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PAS 1 PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

General purpose financial statements


- Are those intended to meet the needs of users who are not in a position to require an entity to
prepare reports tailored to their particular information needs.
Impracticable
- Applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every
reasonable effort to do so.
International Financial Reporting Standards
- Are Standards and Interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board
(IASB). They comprise:
(a) International Financial Reporting Standards;
(b) International Accounting Standards; and
(c) Interpretations developed by the International Financial Reporting Interpretation
Committee (IFRIC) or the former Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC).
Material Omissions
- Or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the
economic decisions that users make on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on
the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The
size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.
Notes
- Contain information in addition to that presented in the statement of financial position, statement
of comprehensive income, separate statement of comprehensive income (if presented), statement
of changes in equity and statement of cash flows. Notes provide narrative descriptions or
disaggregation of items presented in those statements and information about items that do not
qualify for recognition in those statements.
Other comprehensive income
- Comprises items of income and expense (including reclassification adjustments) that are not
recognized in profit or loss as required or permitted by other IFRSs.
The components of other comprehensive income include:
(a) Changes in revaluation surplus;
(b) Actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit plans recognized in accordance with paragraph
93A of IAS 19 Employee Benefits;
(c) Gains and losses arising from translating the financial statements of a foreign operation;
(d) Gains and losses on remeasuring available-for-sale financial assets;
(e) The effective portion of gains and losses on hedging instruments in a cash flow hedge.
Owners
- Are holders of instruments classified as equity.
Profit or loss
- Is the total of income less expenses, excluding the components of other comprehensive income.
Reclassification adjustments
- Are amounts reclassified to profit or loss in the current period that were recognized in other
comprehensive income in the current or previous periods.
Total comprehensive income
- Is the change in equity during a period resulting from transactions and other events, other than
those changes resulting from transactions with owners in their capacity as owners.

PFRS 5 NON-CURRENT ASSETS HELD FOR SALE AND DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS


Cash-generating unit
- The smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of
the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets.
Component of an entity
- Operations and cash flows that can be clearly distinguished, operationally and for financial
reporting purposes, from the rest of the entity.
Costs to sell
- The incremental costs directly attributable to the disposal of an asset (or disposal group), excluding
finance costs and income tax expense. current asset
An entity shall classify an asset as current when:
(a) It expects to realize the asset, or intends to sell or consume it, in its normal operating cycle;
(b) It holds the asset primarily for the purpose of trading;
(c) It expects to realize the asset within twelve months after the reporting period; or
(d) The asset is cash or a cash equivalent (as defined in IAS 7) unless the asset is restricted from
being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
Discontinued Operation
- A component of an entity that either has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale and:
(a) Represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations,
(b) Is part of a single coordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical
area of operations or
(c) Is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.
Disposal group
- A group of assets to be disposed of, by sale or otherwise, together as a group in a single transaction,
and liabilities directly associated with those assets that will be transferred in the transaction. The
group includes goodwill acquired in a business combination if the group is a cash-generating unit
to which goodwill has been allocated in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs 8087 of
IAS 36 Impairment of Assets (as revised in 2004) or if it is an operation within such a cash-
generating unit.
Fair value
- The amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable,
willing parties in an arms length transaction.
Firm purchase commitment
- An agreement with an unrelated party, binding on both parties and usually legally enforceable, that
(a) Specifies all significant terms, including the price and timing of the transactions, and
(b) Includes a disincentive for non-performance that is sufficiently large to make performance
highly probable.
Highly probable
- Significantly more likely than probable.
Non-current asset
- An asset that does not meet the definition of a current asset.
Probable
- More likely than not.
Recoverable amount
- The higher of an assets fair value less costs to sell and its value in use.
Value in use
- The present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an
asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.

PAS 8 ACCOUNTING POLICIES, CHANGES IN ESTIMATES AND ERRORS


Accounting policies
- Are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing
and presenting financial statements.
Change in accounting estimate
- Is an adjustment of the carrying amount of an asset or a liability, or the amount of the periodic
consumption of an asset, that results from the assessment of the present status of, and expected
future benefits and obligations associated with, assets and liabilities. Changes in accounting
estimates result from new information or new developments and, accordingly, are not corrections
of errors.
Prior period errors
- are omissions from, and misstatements in, the entitys financial statements for one or more prior
periods arising from a failure to use, or misuse of, reliable information that:
(a) was available when financial statements for those periods were authorized for issue; and
(b) Could reasonably be expected to have been obtained and taken into account in the preparation
and presentation of those financial statements.
- Such errors include the effects of mathematical mistakes, mistakes in applying accounting policies,
oversights or misinterpretations of facts, and fraud.
Retrospective application
- Is applying a new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions as if that policy had
always been applied.
Retrospective restatement
- Is correcting the recognition, measurement and disclosure of amounts of elements of financial
statements as if a prior period error had never occurred.
For a particular prior period, it is impracticable to apply a change in an accounting policy retrospectively
or to make a retrospective restatement to correct an error if:
(a) The effects of the retrospective application or retrospective restatement are not determinable;
(b) The retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires assumptions about what
managements intent would have been in that period; or
(c) The retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires significant estimates of
amounts and it is impossible to distinguish objectively information about those estimates that:
(i) provides evidence of circumstances that existed on the date(s) as at which those amounts
are to be recognized, measured or disclosed; and
(ii) Would have been available when the financial statements for that prior period were
authorized for issue from other information.
Prospective application
- of a change in accounting policy and of recognizing the effect of a change in an accounting estimate,
respectively, are:
(a) Applying the new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions occurring after
the date as at which the policy is changed; and
(b) Recognizing the effect of the change in the accounting estimate in the current and future periods
affected by the change.

IAS 33 EARNINGS PER SHARE


Antidilution
- Is an increase in earnings per share or a reduction in loss per share resulting from the assumption
that convertible instruments are converted, that options or warrants are exercised, or that ordinary
shares are issued upon the satisfaction of specified conditions.
Contingent share agreement
- Is an agreement to issue shares that is dependent on the satisfaction of specified conditions.
Contingently issuable ordinary shares
- Are ordinary shares issuable for little or no cash or other consideration upon the satisfaction of
specified conditions in a contingent share agreement.
Dilution
- Is a reduction in earnings per share or an increase in loss per share resulting from the assumption
that convertible instruments are converted, that options or warrants are exercised, or that ordinary
shares are issued upon the satisfaction of specified conditions.
Options, warrants and their equivalents
- Are financial instruments that give the holder the right to purchase ordinary shares.
Ordinary share
- Is an equity instrument that is subordinate to all other classes of equity instruments.
Potential ordinary share
- Is a financial instrument or other contract that may entitle its holder to ordinary shares.
Put options on ordinary shares
- Are contracts that give the holder the right to sell ordinary shares at a specified price for a given
period.