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September 17

21720: Human
Resource
Management 2009
DECLARATION
I declare that the work in this assignment is my own. All ideas, sources and Human Resource
works are clearly acknowledged and accurately cited and referenced.
Management -
Portfolio

NAME : ________________________________
SIGNATURE: ________________________________

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Table of Contents

No. Topics Page Numbers

1. Introduction

1.1 Company’s Profile

1.2 Company`s overview

2. Job Description
2.1 Job Summary

2.1.1 Responsibilities

2.1.2 Qualifications

2.1.3 Job/Person Specification

2.1.4 Accountability

2.2 Employment Conditions

2.3 Link with Human resource management

2.4 Link with Apple`s Goals and Strategies

3. Recruitment

3.1 Begin Recruitment

3.2 Announcement of Positions

3.2.1 Advertisements

3.2.2 Online Advertisements

4. Selection

4.1 Receiving complete Application/Resume and begin the Review Process

4.2 Committee/Face to Face Interviews

4.3 Reference Check

4.4 Compliance Review

4.5 Medical Examinations

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4.6 Appointment of Candidate

4.7 Induction Program

5. Remuneration Management

5.1 Methods of setting pay rates

5.2 Determining Pay rate

6. Performance Management

6.1 Contribution of Performance Management in Achieving Organizational Goals

6.2 Project Manager Performance Reporting System Guidelines

6.3 Performance Evaluation Criteria

6.4 Performance Reporting

6.5 Performance Appraisal

7. Contribution to Good Corporate Governance

7.1 Recruiting and Selecting Staff

7.2 Managing Performance & Rewards

7.3 Occupational Health and Safety

7.4 Apple`s Corporate governance guidelines

8. Key Learnings from Portfolio

9. Bibliography

10. Appendix

List of Tables

1. Table-Performance Management

2. Table-Remuneration

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1. Introduction

1.1 Company’s Profile


Apple Computers Inc. is a world renowned company in the field of personal computing and digital media
distribution. The company has become eminent for its innovative user interfaces and innovative technology
in the realm of desktops and laptops which feature its unique and intuitive operating system. Its main
products include Mac mini, iMac, and MacBook for consumer and education markets, and more powerful
MacBook Pro and Mac Pro for high end consumers and professionals. Apple took the whole world by
storm with the introduction of its portable music players (iPod) and its online music store (iTunes). Apple`s
innovation has brought it into a new market of mobile phones (iPhone) which has changed the very concept
of a mobile phone. Other successful products include servers (Xserve), wireless networking equipment
(Airport) and its FileMaker subsidiary that provides database software (Apple Inc 2009). The mission of the
organization is in spite of their success in the hardware category “We will always be a software company”
(Apple Inc 2008).

1.2 Position overview


The prime positions in the organization are held by William V. Campbell as The Chairman of Apple
Computer Inc, Timothy D. Cook is designated as the COO and the most prominently designated individual
is Steven P. Jobs as the CEO and the Director of Apple Computers Inc. (Apple Inc 2008).

The position under focus is of a Project Manager posted at Santa Clara Valley, USA. It is a full time job at
the headquarters of Apple Inc at Cupertino in California. The iTunes Store is the world's most popular music
store on the internet. It's a fast-paced development organization and needs a good project manager to take up
the responsibility for shipping new features (Apple Inc 2009).

2. Job Description

A job description indicates the undertakings, obligations and restraints that are all a part of any venture. It
identifies what is done, why it is done, where it is done, and briefly, how it is done (Mathis & Jackson 2007,
p. 221). The description of the job is done by elaborating the tasks to be performed, equipment to be used,
the working conditions and the performance standards (Dessler et al 2007, p.100). According to Stone a
good job description should elucidate and focus on the job and the position and not on any particular
individual that fills that position (Stone 2005).

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2.1 Job Summary
Aspirants having established credentials and performance history in the field of freighting or shipping, along
with complicated and intricate client related matters within limited timeframes and meeting deadlines are
favored by Apple. This requires active involvement and participation on behalf of the project manager in
matters such as industry or company evaluation, operational blueprint reviews and consultations, statistics
structuring meets, experimentation, proof-of-concept, management of dealer relations, etc.

2.1.1 Responsibilities:
• Oversee all aspects of project information for multiple projects including timelines, resource
allocation, scope and definition

• Drive business, functional, financial, and reporting requirements, often writing them yourself

• Own overall cross-functional project schedules including development on the iTunes Store, back-end
financial systems, and other Apple groups

• Collaborate with IS&T, Treasury, legal, Tax, finance, operations and other organizations both within
and outside of Apple to develop solutions for partnerships and promotions and other new business.
(Apple Inc. 2009)

2.1.2 Qualifications:
• At least 4 years of project management in software development.

• Outstanding communication and presentation skills, written and verbal, at multiple levels of the
organization.

• Ability to participate in and possibly facilitate requirements brainstorming sessions.

• Strong technical proficiency: server architecture and development, SQL, and bonus for past
programming experience.

• E-Commerce and business experience: orders, billing, tax, payments, invoicing, royalties, licensing,
etc.

• Digital media experience, SAP integration experience. (Apple Inc. 2009)

2.1.3 Job/Person Specification


• Experience: 8 - 10+ years of experience in Operations related project management.
• Proven track record leading large and complex system projects.
• 3 -5 years experience managing Business Process design or Re- engineering activities, PMI training.
• Consulting experience considered a plus. (Apple Inc. 2009)

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2.1.4 Accountability

A manager is answerable for any undertaking that he takes up and must be strictly observed at all times by
the governing bodies within the organization. He must adhere to all the regulations and guidelines of the
organization and must thereby operate within the boundaries of professional ethics (Dessler 2004). A project
manager should act as a guide and share complete knowledge of the overall activity as a part of his job.

2.2 Employment Conditions

The successful candidate has to fulfill certain needs before becoming a part of the organization officially,
which means before finalizing the selection the following conditions have to be fulfilled.

2.2.1 General Conditions


Lucrative aspirants must acquire and preserve a suitable safety sanctions and some other essential
conditions (De Cieri & Kramar 2003).

• Proof of identity and legal right to work in the United States as required by and in accordance with
the process and procedures of the U.S. Immigration reform and Control Act (IRCA).

• Due to US Department of Commerce requirements, if not a U.S. citizen, U.S. permanent resident,
Canadian citizen, political refugee, or political asylum holder, you will be required to sign an
assurance regarding obligations not to export controlled technical data or software to certain
countries.

• Must sign the Intellectual Property Agreement and return the signed agreement.

• Must receive a satisfactory background check in accordance with Apple policy.

2.2.2 Probationary Period

The successful candidates would have to sign a 12 month probationary period agreement which includes
training and performance management to determine the satisfactory work capabilities (Bartlet 2002.) Apple
closely monitors its new project manager`s performance as a large portion of responsibility is rested on the
shoulders of a manager of iTunes, which also controls a number of other departments in the organization.
Apple may terminate a contract during this probationary period in case of unsatisfactory performance of the
candidate.

2.3 Link with Human Resource Management

Job descriptions supply the essential details for internal assessment that include availability of positions,
number of jobs and the strategic importance of the jobs. Human resource specialists can redesign jobs to
eradicate redundant tasks and integrate responsibilities on the basis of a clear identification of the current

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functions being performed and the time spent on performing them. The fundamental aim of human resource
management is to provide for the presence of a compliant and accommodating team in an establishment.
There are four major aspects of the human resource management, namely operational, organizational,
personal and societal (Project Management Institute 2006).

• Societal Objectives: The project manager should be morally and communally prepared to meet the
wants of, and tackle the issues plaguing society, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects
of these charges upon the establishment.

• Organizational Objectives: To acknowledge the function of a project manager, in the field of human
resource management, in generating organizational efficiency. In short, this branch essentially exists
for the sole purpose of benefitting the establishment and ensuring its progress.

• Functional Objectives: The project manager should supervise and ensure that the department caters
to the needs of the establishment in a stable and steady manner.

2.4 Link with Apple`s Goals and Strategies


Apple has predefined certain objectives for its project managers such as portfolio management, business
planning, project planning and execution. A perfect alignment of these activities leads to the portfolio
element being fed by strategy, the project management element being fed by the portfolio and the team`s
execution is fed by the project manager. In certain cases, establishments handle all enterprises and
undertakings in a similar manner, irrespective of the entrepreneurial tactic or stratagem that the
establishment opts for (Pinto 1989 & Covin 1989). Therefore, if the enterprise’s business tactic is converted
into project related objectives, its .Thus, when the organization's business strategy is translated into project-
level goals, its specialized rareness and exclusivity is amplified multifold. (Mathis & Jackson 2007).

3. Recruitment

Recruitment is the practice of attracting a collection of eligible candidates for an available post through
particular measures like publicity, broadcasts and announcements (Dessler et al 2007, p.168). Apple has its
recruitment in accordance to ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), along with a strong implementation of
Equal Pay Act (1963), Civil Rights Act (1991), Congressional Accountability Act (1995) and other
legislations laid down by the US government (See Appendix 9). It is rather note-worthy that Apple has
shown its capability in demonstrating such a cohesive branding know-how all through their commodities,
promotion, vending and distributing, assisting clients, and hiring or appointing candidates.

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3.1 Commence Recruitment

The Director of Human Resources at Apple Headquarters in Cupertino completes the following documents
before there is an announcement for a position:

• Recruitment request form

• Job description

• Job classification and suggested salary range

• Interview questions

• Test/Skill evaluation tools

• Criteria for evaluating candidates

3.2 Announcement of Positions


The Human resource department announces the open position and draft advertisements. The job descriptions
are circulated to about 340 agencies, universities and organizations. The Hiring Unit has to bear the cost of
all other advertising expenses.

3.2.1 Advertisements

Advertising is a prominent source to build a pool of Candidates:

• Print media – Newspapers: State, national or local; Other: specialist magazines/journals (See
Appendix 8)

• Other media – radio, television

• Decisions must be made as to which media to use and how the advertisement should be designed to
target suitable applicants

3.2.2 Online Advertisements

This refers to recruitment conducted online; taking advantage of ease of use and the wide audience that can
be tapped into using the web (Dessler et al 2007).For Example – jobs.Apple.com, www.glassdoor.com,
www.seek.com.

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4. Selection

“Selection is the process of choosing the best person for the job from the pool of applicants attracted during
the recruitment process” (Dessler et al 2007, p.209). Paul Collins derived an impressive system of selecting
a project manager for any given project for internal recruitment:

PROJECT MANAGER SELECTION PROJECT

ASSESSMENT MATRIX DATE:

MUST/WANT NAME NAME NAME

PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS

LEADERSHIP OF TEAM M

COACH/MENTOR IN PM M

DEVELOP RESOURCE PLANS M

KNOWLEDGE OF PROJECT PROCESS M

TECHNICAL SKILLS

CHEMICAL PROCESS EXP. W

ENGINEERING BACKGROUND M

PERSONAL SKILLS

VERBAL COMMUNICATIONS W

CONFLICT RESOLUTION/DIPLOMACY M

STRONG TEAM PLAYER W

BUSINESS SKILLS

STRATEGIC THINKER M

ABILITY TO SERVE AS CUSTOMER M

BUSINESS CASE DEVELOPMENT W

SCORING FOR WANTS 1= No skill/experience 3= Average

2= Little skill/experience 4= Above Average

5= Exceptional

SCORING FOR MUSTS Either YES or NO

Table 1. - Source - Collins 1998

This table is quite helpful as it takes into consideration an integrated and comprehensive outlook regarding
project manager aspirants. It also includes scope for the involvement of a selection precedent that is

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considered appropriate to a particular project. Scores are assigned to each candidate based on their
capabilities, and if two aspirants obtain similar or even close enough scores, the final outcome would be
based on which of the two is more readily available. Collins states, "the process focuses on the premise that
a successful project manager must master two primary skill sets: the project manager's technical skills and
leadership skills” (Collins 1998). The logic behind such a calculated but decisive selection process is to
successfully unite the recruitment process with the enterprising techniques of the establishment so as to help
increase its efficiency (Stone 2005, p. 211)

4.1 Receiving complete Application/Resume and begin the Review Process

Applicants are accepted or rejected on the basis of their qualifications and experience in the field of
engineering management. The criterion for selection is determined before the actual screening takes place.
Once the screening is complete using the criteria of performance and experience, the Hiring Unit interviews
at least three applicants.

4.2 Committee/Face to Face Interviews

The interview includes questions that are relevant to the job under focus. The interviewing panel members
have to fill the interview evaluation form for each applicant interviewed which is submitted to the Human
Resource department. The COO reviews the search committee for all new hires for Project manager level.
Sample Questions:

• What is most important to you in a job?

• Why should we hire you?

• What are your strengths and weaknesses?

Technical Interview:

• Are you familiar with OS 9?

• If a customer asks you to sync music from their iPod to computer, what do you say?

• How do you answer a customer who wants to share music with his friend via iTunes?

4.3 Reference Check

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Before an offer can be made to the selected candidates a reference check has to be done by the Hiring
Manager. This manager would personally contact all the references to complete the Candidate Reference
Check.
• Academic references

• Prior work references

• Financial references

• Law enforcement records

• Personal references

4.4 Compliance Review

Once the desired aspirant has been chosen by the department manager, certain documents to be assessed
must be handed over to the human resources director, namely:
• Request to recruit form – offer section completed

• Affirmative action compliance report

• The rationale behind selecting the final aspirant

4.5 Medical Examinations

The applicant must endure a fitness assessment test. Often, the job is offered to an applicant only once it has
been confirmed that he is physically stable and enjoys good health after having taken the test. The physical
examination/test is done for following purposes:
• To detect if individual is carrying any infectious disease.

• Determines whether the applicant is fit to perform work.

• Determines if there are certain physical capabilities, which differentiate successful and less
successful employees.

• Medical check-up protects the applicant from undertaking work that would be hazardous to his
health (Stone 2005).

4.6 Appointment of Candidate

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The Hiring Department forwards the Non-Academic Appointment Form to the Human Resources
Department. The newly hired project manager has to complete all the forms and return them to the Human
Resource Department before joining. The induction program cannot commence till all these formalities have
been completed (San Jose State University Research Foundation 2004).

4.7 Induction Program

The induction program provides a planned introduction of the job, organization and the environment. It is a
quintessential part of recruitment as it provides familiarity with the roles and responsibilities within the rules
and norms of the organization`s culture (Stone 2005). Induction programs have been found to contribute to
improved socialization and to increase organizational commitment. Helps to reduce new employees’ stress
levels and assist them to settle into their new role more quickly. Apple uses the buddy system – a method of
linking every new employee with an existing employee who then assists them to settle into the workplace
(San Jose State University Research Foundation 2004).

5. Remuneration Management

Remuneration implies the pay packet given to any staff member for the work done by them, their efforts and
services. Sum total of the remuneration comprises of all the ways of payment and gratuities and incentives
that may be both fiscal and non-fiscal, and that are presented to the staff. Two types of remuneration are
direct remuneration that basically consists of monetary rewards such as a pay packet or other value add-ons,
and indirect remuneration that are non-monetary rewards such as reimbursements or such other services, that
although are fiscal in nature, yet cannot be accepted in the form of money. However, these benefits can be
traded with money (Dessler 2004). The strategies and policies have to be implemented for a just and
balanced reward management system where the rewarding would be fair and consistent without any bias
(Armstrong & Murlis 2007).

5.1 Methods of setting pay rates

• Collective agreements (EBAs)

• Individual arrangements (AWAs or common law contracts)

• Awards

5.2 Determining Pay rate

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• Salary Surveys - Government and commercial salary surveys can provide useful information

• Job evaluation - Determines ‘worth’ or ‘value’ of job through systematic comparison of one job
relative to another

• Grouping jobs into pay grades - After determining the relative worth of each job, jobs are grouped
into pay grades. A pay grade is made up on jobs of approximately equal difficulty or importance

• Pricing each pay grade - Pay rates are assigned to each pay grade

Remuneration plans at Apple are built on four principles:

• Salary

• Trust

• Few classifications

• Pay-for-performance (PFP)

Apple has one of the most well balanced remuneration policies in the corporate world today. They have been
well established as an employees` company, where good salary packages, insurance and a well structured
superannuation program have established it as a fair and balanced organization for its employees.
Remuneration comprises of reserve procuring schemes, 401k and adjustable and formative health and
wellness schemes. Furthermore, apple allows its staff member’s rebates on its commodities, along with
incentives such as paid vacation schemes, and other education – related alternatives. (See Appendix 2)

Rationale behind Apple`s Compensation Program

• Engage and absorb the coveted class and combination of staff workers.

• Encourage their staff to enhance their efficiency and efforts in a steady manner.

• Strengthen the establishment’s strategic standards and principals and the coveted system of
operating within the establishment.

• To be just and unbiased towards its staff members.

• Offer customary and periodic reimbursement and efficiency audits. (Stone 2005, p. 430)

6. Performance Management

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This essentially helps recognize, promote, assess, calculate, review, reform, and remunerate worker
performance (Mathis & Jackson 2007). Performance management basically merges the establishment of
aims, the evaluation of work accomplishments and its execution and growth to form a combined system
whose goal is to guarantee that worker efficiency is directly proportional to the enterprise’s crucial goals.
(Dessler et al 2007, p.236).

6.1 Strategic Purpose of a Performance Management System

• Lower Stress: - A performance management system reduces friction between managers and their
subordinates as it encourages frequent communication. A lower level of stress is an important
concept of the OH & S policy of Apple.

• Moderate to High Levels of confidence: - A balanced performance management system supported by


a strong communication network would help everyone in the organization in understanding what is
expected of them and the rules and regulations to be followed.

• Focused on performance: - The department for reviewing the performance of the employees can in
turn convert every employee`s performance into a tool to improve the performance of the
organization.
• Given that these performance reviews happen more frequently, the discussion centers on
performance of objectives rather than being dominated by the employees’ needs.

• Planning: - In case of regular performance management program that has periodic monitoring, the
managers and their subordinates become better at planning and executing the organization`s
objectives.

• Human Capital Development: - The Performance management systems although are designed to
improve the organization`s performance but it also leads to personal development of an employee as
they get more affianced with the organization.

6.2 Project Manager Performance Reporting System Guidelines


The objectives of performance reporting are to:
• Encourage Project Managers to implement a business culture of continuous improvement to
benefit themselves and their clients
• Provide the Department of Commerce with performance data from past and current contracts to
identify the best performing Project Managers.

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• Ensure that the best performing prequalified contractors and consultants are offered more
tendering opportunities than others.
• Share information with other Government agencies on contractor and consultant performance on
current and past contracts.
• Facilitate the development of a more complete understanding of project procurement by
identifying opportunities for improving future project stakeholder relationships and management
practices (San Jose State University Research Foundation 2004).
Procurement Practice Guide Performance Management provides guidance to reporting on
construction contractors and all categories of consultants. Definition and Relative Weighting of
Grading:

Grading Definition Rating*


Superior Standard well above the acceptable standard of 10
performance
Good Standard often exceeds the acceptable standard of 7
performance
Acceptable Meets the acceptable standard of performance 5
Marginal Mostly meets the acceptable standard of 3
performance but has some weakness.
Unsatisfactory Well below the acceptable standard of 0
performance
Table 2. - Source: (NSW Department of Commerce 2008)

The performance score for a Project Manager on an engagement is based on the average of all
performance reports for that engagement.

6.3 Performance Evaluation Criteria


The Performance Evaluation Criteria include: Environmental management, OH&S management,
Procurement management, Risk management, Communications management, Human Resource
management. (See Appendix 3 )

6.4 Performance Reporting


• Management of performance reporting using the Department of Commerce Contractor
Performance Reporting System.

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• Consult with the contractor in the preparation of Contractor Performance Reports (CPRs).
(See Appendix 4)

• Provide the contractor with a copy of CPRs.

• Ensure that CPRs are fully complete, clearly legible, is well articulated, is readily
understood (through feedback and consultation with the contractor and key report
recipients), provide sufficient information and comments, and that comments are congruent
with the performance ratings given.
• Ensure that CPRs are submitted promptly at the required dates or when any aspect of
unsatisfactory performance is identified (San Jose State University Research Foundation
2004).

6.5 Performance Appraisal


Performance appraisal is a process of identification, evaluation and development of an employee`s
performance to meet personal goals and organization`s standards (Dessler 2007). Performance appraisal
programs provide information to improve job performance, to determine the future promotion strategy and
establishes a remuneration policy (Montague 2007).

Steps in appraising performance:


• Defining and understanding the job

• The appraisal itself: appraisal methods

• Providing feedback: the appraisal interview

Rationale behind Performance Management and Appraisal

“Performance management aims to improve organizational, functional, unit and individual performance by
linking objectives of each. It incorporates job design, recruitment and selection, training and development,
career planning and compensation and benefits, in addition to performance appraisal.” (Stone 2005, p. 264)

A performance management system usually provides a graphical report of compliance, thus, building a valid
plan for the development of its employees (Thomson 2003). Performance management helps an organization
like Apple to set clear objectives and targets for its employees, that would eventually result in a highly
dedicated and task oriented workforce. A performance management system does not only enhance the
employee`s performance but also improves the performance of the whole organization (Thomson 2003).

7. Contribution to Good Corporate Governance

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7.1 Recruiting and Selecting Staff

This HRM function implements equality as far as employment opportunities are considered (EOO). It
supports corporate governance by selecting employees on the basis of their merit and qualifications without
any prejudice or bias.

7.2 Managing Performance & Rewards

This HRM function suggests fair and responsible remuneration rewards for employees and key executives.
Corporate governance requires that the executives remain motivated throughout, and to be so, they need to
be given the right incentives to do the right thing (Becht 2004).

7.3 Occupational Health and Safety

The organization has to follow safety policies and OHS legislations which include a first aid policy, security
policy, pastoral care policy and HIV/AIDS workplace policy.

Three areas of activity for HRM’s role in corporate governance

• Technical Issues- A project manager has to follow rules and adhere to the responsibilities, which is
usually dealt with through legislation.

• Political Issues – A project manager has to resolve professional conflicts of interest and roles
dominated by sectional interest and influence.

• Cultural Issues – A project manager must have organisational regard for ethics, honesty and the law.

There are many issues where HRM departments can demonstrate ethical credibility and authority:
Discrimination, recruitment, whistleblower, basic rights, privacy, testing, salary and benefits, employee
protection out of these the ones that concern a project manager are (Dessler 2007):

• Workplace discrimination – A project manager must be rational and unbiased with his subordinates
and clients

• Sexual harassment – A project manager should abstain from such activities.

• Affirmative action and Equality – A manager is responsible for maintaining affirmative action and
equality.

7.4 Apple`s Corporate governance guidelines

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Apple has set some cornerstones for its contribution to good corporate governance which includes: strong
work principles and ethics, cognitive and unbiased decision making and a constant monitoring of
acquiescence and employee performance (See Appendix 6).

8. Key Learning Points from the Portfolio

This portfolio has been very productive in providing an insight into the various aspects of an organization
from the point of interviewing a candidate to the parting of the ways of the organization and the employee.
Human Resource Management is an anthology of knowledge and practices that clearly explain the nature of
work and improve the intra organizational relationships (Bratton & Gold 2001).The process of building a
portfolio has clearly and explicitly explained the importance of Human Resource Management in a firm. It
highlights the methods for an organization to attract the appropriate candidate for an apt position based on
merit and qualifications; it also looks into the matters of workplace comfort for an employee, methods of
determining the remuneration and other benefits; and also the resolution of conflicts at workplace.

The presentations in the class followed by relevant discussions were a worthwhile effort in understanding
the most quintessential elements and practices of Human Resource Management in a practical way. Each
presentation provided a diverse view of the issues faced by most HR departments. The pseudo brainstorming
that took place during the Q & A sessions after each presentation led to a large scale exchange of views and
perspectives of the students about various Human Resource practices. The diversity in the selection of topics
each week created an environment of curiosity and constructive criticism, thus, a better understanding of the
Human Resource Management Process. The immense contribution of these presentations would help a
student deal with the Human resource issues whether as an employee or an employer in the future.

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