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Penetration tests:

several standard grades of bitumen are commercially available, which are normally classified
into different grades by Penetration test. the sample of bitumen is placed in a suitable container
and brought to a temperature of 25 degree celsius in water bath.the weight needle is brought to
the surface and at the end of the 5 second interval, the Penetration of the needle into the
bitumen, in units of 1/10 mm is termed the Penetration of the bitumen.
the Penetration at 25 degree Celsius and the softening point, or Penetrations at two different
temperature( for example 25 degree Celsius and 10 degree Celsius) can be used to define the
extent to which the consistency of bitumen changes with temperature. this an important
characteristics of bitumens and determine the type of bitumen used for a particular application
various factor have been Used to define temperature dependence. the most commonly used
factor, however, is a Penetration index(pi)

Penetration test
It measures the hardness or softness of bitumen by measuring the depth in tenths of a millimeter
to which a
standard loaded needle will penetrate vertically in 5 seconds. BIS had standardised the
equipment and test
procedure. The penetrometer consists of a needle assembly with a total weight of 100g and a
device for releasing
and locking in any position. The bitumen is softened to a pouring consistency, stirred thoroughly
and poured
into containers at a depth at least 15 mm in excess of the expected penetration. The test should be
conducted at
a specified temperature of 25o C. It may be noted that penetration value is largely influenced by
any inaccuracy
with regards to pouring temperature, size of the needle, weight placed on the needle and the test
A grade of 40/50 bitumen means the penetration value is in the range 40 to 50 at standard test
In hot climates, a lower penetration grade is preferred. The Figure 23.4.1 shows a schematic
Penetration Test
Thermal stability of Jet fuels:

Jet fuel thermal oxidation tester(JFTOT) is used to measure the high temperature stability of gas
turbine fuels. subjects the test fuel to conditions which can be related to those occurring in gas
turbine engine fuel systems. the fuel is pumped at a fixed volumetric flow rate through a heater
after which it enters the Stainless steel filter where fuel degradation products may become
trapped. the appartus requires 60 ml of the test fuel for a 2.5 hour test.
the essential data derived are the amount of deposits on an aluminium heater tube, and the rate
of plugging of filter located just downstream of the heater tube.
in the JFTOT a charge is placed in an reservior and the whole system is pressurized to 3.45
MPa with nitrogen. this ensure is single phase reaction in the heated section. the fuel passes
from the Reservoir through a 0.45 Micron filter, to remove trace particulate matter ,And into the
reactor section, where it passes upward in an annular space over and Aluminium tube and out
via a 17 Micron stainless steel filter through a heat exchanger, to cool it, and back to the top of
the reservoir. the used and unused fuel in the Reservoir are separated by a floating piston.The
fuel is rated by a visual tube rating or by placing the tube in tube deposit rater. in this that tubeis
rotated at a constant speed and its surface scanned by two light sources reflecting off the tube
onto a photocell.The photocell gives a signal to a meter. also the differential pressure across the
17 Micron filter is measured.
the test results are indicative of fuel performance during gas turbine operation and can be used
to assess the level of deposits that can form when liquid fuel contacts a heated surface


Water separometer index(modified)()WSIM):

This is carried out with a water separator. it measure the water separation characteristics of
fuel expressed in the term of WSIM.
AN EMulsion of water and fuel is prepared and passed through and cell containing a
standardized fiberglass coalescer. the effluent from the cell is examined for entrained water by
light transmission. numerical scale(0-100) rates the case with which the fuel releases
emulsified water.
WSIM is a measure of fuel cleanliness relative to its freedom from surfactant materials.
A higher WSIM rating indicates that the fuel is cleaner related to surfactant materials .
Spark ignition engine::
gasoline is pumped from the tank and delivered to the carburettor whose primary function is the
metering of liquid fuel and air in the required ratio for any given engine operating condition. a
secondary function is the atomization of the fuel to achieve adequate homogeneity of air fuel
mixture.The amount of mixture is controlled by a butterfly valve or throttle operated by
accelerated pedal. the air fuel mixture passes into the inlet manifold where, usually with the aid
of some form of heating,Vaporization of the fuel is completed. the charge is then delivered to the
combustion chamber by way of the inlet valves, compressed by piston and fired by the spark
plug. the pressure developed by the combustion process must be smooth and control in order
to make maximum use of energy liberated. after the combustion, the hot gases are exhausted
from the cylinders via the valves through the exhaust and Silencer system and are finally
emitted into the atmosphere. the main variables in the engine design are the compression ratio,
the shape of the combustion chamber, the cooling system and the timing of the spark.

The term spark-ignition engine refers to internal combustion engines generally, petrol engines.

Where the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from a spark plug.

Spark-ignition engines are commonly refer to as gasoline engines in America ,and petrol
engines in Britain and the rest of the world .

The working cycle of spark ignition engines may be either two stock or four stroke

A four stroke spark ignition engines is an Otto cycle

The combustion in spark ignition engine is initiated by an electrical discharge across the
electrodes of a spark plug, which usually occurs fro 100 to 300 before TDC depending upon the
chamber geometry and operating conditions.

The ignition system provides a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite the air fuel mixture at the
predetermined position in the engine cycle under all speeds and load condition.
The spark plug ignites the air-fuel mixture
SSinside the cylinder. This occurs when high voltage, triggered at

precisely the right instant, bridges the gap between the center and the ground electrodes. It also
provides a secondary purpose of helping to channel some heat away from the cylinder.