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Fundamentals of Neural Networks : Soft Computing Course Lecture 7 14, notes, slides

Soft Computing

artificial neuron model, neuron equation. Artificial neuron : basic

elements, activation and threshold function, piecewise linear and

sigmoidal function. Neural network architectures : single layer feed-

in

forward network, multi layer feed-forward network, recurrent

e.

networks. Learning methods in neural networks : unsupervised

Learning - Hebbian learning, competitive learning; Supervised

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learning methods and architecture. Single-layer NN system : single

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(ADALINE) - architecture, and training. Applications of neural

networks: clustering, classification, pattern recognition, function

approximation, prediction systems.

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Soft Computing

Topics

(Lectures 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 8 hours)

Slides

1. Introduction 03-12

Artificial Neuron model, Notations, Neuron equation.

function, Piecewise linear function, Sigmoidal function, Example.

in

Single layer Feed-forward network, Multi layer Feed-forward network,

Recurrent networks. e.

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4. Learning Methods in Neural Networks 24-29

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systems with respect to learning methods and architecture types.

Linearly separable task, XOR Problem; ADAptive LINear Element

(ADALINE) : Architecture, Training.

Prediction systems.

8. References : 40

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tries to simulate its learning process. An artificial neural network

(ANN) is often called a "Neural Network" or simply Neural Net (NN).

biological neurons in the nervous system that process and transmit

information.

that uses a mathematical model or computational model for information

processing based on a connectionist approach to computation.

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The artificial neural networks are made of interconnecting artificial

e.

neurons which may share some properties of biological neural networks.

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connections between the processing elements and element parameters.

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03

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

1. Introduction

biological system, composed of a large number of highly interconnected

processing elements (neurons) working in unison to solve specific problems.

connections that exist between the neurons. This is true of ANNs as well.

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

1.1 Why Neural Network

The conventional computers are good for - fast arithmetic and does

what programmer programs, ask them to do.

noisy data or data from the environment, massive parallelism, fault

tolerance, and adapting to circumstances.

algorithmic solution or where we can get lots of examples of the

behavior we require.

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The von Neumann machines are based on the processing/memory

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abstraction of human information processing.

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The neural networks are based on the parallel architecture of

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biological brains.

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- a high degree of interconnection,

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- adaptive interaction between elements.

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

1.2 Research History

The history is relevant because for nearly two decades the future of

Neural network remained uncertain.

McCulloch and Pitts (1943) are generally recognized as the designers of the

first neural network. They combined many simple processing units together

that could lead to an overall increase in computational power. They

suggested many ideas like : a neuron has a threshold level and once that

level is reached the neuron fires. It is still the fundamental way in which

ANNs operate. The McCulloch and Pitts's network had a fixed set of weights.

Hebb (1949) developed the first learning rule, that is if two neurons are

active at the same time then the strength between them should be

increased.

in

In the 1950 and 60's, many researchers (Block, Minsky, Papert, and

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Rosenblatt worked on perceptron. The neural network model could be

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proved to converge to the correct weights, that will solve the problem. The

weight adjustment (learning algorithm) used in the perceptron was found

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more powerful than the learning rules used by Hebb. The perceptron caused

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w.

Minsky & Papert (1969) showed that perceptron could not learn those

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The neural networks research declined throughout the 1970 and until mid

80's because the perceptron could not learn certain important functions.

and LeCun discovered a learning algorithm for multi-layer networks called

back propagation that could solve problems that were not linearly

separable.

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

1.3 Biological Neuron Model

neural cells that process information. Each cell works like a simple

processor. The massive interaction between all cells and their parallel

processing only makes the brain's abilities possible.

Dendrites are branching fibers that

extend from the cell body or soma.

Soma or cell body of a neuron contains

the nucleus and other structures, support

chemical processing and production of

neurotransmitters.

Axon is a singular fiber carries

information away from the soma to the

synaptic sites of other neurons (dendrites

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and somas), muscles, or glands.

Axon hillock is the site of summation

e.for incoming information. At any

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moment, the collective influence of all

neurons that conduct impulses to a given

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Fig. Structure of Neuron

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axon hillock and propagated along the axon.

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Myelin Sheath consists of fat-containing cells that insulate the axon from electrical

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activity. This insulation acts to increase the rate of transmission of signals. A gap

exists between each myelin sheath cell along the axon. Since fat inhibits the

propagation of electricity, the signals jump from one gap to the next.

Nodes of Ranvier are the gaps (about 1 m) between myelin sheath cells long axons

are Since fat serves as a good insulator, the myelin sheaths speed the rate of

transmission of an electrical impulse along the axon.

Synapse is the point of connection between two neurons or a neuron and a muscle or

a gland. Electrochemical communication between neurons takes place at these

junctions.

Terminal Buttons of a neuron are the small knobs at the end of an axon that release

chemicals called neurotransmitters.

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

Information flow in a Neural Cell

The input /output and the propagation of information are shown below.

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Fig. Structure of a neural cell in the human brain

e.

Dendrites receive activation from other neurons.

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output activations.

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axons and dendrites.

The process of transmission is by diffusion of chemicals called

neuro-transmitters.

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

1.4 Artificial Neuron Model

model of a real (biological) neuron.

This is a simplified model of real neurons, known as a Threshold Logic Unit.

Input1

Input 2

Output

Input n

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A processing unit sums the inputs, and then applies a non-linear

e.

activation function (i.e. squashing / transfer / threshold function).

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An output line transmits the result to other neurons.

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In other words ,

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

1.5 Notations

n

s = x 1 + x2 + x 3 + . . . . + x n = xi

i=1

X = ( x1 , x2 , x3 , . . ., xn ) , Y = ( y1 , y2 , y3 , . . ., yn )

Z = X + Y = (x1 + y1 , x2 + y2 , . . . . , xn + yn)

n

p = X . Y = x1 y1 + x2 y2 + . . . . + xnyn = xi yi

in

i=1

10 e.

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

Matrices : m x n matrix , row no = m , column no = n

w21 w21 . . . . w21

W = . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

wm1 w11 . . . . wmn

component by component. A+B =C, cij = aij + bij

+ =

a21 a22 b21 b22 C21 = a21+b21 C22 = a22 +b22

(m x n) (n x p) (m x p)

in

n

elements cij = aik bkj e.

k=1

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a11 a12 b11 b12 c11 c12

x =

a21 a22 b21 b22 c21 c22

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C22 = (a21 x b12) + (a22 x B22)

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SC - Neural Network Introduction

1.6 Functions

from x to y.

Sign(x)

O/P

1

.8

1 if x 0 .6

sgn (x) =

.4

0 if x < 0

.2

0

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 I/P

(differentiable) form of the threshold function

in

Sign(x)

1

O/P e.

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.8

1 .6

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sigmoid (x) =

-x

1+e

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.2

w.

0

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 I/P

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SC - Neural Network Artificial Neuron Model

2. Model of Artificial Neuron

Unit (TLU). The model is said to have :

- A set of synapses (connections) brings in activations from other neurons.

- A processing unit sums the inputs, and then applies a non-linear activation

- An output line transmits the result to other neurons.

Input 1

Input 2

Output

in

Input n

e.

Simplified Model of Real Neuron

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(Threshold Logic Unit)

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of 1 to n inputs is written as

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n

Output = sgn ( Input i - )

i=1

ww

n

If Input i then Output = 1

i=1

n

If Input i < then Output = 0

i=1

- Non-binary input and output,

- Non-linear summation,

- Smooth thresholding,

- Stochastic, and

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SC - Neural Network Artificial Neuron Model

2.2 Artificial Neuron - Basic Elements

single activation function.

x1 W1 Activation

Function

x2 W2

i=1

xn Wn

Threshold

Synaptic Weights

Weighting Factors w

in

The values w1 , w2 , . . . wn are weights to determine the strength of

e.

input vector X = [x1 , x2 , . . . , xn]T. Each input is multiplied by the

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n

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T

I = X .W = x1 w1 + x2 w2 + . . . . + xnwn = xi wi

i=1

w.

Threshold

ww

activation of the node output y as:

n

Y = f (I) = f{ xi wi - k }

i=1

To generate the final output Y , the sum is passed on to a non-linear

filter f called Activation Function or Transfer function or Squash function

which releases the output Y.

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SC - Neural Network Artificial Neuron Model

Threshold for a Neuron

their total input goes above a threshold value.

The total input for each neuron is the sum of the weighted inputs

to the neuron minus its threshold value. This is then passed through

the sigmoid function. The equation for the transition in a neuron is :

a = 1/(1 + exp(- x)) where

x = ai wi - Q

i

ai is the activation for neuron i

wi is the weight

Q is the threshold subtracted

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Activation Function

e.

An activation function f performs a mathematical operation on the

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signal output. The most common activation functions are:

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problem to be solved by the network.

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SC - Neural Network Artificial Neuron Model

2.2 Activation Functions f - Types

Over the years, researches tried several functions to convert the input into

an outputs. The most commonly used functions are described below.

- I/P Horizontal axis shows sum of inputs .

- O/P Vertical axis shows the value the function produces ie output.

- All functions f are designed to produce values between 0 and 1.

Threshold Function

A threshold (hard-limiter) activation function is either a binary type or

a bipolar type as shown below.

O/p 1 if the weighted sum of the inputs is +ve,

1

0 if the weighted sum of the inputs is -ve.

in

I/P

1 if I 0

Y = f (I) = e.0 if I < 0

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1

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w.

I/P 1 if I 0

Y = f (I) =

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-1 -1 if I < 0

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SC - Neural Network Artificial Neuron Model

Piecewise Linear Function

This activation function is also called saturating linear function and can

have either a binary or bipolar range for the saturation limits of the output.

The mathematical model for a symmetric saturation function is described

below.

-1 for a -ve weighted sum of inputs,

O/p

+1 1 for a +ve weighted sum of inputs.

I proportional to input for values between +1

I/P

and -1 weighted sum,

-1

1 if I 0

Y = f (I) = I if -1 I 1

-1 if I < 0

in

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SC - Neural Network Artificial Neuron Model

Sigmoidal Function (S-shape function)

The nonlinear curved S-shape function is called the sigmoid function.

This is most common type of activation used to construct the neural

networks. It is mathematically well behaved, differentiable and strictly

increasing function.

written in the form:

1 O/P

1

= 2.0

= 1.0

Y = f (I) = , 0 f(I) 1

- I

1+e

= 0.5

0.5 = 1/(1 + exp(- I)) , 0 f(I) 1

This is explained as

I/P

0 for large -ve input values,

-4 -2 0 1 2

in

1 for large +ve values, with

a smooth transition between the two.

e.

is slope parameter also called shape

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By varying different shapes of the function can be obtained which

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asymptotic values.

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SC - Neural Network Artificial Neuron Model

Example :

The neuron shown consists of four inputs with the weights.

x1=1 +1 Activation

Function

x2=2 I

+1

y

X3=5 -1

Summing

xn=8 Junction

+2 =0

Threshold

Synaptic

Weights

in

+1

e. +1

I = XT . W = 1 2 5 8 = 14

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-1

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+2

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= (1 x 1) + (2 x 1) + (5 x -1) + (8 x 2) = 14

w.

y (threshold) = 1;

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SC - Neural Network Architecture

3. Neural Network Architectures

large number of simple highly interconnected processing elements as

artificial neuron in a network structure that can be represented using a

directed graph G, an ordered 2-tuple (V, E) , consisting a set V of vertices

and a set E of edges.

- The vertices may represent neurons (input/output) and

- The edges may represent synaptic links labeled by the weights attached.

Example :

e5

V1 V3

V5

e2

e4

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e5

V2

e3

V4 e.

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Vertices V = { v1 , v2 , v3 , v4, v5 }

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Edges E = { e1 , e2 , e3 , e4, e5 }

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SC - Neural Network Architecture

3.1 Single Layer Feed-forward Network

weights , where the inputs are directly connected to the outputs, via a

series of weights. The synaptic links carrying weights connect every input

to every output , but not other way. This way it is considered a network of

feed-forward type. The sum of the products of the weights and the inputs

is calculated in each neuron node, and if the value is above some threshold

(typically 0) the neuron fires and takes the activated value (typically 1);

otherwise it takes the deactivated value (typically -1).

w11 y1

x1

w21

w12

w22 y2

in

x2

w2m e.

w1m

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wn1

wn2

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xn wnm

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Single layer

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Neurons

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SC - Neural Network Architecture

3.2 Multi Layer Feed-forward Network

this class of network, besides having the input and the output layers,

also have one or more intermediary layers called hidden layers. The

computational units of the hidden layer are known as hidden neurons.

Input Output

hidden layer hidden layer

weights vij weights wjk y1

w11

x1 v11

w12

v21 y1 y2

x2 w11

v1m

v2m y3

vn1 w1m

V m

ym

in

Hidden Layer

x e.

neurons yj

yn

Input Layer

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neurons xi Output Layer

neurons zk

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- The input layer neurons are linked to the hidden layer neurons; the

weights on these links are referred to as input-hidden layer weights.

- The hidden layer neurons and the corresponding weights are referred to

- A multi-layer feed-forward network with input neurons, m1 neurons in

the first hidden layers, m2 neurons in the second hidden layers, and n

output neurons in the output layers is written as ( - m1 - m2 n ).

The Fig. above illustrates a multilayer feed-forward network with a

configuration ( - m n).

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SC - Neural Network Architecture

3.3 Recurrent Networks

network has at least one feed back loop.

Example :

y1

x1

y1 y2

Feedback

x2 links

Yn

ym

in

X e.

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Input Layer Hidden Layer Output Layer

neurons xi neurons yj neurons zk

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SC - Neural Network Learning methods

4. Learning Methods in Neural Networks

The learning methods in neural networks are classified into three basic types :

- Supervised Learning,

- Reinforced Learning

- presence or absence of teacher and

- Hebbian,

- Gradient descent,

- Competitive and

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- Stochastic learning.

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SC - Neural Network Learning methods

Classification of Learning Algorithms

Fig. below indicate the hierarchical representation of the algorithms

mentioned in the previous slide. These algorithms are explained in

subsequent slides.

Neural Network

Learning algorithms

(Error based) (Output based)

Gradient descent

in

Least Mean Back

Square Propagatione.

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SC - Neural Network Learning methods

Supervised Learning

- A teacher is present during learning process and presents expected

output.

- Every input pattern is used to train the network.

- The "error" generated is used to change network parameters that result

improved performance.

Unsupervised Learning

- No teacher is present.

in

features in the input patterns.

Reinforced learning

e.

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- A teacher is present but does not present the expected or desired output

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- A reward is given for correct answer computed and a penalty for a wrong

w.

answer.

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Note : The Supervised and Unsupervised learning methods are most popular

forms of learning compared to Reinforced learning.

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SC - Neural Network Learning methods

Hebbian Learning

Hebb proposed a rule based on correlative weight adjustment.

In this rule, the input-output pattern pairs (Xi , Yi) are associated by

the weight matrix W, known as correlation matrix computed as

n

W= Xi YiT

i=1

T

where Yi is the transpose of the associated output vector Yi

researchers (Kosko, Anderson, Lippman) .

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SC - Neural Network Learning methods

Gradient descent Learning

This is based on the minimization of errors E defined in terms of weights

and the activation function of the network.

differentiable, because the updates of weight is dependent on

the gradient of the error E.

- If Wij is the weight update of the link connecting the i th and the j th

Wij = ( E / Wij )

gradient with reference to the weight Wij .

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Note : The Hoffs Delta rule and Back-propagation learning rule are

the examples of Gradient descent learning.

e.

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SC - Neural Network Learning methods

Competitive Learning

- In this method, those neurons which respond strongly to the input

- When an input pattern is presented, all neurons in the layer compete,

- This strategy is called "winner-takes-all".

Stochastic Learning

- In this method the weights are adjusted in a probabilistic fashion.

employed by Boltzmann and Cauchy machines.

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SC - Neural Network Systems

5. Taxonomy Of Neural Network Systems

Learning methods have been discussed. Here the popular neural network

systems are listed. The grouping of these systems in terms of architectures

and the learning methods are presented in the next slide.

ADALINE (Adaptive Linear Neural Element)

AM (Associative Memory)

Boltzmann machines

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BSB ( Brain-State-in-a-Box)

Cauchy machines

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Hopfield Network

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Neoconition

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Perceptron

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SC - Neural Network Systems

Classification of Neural Network

A taxonomy of neural network systems based on Architectural types

and the Learning methods is illustrated below.

Learning Methods

descent

feed-forward Hopfield, Hopfield, SOFM

Percepton,

feed- forward MLFF,

RBF

Networks BSB, Cauchy

Hopfield, machines

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Table : Classification of Neural Network Systems with respect to

e.

learning methods and Architecture types

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SC - Neural Network Single Layer learning

6. Single-Layer NN Systems

to one output layer of neurons is known as Single Layer Perceptron.

w11 y1

x1

w21

w12

w22 y2

x2

w2m

w1m

wn1

in

wn2

xn wnm

e. ym

ub

Single layer

Perceptron

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1 if net j 0 n

y j = f (net j) = where net j = xi wij

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i=1

0 if net j < 0

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SC - Neural Network Single Layer learning

Learning Algorithm : Training Perceptron

The training of Perceptron is a supervised learning algorithm where

weights are adjusted to minimize error when ever the output does

not match the desired output.

K+1 K

i.e. W = W

ij ij

If the output is 1 but should have been 0 then the weights are

decreased on the active input link

K+1 K

i.e. W = W . xi

ij ij

If the output is 0 but should have been 1 then the weights are

in

increased on the active input link

i.e. W

K+1

= W

K

+ . xi

e.

ij ij

ub

Where

et

K+1 K

W is the new adjusted weight, W is the old weight

cs

ij ij

w.

ww

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SC - Neural Network Single Layer learning

Perceptron and Linearly Separable Task

sets can be separated by a straight line.

- Generalizing, a set of points in n-dimensional space are linearly

separable if there is a hyper plane of (n-1) dimensions separates

the sets.

Example

S1 S2 S1

S2

in

(a) Linearly separable patterns (b) Not Linearly separable patterns

e.

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Note : Perceptron cannot find weights for classification problems that

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SC - Neural Network Single Layer learning

XOR Problem :

Exclusive OR operation

X2

Input x1 Input x2 Output

(0, 1) (1, 1)

0 0 0

1 1 0 Even parity

0 1 1

1 0 1 Odd parity (0, 0) X1

(0, 1)

XOR truth table

Fig. Output of XOR in

X1 , x2 plane

- There is no way to draw a single straight line so that the circles are on

one side of the line and the dots on the other side.

- Perceptron is unable to find a line separating even parity input

in

patterns from odd parity input patterns.

e.

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SC - Neural Network Single Layer learning

Perceptron Learning Algorithm

The algorithm is illustrated step-by-step.

Step 1 :

where x0 = 1 is the bias input.

Let O be the output neuron.

Step 2 :

Step 3 :

Iterate through the input patterns Xj of the training set using the

n

weight set; ie compute the weighted sum of inputs net j = xi wi

i=1

for each input pattern j .

Step 4 :

in

1 if net j 0 n

y j = f (net j) =

e. where net j = xi wij

i=1

0 if net j < 0

ub

Step 5 :

et

cs

If all the input patterns have been classified correctly, then output

w.

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Step 6 :

Otherwise, update the weights as given below :

Then wi = wi - xi , i= 0, 1, 2, . . . . , n

If the computed outputs yj is 0 but should have been 1,

Then wi = wi + xi , i= 0, 1, 2, . . . . , n

where is the learning parameter and is constant.

Step 7 :

goto step 3

END

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SC - Neural Network ADALINE

6.2 ADAptive LINear Element (ADALINE)

where its weights are determined by the normalized least mean

square (LMS) training law. The LMS learning rule is also referred to as

delta rule. It is a well-established supervised training method that

has been used over a wide range of diverse applications.

x1 W1

x2 W2

Output

Neuron

in

xn Wn

e.

Error

ub

et

+

cs

Desired Output

w.

ww

phase of ADALINE, the input vector as well as the desired output

are presented to the network.

[The complete training mechanism has been explained in the next slide. ]

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SC - Neural Network ADALINE

ADALINE Training Mechanism

(Ref. Fig. in the previous slide - Architecture of a simple ADALINE)

with an extra feedback loop.

T

X = [x1 , x2 , . . . , xn] as well as desired output are presented

to the network.

network with fixed weights will result in a scalar output.

in

scalar value.

e.

used during the training phase.

ub

Once the weights are properly adjusted, the response of the

trained unit can be tested by applying various inputs, which are

et

cs

w.

ww

Usage of ADLINE :

In practice, an ADALINE is used to

- Make binary decisions; the output is sent through a binary threshold.

38

www.csetube.in

www.csetube.in

SC - Neural Network Applications

7. Applications of Neural Network

Neural Network Applications can be grouped in following categories:

Clustering:

A clustering algorithm explores the similarity between patterns and

places similar patterns in a cluster. Best known applications include

data compression and data mining.

Classification/Pattern recognition:

The task of pattern recognition is to assign an input pattern

(like handwritten symbol) to one of many classes. This category

includes algorithmic implementations such as associative memory.

Function approximation :

The tasks of function approximation is to find an estimate of the

unknown function subject to noise. Various engineering and scientific

in

disciplines require function approximation.

e.

Prediction Systems:

ub

et

cs

w.

System may be dynamic and may produce different results for the

same input data based on system state (time).

ww

39

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