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2016238304 EMD5M10

After the welding process was done, the base metal with five straight weld beads were
formed using the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process. From the experiment, it was known
that the objective of the experiment was to investigate the defects and quality of the welding bead
due to changes in welding such as the voltage (V), current (A) and the welding speed (m/min).
Furthermore, all the apparatus used during the experiment were provided by the university such as
the KEMPPI MINARC MIG ADAPTIVE 18 which is one of the crucial apparatus for this
experiment. A thin plate of mild steel and CO2 and Argon gases gas tank were also provided.

Figure 8.3.1: Comparison between before welding were done to the mild steel (left) and after
welding were done to the mild steel (right)

Based on the result obtained after welding were done to the sheet metal, it can be seen there
are several defects that are existed on the plate.

Slag inclusion

Crater pipe


Figure 8.3.2: Defects that could be seen existed on the sheet metal
2016238304 EMD5M10

Based on the result of welding on the base metal, there were several defects that could be
seen on the weld beads. One of the defects that could be shown is spatter. Some of the causes why
crater pipe occurred are the voltage value was too low, the wire feed speed was too high or there
were surface contaminants such as oil, paint or rust on the base metal which could interrupt the
welding process. Before the base metal was brushed, there were a much higher amount of splatter
that could be seen on the work piece. Besides, some of the solutions that could be done to lower
this defect are to increase the value of voltage used, decrease the wire feed speed and corrected the
welding current for type and size of electrode used.

Furthermore, the second defect that could be said here was the existence of crater pipe.
Crater pipe could be occurred when the center of weld pool becomes solid before the outside due
to fast cooling rate. Autogenously technique used or stopping the wire feed before switching off
the welding current will also cause this defect. In order to prevent this defect, reducing the welding
current will help to reduce the weld pool size, improving ones welding skills or by adding filler
to compensate for the weld pool shrinkage.

The third defect that could be noticed is the slag inclusion. Slag inclusion occurred when a
deoxidised product from the reaction of the flux, air and surface oxide become trapped in the weld.
Some of the possible causes for this defect are rapid rate of welding, improper welding current
used and long arcs used. In order to minimize the risk of this defect, maintaining proper welding
current and improving welding techniques are essential. Besides, chipping back and re-weld is also
an option to ensure the welding process is more perfected.

The final defect that can be shown is the porosity. This type of defect could happened when
the work piece were contaminated with excessive moisture, rust, oil or grease. Fast solidification
rate, the gas tank out of gas and long arc used also one of the reasons this defect could occur. Some
of the ways that could be used to prevent this defect were maintaining the proper arc length.
Besides, cleaning the base metal thoroughly before welding was also recommended to ensure the
work piece was clean of contamination. Also, ensured the electrodes were kept in clean and dry
place were crucial to ensure they are not exposed to air or liquid (water) before using them.