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The forbidden city china

History of forbidden city

Chinese Name: /
Chinese Pinyin: Gu Gong Bo Wu Yuan /Zi Jin Cheng
English Name: Palace Museum /Forbidden City
Location: In the center of Beijing
Number of Bays: 8,700
Previous Residents: 14 emperors from the Ming Dynasty, 10 emperors from the Qing Dynasty, and
their royal families.

Initiator: Emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty


Designer: Kuai Xiang
Builder: ancient Chinese laborers
Construction Period: 1406 to 1420 in the Ming Dynasty
Main Colors: Red for walls and yellow for roofs

The
history
of the

Forbidden City dates back to 1406 when Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty decided to build an

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imperial palace in Beijing, modeled after the one in Nanjing. Fourteen years later, the construction of
the magnificent palace was finished. It functioned as the political center of China for over 500 years
until the Qing Dynasty was overthrown in 1911. Later in 1925, the Forbidden City was transformed
into the Palace Museum to display traditional Chinese architecture, rare treasures and curiosities. In
1987, it was declared a World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The palace was designed by the great architect Kuai Xiang. More than 230 thousand artisans and
millions of laborers participated in the construction. In1420, the splendid imperial palace was
completed and Emperor Yongle moved in. Ever since then the Forbidden City functioned as the
political center of the Ming Dynasty. Thirteen succeeding emperors of the Ming Dynasty also worked
and dwelled there with their royal families.
During the late Ming Dynasty there were peasant uprisings all over the country. The Peasant Uprising
led by Li Zicheng was the most broad-based and powerful one. The rebels defeated the imperial
troops, and occupied the Forbidden City. In consequence, the Ming Dynasty came to an end in 1644
with the suicide of its last Emperor Chongzhen. Later, Regent Dorgon of the Qing Dynasty, a regime
from northeast China, ordered his army to fight southward. The troops led by Regent Dorgon defeated
the army of Li Zicheng, and seized the Forbidden City. Thereafter, the ten Qing emperors exercised
their supreme power from the Forbidden City.
Before the retreat, Li Zicheng burned down most of the palaces and halls in the Forbidden City. After
moving into the imperial city, Emperor Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty spent fourteen years renovating
the major buildings along the central axis. Other damaged buildings were rebuilt and restored from
1683 to 1695. More importantly, Emperor Qianlong made some alterations and enlargements during
his reign from 1735 to 1796, returning the Forbidden City to its previous scale.

After ruling the country for about three centuries, the Qing Dynasty was overthrown by
revolutionaries in 1911. Emperor Puyi abdicated, and the Forbidden City ceased to serve as the
countrys political center. However, he was allowed to live in the Forbidden City until 1924.
After the Sino-Japanese War broke out, millions of rare treasures and curiosities were packed into
over 15 thousand boxes, and transported to Shanghai, and from there to Nanjing to prevent them from
being destroyed. Finally, they were transported to Sichuan province, and stored in three different
locations until the end of the war in 1945. In 1947, these cultural relics were transported back to
Nanjing. During the Civil War (1945-1949), about three thousand boxes of the 15 thousand boxes of
rare treasures were moved to Taiwan, and were kept in the Taipei Palace Museum. In 1951, more than

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10 thousand boxes of treasures were transported back to the Palace Museum in Beijing, while the rest
remained in the Nanjing Museum. Finally, these national treasures came back home after a series of
journeys and wars, and the Palace Museum was re-opened to the public.
In 1961, the Palace Museum was declared a key national historical and cultural relic under state
protection and was listed as a World Cultural Heritage Site in 1987. Because the museum had not been
repaired for years, the palaces and halls had become worn-out. Some even collapsed. The Palace
Museum was in dire need of repair and renovation. A large-scale restoration started in 2002, and will
last until 2021. Hopefully, the imperial city will present its beauty and magnificence to later
generations.

TIMELINE OF THE FORBIDDEN CITY

Time Events
1406 The construction of the imperial palace begins
1420 The construction of the imperial palace is finished.
1421 The three main halls in the outer court are burned down in a fire.
1440 The three main halls and the Palace of Heavenly Purity are restored.
1459 The palaces along the west wing are built.
- The three main halls in the outer court, the Meridian Gate, and other buildings are burnt
down in a fire.
1557

- The renovation lasts four years until 1561.


- The three mains halls in the outer court and the three main halls in the inner court are
burnt down in a big fire.
1597

- The restoration lasts thirty years until 1627.

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- Li Zicheng occupies the imperial palace, and the Ming Dynasty ends.

- Li burns most of the buildings in the imperial city before retreat.

1644 - Emperor Shunzhi of succeeding Qing Dynasty move the capital city from Shenyang to
Beijing.

- Emperor Shunzhi rebuild the buildings along the central axis during the next fourteen
years.
1683 The restoration of other buildings starts and lasts twelve years until 1695.
Emperor Qianlong ascend the throne. He enlarges and alters the imperial city during his
1735
reign from 1735 to 1796.
1813 The Forbidden City is attacked during a peasant uprising led by Lin Qing.
Beijing is controlled by the Eight-Nation Alliance Forces. They hold a military review in
1900
Forbidden City.
The Qing Dynasty ends with the breakout of the Revolution of 1911.
1911 Emperor Puyi is no longer emperor but still allowed to dwell in the inner court of the
imperial palace.
1923 A great fire breaks out in the Palace of Establishing Happiness (Jianfugong).
1924 Emperor Puyi is driven out of the imperial palace in a coup.
1925 The imperial city is transformed into the Palace Museum.
A large number of cultural relics in the palace are moved to south China for better
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protection after the Sino-Japanese war breaks out.
About three thousand boxes of the cultural relics are transported to Taiwan during Civil
1948
War.
1949 The Palace Museum is reopened to the public after the war.
In the
1950s Renovation of the museum is put forward by many people, but laid aside for various
and reasons.
1960s
The Palace Museum is listed in the first group of the key historical and cultural relics
1961
under state protection.
1987 The Palace Museum is declared a World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO.
2002 A large-scale restoration of the museum is begun, and will last until 2021.

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CENTRAL AXIS

MERIDIAN GATE

Wumen in Chinese, the Meridian Gate is the southern gate and the only entrance now to the Forbidden
City.

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The gate (also called Five-Phoenix Tower) consists of a platform terrace and gate towers. There are
three arched entrances in the front and another two, one on each wing of the platform. The central arch
was used only by the emperor. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, grand ceremonies, like announcing
the new calendar for the coming year, were held here. Bells and drums were kept on the terrace, and
when emperors arrived for sacrificial ceremonies, the bell would be sounded. Now Meridian Gate is
used as an important exhibition hall in the Forbidden City.
Chinese emperors believed that they were the Sons of Heaven and therefore should live at the center
of the universe. They believed the Meridian went through the middle of the gate and built the entire
Forbidden City symmetrically to this axis, and thus it was named accordingly. Completed at the year
of 1420, the Meridian Gate had been repaired for two times in 1647 and 1801.

The strict rules concerning the total five doors of the Meridian Gate.
The central doorway was for the exclusive use of the emperor in Ming and Qing Dynasties.
However, an empress was granted the privilege of using this opening once, and only once, on her
wedding day. As a special honor, the top three scholars, who achieved the highest awards in the
national examinations presided over by the emperor, would be permitted to march through this
door, following their interview with the emperor.
The smaller door to the east was used by ministers and officials
The west was used by the royal family.
The remaining two doors at the corners were only used when there were grand ceremonies.

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Gate of Supreme Harmony (Taihemen)

The Gate of Supreme Harmony lies on a white-marble base and covers 1,300 square meters (0.32
acres). There are two side entrances, Zhaode Gate on the east, and Zhendu Gate on the west. In front

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of the main Gate is a square of about 26,000 square meters, with an inner Golden River flowing from
west to east. Four bronze vats and a pair of lions stand on the two sides. In the Ming and early Qing
Dynasty, this was the place where the emperor dealt with national affairs everyday morning.
It is guarded by two bronze lions. These symbolise imperial power. The lion on the east side is male.
Its right front paw is placed on a globe denoting that imperial power extended world-wide. The lioness
on the west side has its left front paw on a lion cub. This denotes a thriving and prosperous imperial
family.

Hall of
Supreme
Harmony
(Taihedian)
As the heart of the Forbidden City, the so-called Golden Carriage Palace, used to be the place where
emperors received high officials and exercised their rule over the nation. Grand ceremonies would be
held here when a new emperor ascended the throne. Celebrations also marked emperors' birthdays,
wedding ceremonies and other important occasions such as the Winter Solstice, the Chinese New Year
and the dispatch of generals into fields of war.
Standing on a three-tier marble terrace, this grandest timber framework ever in China is
overwhelming.Since it was symbol of the imperial power, it was the highest structure in
the empire during the Ming and Qin dynasties. No other building was permitted to be
higher any where in the empire. The heavily glazed hall is 35.02 meters high (37.44
meters including the rooftop decoration). It is 63.96 meters in width and 37.2 meters in
length respectively. There is a total of 72 pillars, in six rows, supporting the roof. The
doors and windows are embossed with clouds and dragons.

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HALL OF SUPREME HARMONY SUNDIAL

HALL OF CENTRAL HARMONY (ZHONGHEDIAN)

The Hall of Central Harmony is located between the Hall of Supreme Harmony (Taihedian) and
the Hall of Preserved Harmony(Baohedian). These three, known as the Three Great Halls of the Outer
Court, are on the central axis of the Forbidden City. Of the three, it is the smallest. Covering a total
area of 580 square meters, it is a square structure built like a pavilion, each side of which is five bays
long, measuring 24.15m. It has a single-eaved roof with a gilded pinnacle gleaming brightly in the

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sunshine.
The Hall of Central Harmony served as a place for rest for the emperor when he was on his way to
hold ceremonies in the Hall of Supreme Harmony. When everything was ready, he would go to the
Hall of Supreme Harmony to receive homage. It was here that he consulted with his ministers and
officials. Each year prior to their departure for important sacrificial rites at the Temple of Heaven, the
Temple of the Earth or elsewhere, he would come here to prepare elegiac addresses. Before going to
the Altar of the God of Agriculture (Xiannongtan) to plow land and sew seeds himself every spring,
the emperor would check the seeds and farming tools used in the ceremony here. The imperial family
tree of the Qing Dynasty was complied once every decade. When the compilation was finished, it
would be sent to the emperor to be examined, which was also done in it.
Inside the Hall of Central Harmony, visitors can see a pair of golden unicorns standing on each side of
the throne in the center.

HALL OF CENTRAL
HARMONY
INSIDE THE
HALL

HALL OF
PRESERVED
HARMONY
( BOAHEDIAN)
In the Ming Dynasty,
the hall was used as a dressing room before the emperor attended grand ceremonies. In early Qing
Times, it served as the wedding venue for both the Emperor Shunzhi and his successor, Emperor
Kangxi. It was also a place where the emperors held banquets. Later, it was used as a place to hold the
final stage of imperial examinations. Inside, a plaque, inscribed by Emperor Qianlong with Chinese
characters Huang Jian You Ji, is hanging above.

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HALL OF PRESERVED HARMONY INSIDE THE HALL

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GATE OF HEAVENLY PURITY ( QIANGQINGMEN)
Also named Gate of Celestial Purity or Qianqingmen, the Gate of Heavenly Purity is on the central
axis divides the Forbidden City into two parts, the Outer Court and the Inner Court, therefore, serving
as the main entrance to the imperial household. To its east are Inner Light Gate (Neizuomen) and
Ministry for Courtiers (Jiuqingfang) and to the west are Inner Right Gate (Neiyoumen) and Office of
Grand Council of State (Junjichu). In the south, there is Qianqing Men Square, 200m long and 50m
wide. To the east of the square is the Gate of Great Fortune (Jingyunmen) and to the west is the Gate
of Great Ancestors (Longzongmen). In the east side inside the gate, there are Hall for Cultivating
Princes (Shangshufang) and the Gate of Sun's Shine (Rijingmen). In the west side inside, there are the
South Study (Nanshufang) and the Gate of Moon's Radiance (Yuehuamen).

HALL OF
HEAVENLY PURITY
LION
STATUES IN FRONT
OF HALL

THE PALACE OF HEAVENLY PURITY (QIANQINGGONG)


This was the sleeping quarters of the emperors inside Forbidden City.
The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a smaller version of the Hall of Supreme Harmony. As it was
deemed inferior to the Hall of Supreme Harmony everything within it is smaller than similar items in
the superior palace. However, it is the largest palace in the Inner Court of Forbidden City and it is

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superior to any other structures there.
Moreover, in the Qing Dynasty, no matter where the emperor died, his coffin would be placed in the
Palace of Heavenly Purity for a few days for memorial ceremonies. Later the coffin would be moved
to Jinshan, and then buried in the mausoleum on a selected day.

HALL OF CALESTIAL & TERRESTRIAL UNION (JIAOTAIDIAN)


The name, as well as the position of this hall, signifies that union of the celestial and the terrestrial can
generate harmony and peace. It was a place for the empress to receive greetings on major festivals and
her birthday. It was also a place for storing the twenty-five different imperial seals. There is a copper
clepsydra (water clock) on the left and a mechanical striking clock on the right inside. These were
used to set the standard time in the Forbidden City.

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PALACE OF EARTHLY TRANQUILITY (KUNNINGGONG)
Also named Palace of Terrestrial Tranquility or (Kunninggong), the Palace of Earthly Tranquility is
the last of the three main palaces in the Inner Court of the Forbidden City, standing behind the Hall of
Celestial and Terrestrial Union.
The Palace of Earthly Tranquility was where the empress lived in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
However, after reconstruction in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), it served as the nuptial chamber of
the emperor and empress and the altar for worshipping the deities of Shamanism.

IMPERIAL GARDEN (YUHUAYUAN)


The Imperial Garden is located outside of the Gate of Terrestrial Tranquility. Constructed during the
Ming dynasty in 1417, it is rectangular in shape and covers approximately 12,000 square meters. This
was a private retreat for the imperial family and is the most typical of the Chinese imperial garden
design. There are some twenty structures, each of a different style, and the ways in which they
harmonise with the trees, rockeries, flower beds and sculptural objects such as the bronze incense
burners both delight and astonish visitors.
At each of the four corners of the garden there is a pavilion. These symbolise the four seasons. The
Pavilion of Myriad Springs is the most famous and occupies the eastern corner. Built in 1535 and

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restored during the Qing dynasty, as its name implies, it is this pavilion that symbolizes spring.

IMPERIAL GARDEN
INCENSE
BURNER

PAVILION OF
FLOOTING GREEN
PAVILION OF
TEN THOUSAND
SPRING

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MOAT, TOWERS & GATES
MOAT
Established in 1420, the eighteenth year of the reign of Emperor Yongle (1403-1424) of
the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), it is 3800 m long and 52 m wide. It was built for security
purposes, so both sides of it have steep embankments, making it impossible to cross without some
means of bridging it. The water in it comes from the northwest and goes to the southeast. It enjoys a
history of 580 years. In 1999, It was harnessed, the embankment renewed, the bed paved with
quadrels and the watercourse firmer.

MOAT AROUND
IMPERIAL CITY
MOAT
AROUND CORNER
TOWER

CORNER
TOWER
They on the four coigns of lofty walls were established in 1420, rebuilt in the Qing
Dynasty (1644-1911). As one part of the Forbidden City, they served as the defense facility just
as the lofty walls, the gate towers and the moat. They rest on the base with Buddist-style building
surrounded with stone columns.

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FOUR GATES
1. Meridian Gate : It is the only entrance to visit the Forbidden City located in the south.
2. Gate of Divine Prowess: It is the northern gate and the exit after visiting.
3. East Prosperity Gate (East Flowery Gate, Donghuamen)
4. West Prosperity Gate (West Flowery Gate, Xihuamen)

GATE OF
DIVINE PROWESS

WEST WING
HALL OF MATIAL VALOR ( WUYINGDIAN)
At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644), the emperor lived and worked in the Hall of
Martial Valor, later moved to the Hall of Literary Glory. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Li Zicheng,
the peasant rebel leader, attacked Beijing and set up his regime here.
In the reign of Kangxi (1661-1722), a book store was opened in this hall. In 1701, the fortieth year of
the reign of Kangxi, a large number of books were produced here. With dry point printing method and
tailor-made papers, the books were pieces of art, words exquisite and pictures delicate.

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HALL OF EMBODIED TREASURES(BAOYUNLAO)
Known as the Palace of Universal Safety (Xian'angong). This palace was where the deposed Crown
Prince Yinreng lived during the reign of Qing Emperor Kangxi (1661-1722); the children of imperial
family studied during the reign of Qing Emperor Yongzheng (1722-1735); and empress dowagers
lived during the reign of Qianlong (1735-1795). However, a large fire destroyed the magnificent
palace at the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), sparing only the Gate of Universal Safety. In 1915,

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the Hall of Embodied Treasures was constructed on the existing foundation of the palace and served as
a storehouse of cultural relics.
Many kinds of rare treasures and curiosities from previous dynasties could be found in the Hall of
Embodied Treasures, including porcelains, pictures, books, jewels, screens, antiques, calligraphy and
paintings. All the rare treasures amounted to more than 230,000, among which calligraphy and
paintings added up to 475. Because the Hall of Embodied Treasures can no longer meet the
requirements for storing cultural relics, the whole collection has been moved to the Capital Museum,
the National Museum and other locations.

HALL OF MENTAL
CUTILVATION
This I-shaped hall is
divided into two parts: front rooms and rear rooms. The front rooms, which have two chambers on
each side, were used for the emperor to conduct state affairs. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong,
the western chamber was changed into a study. The eastern chamber was the place where the Empress
Dowager Cixi handled state affairs. The rear rooms were used as living rooms for emperors. On the
sides of the hall, there are five rooms where empresses and other imperial concubines lived.

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SIX WESTERN PALACE (XILIUGONG)
These six palaces originally had corresponding halls on their east side, but were a little different later
because they were reconstructed according to empress dowager Cixis ideas. Empress Dowager Cixi
lived here for most of her life, principally in the Palace of Gathered Elegance

SIX WESTERN PALACE INSIDE SIX WESTERN PALACE

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PALACE OF COMPASSION & TRANQULITY(CININGGONG)
The western area of the Forbidden City in Beijing, called the World of Women, is a place where
wives of late emperors lived during the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) Dynasties. In
accordance with feudal manners, emperors should not live with the wives of late emperors. Thus, the
Palace of Compassion and Tranquility, also known as Cining Palace, was constructed in order to house
them. Additionally, great ceremonies were held here to bestow titles of honor upon empress dowagers,
to celebrate their birthdays, or to temporarily lay their bodies after they had passed away.

PALACE OF LONGEVITY & GOOD HEALTH (SHOUKANGGONG)

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The Palace of Longevity and Good Health is the place where empress dowagers lived and spent their
last years. Emperors came to greet them respectfully every two or three days.
Empress Dowager Chongqing was Emperor Qianlong's mother. Even after her death, Emperor
Qianlong still came to the palace to pray to show his deep reverence for her. He also made a gold
tower to contain a Buddha and his mother's hair that she lost when she was alive. The gold tower was
decorated by jewels, treasures, and corals. It was placed in the hall for worshipping the Buddha in the
east warm room of the palace.
Empress Dowager Cixi, Emperor Tongzhi's mother also lived here for a short period of time.Empress
Dowager Yu, Emperor Tongzhi's wife, is the last one to live in the Palace of Longevity and Good
Health. On November 21st, 1924, the old Empress Dowager Yu left the Forbidden City and the palace
was closed then.

EAST
WING
HALL OF
LITERARY
GLORY
(WENHUADIAN)
In the Ming Dynasty, there set a post in it called "Grand Scholar", whose job was tutoring the prince.
In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), it became the cabinet system of "three halls, three cabinets", and
thus the "Grand Scholar" assisted the emperor to deal with government affairs and took officials into
control, power expanded largely.
The famous reading reports ceremony of the emperor was held here. The emperor had to compose
reports on their study of "the Four Books (the Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean, the Analects
of Confucius, and the Mencius) and Five Classics (Classic of Changes, Classic of Poetry, Classic of
Rites, Classic of History, and Spring and Autumn Annals)". The Emperor of the Qing Dynasty

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presented their reports twice, in Chinese once and in Manchu once, during which the civil ministers
listened with their knees down to the floor. Emperor Kangxi (1661-1722), Yongzheng (1722-1735)
and Qianlong (1735-1796) were all highly accomplished. They may order civil ministers to debate
when they felt the need. And then, everyone is offered a cup of green tea for a rest. At last, the
emperor would take the civil ministers to the Pavilion of Literary Profundity (Wenyuange), lying
behind it, to read the books as the special encouragement to those who were lucky to attend the
ceremony.

HALL OF
ANCESTRY
WORSHIP
( FENGXIANDIAN)
The Hall of Ancestry
Worship was the place
where the imperial household worshiped their ancestors in the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-
1911) dynasties.
In the Qing Dynasty, on the first and fifteenth day of the lunar month, the birthday of the emperor,
the New Year's Day, the Winter Solstice every year and other grand occasions, the catombs would be
held in the front hall. On an ancestor's birthday, deathday, the Lantern Festival, the Tomb-Sweeping
Day and the Mid-Autumn Day, the imperial family would worship their ancestors in the rear.

HALL OF
ANCESTRY
WORSHIP
CLOCK

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SIX EASTERN PALACES (DONGLIUGONG)
First built in 1420, these buildings provided living quarters for the imperial concubines.
This region houses six palaces in the same styles located on the east side of the axis in the Inner
Court, which are:
Palace of Great Benevolence (Jingrengong)
It was the residence for the emperors concubines in the Ming Dynasty(1368-144). In the Qing
Dynasty (1644-1911), Emperor Kangxi (reign time 1661-1722) was born and lived here temporarily.
After that time, it was used by the emperorswives.

Palace of Celestial Favour (Chengqiangong)


It was the residence for high ranked imperial concubines in the Ming Dynasty. In Qing,
Emperor Shunzhis most favorite wife and Emperor Daoguangs empress

Palace of Eternal Harmony (Yonghegong)


Residence for imperial concubines in both Ming and Qing Dynasties. Emperor Kangxis empress
lived here for a long time.

Palace of Great Brilliance (Jingyanggong)


Residence for imperial concubines in the Ming Dynasty. The empress of Emperor Shenzong
(reign time 1573-1620) lived here.

Palace of Purity (Zhongcuigong)


Imperial concubines and was the place where the crown prince lived during the Ming
Dynasty. Emperor Xianfeng (reign time 1850-1861) of the Qing Dynasty spent his childhood here.
His empress Cian (parallel to Empress Dowager Cixi) lived here from the time she moved to the
Forbidden City up till her death. When Emperor Guangxu married his empress, she lived here for a

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while, as did Qings last emperor Puyi.

Palace of Lasting Happiness (Yanxigong)


An absurd-looking unfinished building in western style.

PALACE OF GREAT
BRILLIANCE
GATE OF
GREAT
BENEVOLENCE

PALACE OF TRANQUIL LONGEVITY


It is the place where the Imperial Regent, the father of the emperor, received ministers and officials.

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TREASURE GALLERY (ZHENBAOGUAN
The treasures in the hall were made by order of emperors in the Qing Dynasty or gifted to the
emperors. These articles were widely used for different purposes, like sacrificing, decorations. Most of
the decorations in the show were used only at the emperors wedding ceremonies. The designs and
manufacture of these articles symbolized the highest quality at the time. All of these articles can be
regarded as a reflection of the dignity and luxury of the royal families of the age.

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QINLONG GARDEN & PAVILION OF PLEASANT SOUNDS
It was designed to include four scenes in four areas. In the first area stands the Pavilion of Ancient
Flower (Guhuaxuan) surrounded by rocky hills and tall ancient trees; in the second area the Hall of
Wish Fulfillment (Suichutang), a closed compound with buildings on three sides, a main building
facing south and side chambers on the east and west. In the third area, one can enjoy much hill

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scenery. Going further north, one comes to the fourth area with the Pavilion of Expecting Good Omen
(Fuwangge), a labyrinth-like structure as the main architecture. Apart from that, there are also other
buildings such as the Building for Viewing Beautiful Scenery (Cuishanglou), the Studio of Exhaustion
from Diligent Service (Juanqinzhai), as well as the Well of Concubine Zhen (Zhengfeijing).
Pavilion of pleasant sounds is the biggest theater inside the Forbidden City. In ancient China, theater
going was the main entertainment activity in the Imperial Palace.

PALACE OF PLEASANT
SOUND WELL OF
CONCUBINE ZHEN

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