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Q.1: WHAT IS IMPORTANCE OF SLUMP IN CONCRETE?

ANS: The concrete slump test measures the consistency of fresh concrete before it
sets.
It is performed to check the workability of freshly made concrete, and therefore
the ease with which concrete flows.
It can also be used as an indicator of an improperly mixed batch. The test is
popular due to the simplicity of apparatus used and simple procedure.
Slump test has a direct effect on compressive strength of the hardened concrete.
It also helps us to get a homogenous fresh concrete mix before casting.
Q.2: HOW CAN WE INCREASE OR DECRESE SLUMP OF CONCRETE?
ANS: Decreasing Slump
Sometimes, slump needs to be decreased. For instance, the slump of the first 1 4
cubic yard of concrete is 4 inches, but its for a slipformpaver that needs concrete
with a maximum 2-inch slump.
An effective method for reducing slump is to add powdered silica f u m e.
Prepackaged powdered silica f u m e, without super plasticizer, dries up a concrete
mix. However, it also will darken concrete, which may not be acceptable. One
contractor reports that adding 6 pounds of silica fume to a cubic yard of concrete
lowers the slump by 1 inch. The cost of silica fume is about $3 per cubic yard.
Increase in slump
Adding excessive amounts of water at the jobsite will increase slump, but will also
reduce strength significantly. The added water dilutes the paste and increases the
water-to-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm).
Water reducers and super plasticizers can also be used to increase the slump while
maintaining the water-to-cement ratio. And air-entrainment can increase
workability. Adding water to a mix that contains chemical admixtures will change
the properties of the mix and can cause excessive slump loss, inconsistent setting,
and changes in air content.
Q.2 WHAT IS SUITABLE VALUE OF SLUMP USED IN NORMAL
CONCRETE?
ANS: Slump is a test to measure the plasticity (wetness) of concrete when it is
placed. A normal slump range (U.S.) is 2 to 4 inches.
Degree of Slump Compacting factor Use for which concrete is suitable
workability (mm)
Small Large
apparatus apparatus
Very low 0.78 0.80 Roads vibrated by power-operated
machines. At the more workable
end of this group, concrete may be
compacted in certain cases with
hand-operated machines.
Low 25 75 0.85 0.87 Roads vibrated by hand-operated
machines. At the more workable
end of this group, concrete may be
manually compacted in roads using
aggregate of rounded or irregular
shape. Mass concrete foundations
without vibration or lightly
reinforced sections with vibration.
Medium 50-100 0.92 0.935 At the less workable end of this
group, manually compacted flat
slabs using crushed aggregates.
Normal reinforced concrete
manually compacted and heavily
reinforced sections with vibration.
High 100-150 0.95 0.96 For sections with congested
reinforcement. Not normally
suitable for vibration, for pumping
and tremle placing.
Very high Flow table test is more suitable.
Q.4 HOW SLUMP EFFECT ON THE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE?
ANS: Too much water in a concrete mix weakens it. The first stage of this is when
the concrete becomes to fluid, and the aggregates settle, so when the concrete
hardens, it isnt a homogeneous mixture. There are other things that happen
chemically when the cement to water ratio is too low, or too much water is added
that weaken the concrete, so in a nutshell, if the slump is too much you may have
weakened concrete.
Q.5: ENLIST THE TYPES OF SLUMP?
ANS: There are four types of slump that may occur in slumps test, namely, true
slump, shear slump and collapse slump, zero slump.
True slump refers to general drop of the concrete mass evenly all around without
disintegration.
Shear slump implies that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. Consequently, it
may undergo segregation and bleeding and thus is undesirable for durability of
concrete.
Collapse slump indicates that concrete mix is too wet ad the mix is deemed to be
harsh and lean.
Zero-slump concrete is defined in the same document, as concrete of stiff or
extremely dry consistency showing no measurable slump after removal of
the slump cone.
And negative-slump concrete is concrete of a consistency such that it not only has
zero slump but still has zero slump after additional water is added.