire and interview
configuration of negative (87.2% in class X), guidelines. Questionnaire used in this study
and (b) determination of valence electron is a questionnaire consisting of enclosed
definition (64.1% in class X dan 84.2% in statements with a specific answer as an
class XI). Besides that, Sapuroh (2010) option. Preparation of a questionnaire about
conducted a research with the title "An the difficulty of learning based on the
Analisys of students' learning difficulties in analysis of indicators of achievement of
understanding biology concept at monera competence in the syllabus that has been
concept" and the results were learning created by Chemistry teacher at the school,
difficulties are caused by internal factors especially related to the topic of atomic
(from students itself) 79.34% and external structure. From the syllabus that has been
factors (family environment 77% and school created, there are several indicators of
environment 67%). achievement of competence on the topic of
Based on explanation above, the atomic structure, namely: 1) defining the
researcher try to conduct the research subatomic particles (protons, electrons, and
related to the learning difficulties in learning neutrons), 2) determining the electron
atomic structure at SMA K St. Paulus configuration and valence electrons, 3)
Singaraja. Thus, the researcher conducted classifying elements into isotopes, isobars ,
this research with the title "analysis of and isotones, and 4) defining the

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

development of atomic theory to explain the and choice of words is also not
advantages and disadvantages of each standard but modified based on the
atomic theory based on experimental facts. situation at the time of the interview.
From these indicators, the researchers These interviews were given to 6 students
divided the atomic structure topic into which are randomly selected who have
several subtopics, namely; models of learning difficulties and a Chemistry teacher
atoms, subatomic particles of atoms, at the school.
isotopes, isobars, and isotones, and The data were collected by using
electron configuration questionnaires and interviews to determine
Preparation of a questionnaire about the students' difficulties in understanding
the factors that cause learning difficulties the atomic structuref. The data were
based on the analysis of the possibility of a analyzed by using descriptive analysis
various factors that suspected as the main method. The data that have been obtained
factors affecting learning difficulties of from the questionnaire were in form of
students in the school. These factors are qualitative data. In order to these data can
based on students' characteristics, based be measured and analyzed then qualitative
concept characteristic, the process of data were transformed into quantitative data
learning, and learning resources are by assigning a score to each of these
available answers. In the measurement data, the
Guidelines interview are in form of a researchers used a system of categories
list of questions were used to explore created by Renis Likert. For positive
students' learning difficulties and its factors statements,the score is strongly agree (4),
more depth in studying the atomic structure agree (3), disagree (2), and strongly
topic. Interviews used were semi-structured disagree (1). For negative statements, the
interviews. Satori and Komariah (2012) score is strongly agree (1), agree (2),
stated that: disagree (3), and strongly disagree (4).
Iinterview approach using general Learning difficulties of students and
guidelines which are a combination its factors can be known from the
of guided and non guided interview calculation of the percentage of students
that using some of the core who answered strongly agree and agree.
questions, that is the interviewer Results of percentage were then
made the guidelines of questions, categorized into five categories, namely
but in practice the interviewer asking very high, high, medium, low, and very low
q u e s t i o n s f r e e l y, a n d b a s i c based on scores interpretation criteria as
questions that are formulated do not shown as in Table 1
need to be questioned sequence

Table 1. Criteria for Scores Interpretation

Percentage Interval Interpretation Level

86 %- 100 %
66 % -85 %
36 % -65 %
16 % -35 %
<16 %

In addition, researcher also convert the mean score of students' answers into five
categories, namely very high, high,
Very High
V e r y L o w
(Sources: Moh. Ali in Kurniah, 2013: 31)

enough, low, and very low based on the mean ideal (Mi) and the deviation standard of the
ideal (Sdi) as shown as in Table 2.

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

Tabel 2. Criteria of Mean Ideal Interpretation

Scores Interval Criteria of Interpretation

X e Mi + 1,5 Sdi Very High
Mi + 0,5 Sdi d X < Mi + 1,5 Sdi High
Mi-0,5 Sdi d X < Mi + 0,5 Sdi Enough
Mi-1,5 Sdi d X < Mi-0,5 Sdi Low
X < Mi-1,5 Sdi Very Low
(Sources: modification from Ratumanan & Laurens in Kasih, 2014)

Furthermore, the data obtained high. It means that the level of difficulty
through interview guides were collected experienced by students in studying atomic
then analyzed descriptively to determine a models subtopic is high. It was also
clear conclusion. The process of data supported by the interview results that
analysis of interview was done since the stated that students have difficulties in
data obtained through several stages, understanding atomic models.
namely the stage of data reduction, display
data, and conclusion drawing. Difficulty in Understanding Subatomic
RESULT AND DISCUSSION This subtopic is consisted of several
1. Students' Learning Difficulties concepts such as definition of proton,
The results of questionnaire that has electron, and neutron, including their
been given to 30 students and the results of differences, the position of proton, electron,
interviews showed that students at class X and neutron in an atom, an experiment of
at SMA K St. Paulus Singaraja have Rutherford, and experiment of cathode tube.
difficulties in studying the structure of The percentage of responses for Strongly
atoms. Several aspects of students' Agree and Agree showed that students
difficulties in understanding the atomic have difficulties in analyzing the
structure are difficult to understand the Rutherford's experiment (86.7%), and an
atomic models, the difficulty of experiment of cathode tube (80%).
understanding the basic atomic particles, Beside that, the mean score (X) of
difficulty understanding isotopes, isobars, difficulty in understanding subatomic
and isotones, and difficulty of understanding particles obtained was 13.77, with the mean
the electron configuration. ideal (Mi) and the standard deviation of the
ideal (Sdi), respectively 12.5 and 2.5. Based
Difficulties in Understanding Atomic on the table 2, the mean score is included in
Models high. It means that the level of difficulty
The percentage of responses for experienced by students in studying
Strongly Agree and Agree showed that subatomic particles is high.
students have difficulty in explaining each The results of interview also showed
m odel of at om ( 63. 3% ), diff icu lt y in that mostly students have difficulties in
distinguishing atomic models (70%), and analyzing the experiment especially in
difficulty in determining the strengths and of Rutherford's experiment and cathode ray.
each model of the atom (88.7%) These experiments are complex so that it
Beside that, the mean score (X) of needs critical thinking of students for
difficulty in understanding atomic models understanding it. Students cannot analyze
obtained was 8.87, with the mean ideal (Mi) and make the conclusion from the picture of
and the standard deviation of the ideal (Sdi), the experiment that available in the book. It
respectively 7.5 and 1.5. Based on the table is because of sometimes they do not like
2, the mean score is included in category

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

the picture especially for the complex showed that students have difficulties in
picture. writing electron configuration of a neutral
element (56,67%), and in writing electron
configuration of ions (60%). The results of
Difficulty in Understanding Isotopes, interview also showed that most students
Isobars, and Isotones have difficulty students have difficulties in
This subtopic is consisted of several writing electron configuration of a neutral
concepts such as atomic mass, atomic element and in writing electron configuration
number, writing nuclide of an element, of ions.
explaining the isotopes, isobars, isotones The mean score (X) of difficulty in
including their differences, and grouping understanding electron configuration
elements into group of isotopes, isobars, obtained was 10.10, with the mean ideal
and isotones. The percentage of responses (Mi) and the standard deviation of the ideal
for Strongly Agree and Agree showed that (Sdi), respectively 10 and 2. Based on the
students have difficulties in writing the table 2, the mean score is included in
nuclide of an element (83,33%), difficulty in category enough. It means that the level of
explaining isotopes, isobars, and isotones difficulty experienced by students in
(53,3%), and difficulty in grouping elements studying electron configuration is enough
into group of isotopes, isobars, and isotones high.
The mean score (X) of difficulty in 2. Factors Affecting Students' Learning
understanding isotopes, isobars, and Difficulties
isotones obtained was 13.50, with the mean There are several factors affecting
ideal (Mi) and the standard deviation of the the learning difficulties, namely learning
ideal (Sdi), respectively 12.5 and 2.5. Based habits, the characteristic of concepts, the
on the table 2, the mean score is included in luck of learning media, and the luck of
category enough. It means that the level of learning resources
difficulty experienced by students in
studying isotopes, isobars, and isotones is Learning Habits
enough high. The percentage of responses for
The results of interview also showed Strongly Agree and Agree showed that
that students som etimes confuse in students always ignoring the picture
grouping elements into group of isotopes, (76.7%) and often memorizing the lesson
isobars, and isotones. Actually these three without understanding (73.3%) that can be
terms have almost similar form that is in supposed as the factors affecting learning
form of nuclides but has different meaning. difficulties. The mean score (X) of difficulty
But the problem is the students cannot write of affecting factors from learning habits was
the nuclide, so that they have mistakes in 17.97, with the mean ideal (Mi) and the
grouping the elements. standard deviation of the ideal (Sdi),
respectively 15 and 3. Based on the table 2,
it can be known that the learning habits of
Difficulty in Understanding Electron students are enough good. However, there
Configuration are also the learning habits that are often
This subtopic is consisted of several used by student s in learning at om ic
concepts such as the definition of electron structure, namely ignoring the picture and
configuration, atomic shell, and valence often memorize the lesson without
electron, calculating the number of electron understanding.
of an element, writing electron configuration Learning habits can influence the
of an element and ion. The percentage of achievement of learning results of a student.
responses for Strongly Agree and Agree Learning without considering the technique

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

and physiology factors, psychology, and effect to the learning difficulties with the
health sciences will get the dissatisfaction percentage 77,8%. Based on table 1, this
results (Dalyono, 2007:57). Actually, percentage is categorized in high category.
learning habit by memorizing is a good habit It means that mostly students stated that in
in order to remember all information or general the atomic structure topic have
knowledge. However, when this case is not abstract characteristic.
accompanied with the good understanding, The mean score (X) of difficulty of
then it makes students easy to forget all aff ect in g f act or s f r om then abstr act
information or knowledge and finally they characteristic of concepts was 18.47, with
have difficulties in learning. Syah the mean ideal (Mi) and the standard
(2012:168) stated that deviation of the ideal (Sdi), respectively 15
The memorizing in either in term of and 3. Based on the table 2, the mean
overt (opened/with the loud voice) score is included in category high. It means
or covert (hidden) as one good way that mostly the characteristic of concepts in
in retaining the information and atomic structure topic is abstract so that
knowledge in memory. However, it causes the learning difficulties for students.
does not work for long time, and can The abstract characteristics of
be m eaningless when it is not concepts in atomic structure stress the
accompanied with the good students to have an abstract thinking. The
understanding about those abstract thinking ability is the thinking the
memorized knowledge. based on level of imaginative ability about a
Therefore, every students is expected to phenomena to construct an idea, concept,
repair their own learning habits, so do not or opinion so that students can explain
depend on memorizing only and finally they something in detail. According Watloly
have a good learning habits and efficient. (2012) "abstract thinking try to develop the
Students also often ignoring the thinking in the level of imaginative ability,
picture which available on the book or other construct the coherence, and the correlation
resources, especially related to the picture completely and structured in order to show
of experiments of Rutherford, dropping oil the integrity of thinking with its phenomena
exper im ent of M il lika n, cat hode r ay in detail so that can be explained completely
experiment of Thomson, and other pictures and perfectly".
which can give the useful to be learned. An
understanding for one thing is not enough Learning Process
by understanding theory, but it needs other In learning process, the use of
media as the additional information, i.e. learning media is very important. It is as the
through picture. Picture is a media as the additional information, and also help teacher
source of information for clarify and to ease him in delivering lesson or learning
enhance the students' knowledge. If materials. Besides that, the use of learning
students ignore the pictures that available media can stimulate the motivation, interest,
on the learning resources, then they cannot and attention of students for learning so that
get more and deep information about there is interaction actively between teacher
learning materials given. And vice versa, and students during learning process. So, it
when they do not ignore the pictures but needs to use the varieties media in learning
pay attention and understanding it, then process. However, the use of unvaried
they have good understanding. learning media cause the delivering of
learning materials is not maximal so that
Abstract Characteristic of Concepts students difficult in understanding it.
The percentage of responses for The percentage of responses for
Strongly Agree and Agree showed that the Strongly Agree and Agree showed that
abstract characteristic of concepts have the 66,7% of students stated that there is no

e-Journal Kimia Visvitalis Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

using of learning media during learning lack of learning resources as one factor
process. It can be supposed as one factor affecting learning difficulties.
affecting the learning difficulties of students.
The mean score (X) of difficulty of affecting CONCLUSION
factors from the leaning media was 22.07, Based on the results and discussion
with the mean ideal (Mi) and the standard above, it can be concluded as follow (1)
deviation of the ideal (Sdi), respectively 17.5 students at grade X at SMAK St. Paulus
and 3.5. Based on the table 2, the mean Singaraja have difficulties in learning atomic
score is categorized in high category. It structure, especially difficulty in explaining
means that in general the learning process the weakness and strangeness of each
in the school is enough good and effective. atomic model (88.7%), analyzing
However, the learning process cannot take Rutherford's experiment (86.7%), writing
place effective without the using of effective nuclide symbols (83.3%), analyzing cathode
learning media. This is one factor affecting ray tube experiment (80%), distinguishing
the students' learning difficulties. among atomic models (70%), classifying
A media that can be used to help elements into group of isotopes, isobars,
students in understanding basic concepts and isotones (63.3%), explaining atomic
on atomic structure topic is the use of models (63.3%), writing electron
picture media. According Ibrahim (1997) as configuration of ionic (60%), writing electron
cited by Zulkhairi (2013) "the picture is one configuration of neutral element (56.7%)
learning media that very common in and explaining isotopes, isobars, and
teaching learning activities. This is due to isotones (53.3%), (2) the factors affecting
the simplicity of picture media and can be learning difficulties are abstract concept
used for certain goal such as the learning (77.8%), learning habits for ignoring the
which can give the basic experience" pict ur e ( 76. 7%) , l ear ning hab it s f or
memorizing (73.3%), lack of learning media
Learning Resources (66.7), and lack of learning resources
Based on calculation, the mean (53.3%).
score (X) of affecting factors from the
learning resources was 9.77, with the mean SUGGESTION
ideal (Mi) and the standard deviation of the For further improvement of the research, the
ideal (Sdi), respectively 10 and 2. Based on author suggests the researchers who will
the table 2, the mean score is categorized in conduct research on this topic, so that not
e no u gh ca t e go r y. B es i d es t ha t , t h e only focused on the learner and the learning
percentage of responses of students process, but should pay attention to other
showed that 53.3% of students stated that factors such as family factors and
learning resources that available in school community factors. Researchers also
are insufficient. This condition causes the suggested to further research, in order to
limitation of knowledge of students due to research more about the solutions to
depend on certain resources. overcome student learning difficulties
Unvaried learning resources can
make students boring in learning and the ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
further effect is they have difficulties in In this chance, author would like to
learning. The lack of learning resources thank to Suster Floriani, FSGM as principal
also cause the knowledge of students do of SMA K St. Paulus who has allowed me
not develop, they only learn atomic structure for conducting this research.
from a certain resources. Whereas, the
learning resources is one tool for enrich the
students' knowledge. Thus, from the
discussion above can be concluded that the

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Jurusan Pendidikan Kimia (Volume 2 Nomor 1 Tahun 2014)

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