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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

In conventional two way flat slab constructions, the need of longer spans and/or
the necessity for heavier loads demands increased slab thickness in order to limit
deflections. As a solution to this, concrete below the neutral axis is eliminated, this
allows an economic increase on the total thickness of the slab with the creation of
voids in a rhythmic arrangement. Therefore, there occurs a reduction on the
structure self-weight and a more efficient use of materials, steel and concrete. The
resulting slab system is typically denoted as waffle slab construction. For long span
structures like auditorium ,car parking slots and meeting hall which are having
spans more than 20 m, providing columns within short spans for the structure will
not be appealing and it occupies more space. If flat slab construction is employed,
the columns can be provided without soffit beams and at the corners of the floor
system. Waffle and grid slabs are forms of flat slab construction and hence, the
columns need not be provided and the entire floor is supported at the corner
columns. This reduces the space occupied by the columns and also reduces the
concrete quantity incurred by columns. Providing waffle slabs give aesthetic
appearance and provides easier provision for false roof ceiling.

Fig 1.1 Waffle slab for roof construction

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Two way slabs supported on columns include flat plates, flat slabs, waffle labs and
solid slabs with beams along the column lines. Such slabs may be designed by any
procedure which satisfies the basic conditions of equilibrium and geometrical
compatibility, and the code requirements of strength and serviceability. Specific
design procedures have been laid out in the code for the design of flat slabs, which
are defined, according to the code as follows:

The term flat slab means a RCC slab with or without drops, supported generally
without a beams, by columns with or without flared column heads. A flat slab may
be a solid slab or may have a recesses formed on the soffit so that soffit
compromises a series of rib in two directions. The above definition is very broad
and encompasses the various possible column-supported two way slabs mentioned
earlier, including slabs with beam. Flat slabs may have an edge beam, which helps
in stiffening the discontinuous edge, increasing the shear capacity at the critical
exterior column supports and in supporting exterior walls, cladding, etc. They also
provide resistant at the slab edge, reducing the slab moments.

1.2 METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF FLAT SLABS

The following two methods are recommended for determining the bending
moments in the slab panel.

1. Direct Design Method(DDM)


2. Equivalent Frame Method or Elastic Frame Method(EFM)

These methods are applicable only to two way rectangular slabs, and in the case of
Direct Design Method, the recommendations apply to the gravity loading condition
alone. Both methods based on the equivalent frame concept. The slab panel is
defined as that part of the slab bounded on each of its four sides by the column
centerlines. Each slab panel is divided into column strips and middle strip. A
column strip is defined as a design strip having a width equal to the lesser of 0.25l1
or 0.25l2 on each side of the column centre lines , and includes within this width
any drop panel or beam. Here, l1 and l2 are the two span of the rectangular panel,

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measured centre to centre of the column supports. The middle strip is defined as
a design strip bound o each of its sides by the column strip (Fig 1.2)

Fig 1.2 Column and middle strips of flat slabs

The direct design method and equivalent frame method for gravity load analysis
differ essentially in the manner of determining the distribution of bending moments
along the span in the slab beam member. The procedure for apportioning the
factored moments between the middle strip and the column strip is identical for both
design methods. Both methods require the values of several relative stiffness
parameters in order to obtain the longitudinal and transverse distribution of factored
moments in the design strips. These dimensions may need to be modified
subsequently, and the analysis and design may therefore need to be suitably revised.

Drop Panels

The drop panel is formed by local thickening of the slab in the neighborhood of the
supporting column. Drop panels are provided mainly for the purpose of reducing

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shear stresses around the column supports. They also help in reducing the steel
requirement for negative moments at the column supports.

Column Capital

The column capital, provided at the top of the column is intended primarily to
increase the capacity of the slab to resist punching shear. The useful portion of the
column capital is restricted structurally to that portion which lies within the largest
pyramid or right circular cone which has a vertex angle of 90 degrees and can be
included entirely within the outlines of the column and the column head. This is
based on the assumption of a 45 degree failure plane outside which enlargements
of the support are considered ineffective in transferring shear to the column.

Transfer of Shear and Moments to Columns in Beamless 2-way slabs

At any column support, the total unbalanced moment in the slabs must be resisted
by the columns above and below in proportion to their relative stiffness. In slabs
without beams along the column line, the transfer of the unbalanced moment from
the slab to the column takes place partly through direct flexural stresses, and partly
through development of non-uniform shear stresses around the column head.

1.2.1 Direct design method

The DDM is simplified procedure of determining the negative and positive design
moments at critical sections in the slab using empirical moment coefficients. The
following conditions must be satisfied by the 2-way slab systems for the application
of DDM.

1. There must be at least 3 continuous spans in each direction.


2. Each panel must be rectangular, with long to short span ratio not exceeding
2.0; i.e., there should be significant 2 way slab action.
3. The columns must not be offset by more than 10 % of the span from either
axis between centre lines of successive columns.
4. The successive span length, in each direction, must not differ by more than
one-third of the longer span.

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5. The factored live load must not exceed 3 times of factored dead load.

1.2.2 Equivalent frame method


The equivalent frame method(EFM) of design of two way beam supported, flat
slabs, flat plates and waffle slabs is a more general method than DDM, and it is not
subjected to the limitations of DDM. Under lateral loads, recourse has to be taken
to the design by EFM. The equivalent frame concept has already been introduced
in section. Such a concept simplifies the analysis of a 3D RCC building by sub-
dividing it into a series of 2D frames centred on column lines in longitudinal as well
as transverse direction. The EFM differs from DDM in the determination of total
negative and positive design moments in the slab panels for the condition of
gravity loading. However the apportioning of the moment to column strips and
middle strips is common to both methods.

In the present study, the finite element models of waffle slab with openings at
different locations were developed and analysis was performed by using SAP2000
software. The results obtained from analysis were then compared to study the
variation in strength of waffle slab when openings are provided at different
locations. The static analysis of waffle slabs aims to determine the range and
distribution of displacements and stresses, and ultimate load carrying capacity of
the structure, considering a non-linear behaviour.

1.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WAFFLE SLAB

The advantages of using waffle slabs from the conventional flats slabs are savings
on the weight and materials if we design for longer spans of structures like
auditorium, car parking slots, theatres, meeting hall, etc. It has attractive soffit
appearance if exposed and economical when reusable formwork pans are employed.
The vertical penetrations which are used for providing electrical cables in the floor
between the ribs are easy. The waffle slab gives aesthetic appearance and provides
easier provision for false roof ceiling

The disadvantages of using the waffle slabs include the depth of slab between the
ribs which may control the fire rating and also requires special or proprietary

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framework. The construction of waffle slabs need skilled labours as it has greater
floor to floor height. Sometimes, larger vertical penetration is more difficult to
handle.

1.4 NEED FOR THE PRESENT STUDY

The waffle slabs are designed similar to grids where the actual moment distribution
is taken as for slabs on rigid supports. These may be inaccurate since, for the large
spans, the deflection of the supports around the panels cannot be neglected. Use of
grid (3D beam) elements to get the actual moment distribution on the floor would
predict more accurately. But this is tedious from a design perspective. It is felt that
availability of aids as available for two-way slabs would be beneficial from the
design point of view.

1.5 OBJECTIVES

The objective of the project is to study the rib-slab behavior under gravity loads
while determining the effect of geometrical parameters on the moment distribution
on ribs and slabs and to estimate the moment coefficient for waffle slabs of simple
geometry.

1.6 SCOPE

1. Aspect ratio for each panel is kept same as that of overall slab.

2. Rib depth limited to 3 times slab thickness.

3. Column drops are not considered.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

Chowdhury and Singh (2012) reported that when a large space within a building
needs to be covered without hindrance and supports, architects often deploy waffle
slabs to construct floors and ceilings. Structural designers analyse such slabs,
assuming the grid work as simply supported system (all four edges) and deriving
solutions based on displacement compatibility of beams or plates to arrive at an
approximate solution or performing a detailed finite element analysis (FEM) of the
slab beam system using any of the generalized finite element software available in
the market. This is so because no analytical solution or quick computational tool
exists, except for the case of slabs with all edges simply supported.

Galeb and Atiyah (2011) Waffle slab construction consists of rows of concrete
joists at right angles to each other with solid heads at the column (needed for shear
requirements) or with solid wide beam sections on the column centrelines for
uniform depth construction. Waffle slab construction allows a considerable
reduction in dead load as compared to conventional flat slab construction since the
slab thickness can be minimized due to the short span between the joists.

Somasekhar and Prabhakaran (2015) studied the emergence and evolution of


waffle slab construction for large areas. As a result of the evolution in architectural
design and new building management concepts, waffle slabs are on increasing
demand for structural designers, though it requires laborious numerical modelling.
Therefore, it becomes essential to fully understand its structural behaviour.
Sometimes openings have to be provided in these floor slabs, but its effect on the
response of waffle slabs is not fully explored.

Moldovan and Mathe (2015) finds that the post-tensioned construction has for a
long period of time occupied a significant position, especially in the construction of

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bridges, storage tanks, but also in buildings. In this paper are presented the aspects
of a square shaped waffle slab calculation, supported punctually and having a two-
way post tensioning reinforcement disposed parabolically. The paper describes the
characteristics of waffle slab systems, preliminary design of composing elements,
technological aspects regarding the manufacturing of precast panels, details
regarding used materials, the reinforcement layout and the calculation of
prestressing force.

Sapountzakis and Katsikadelis (1999) finds that the interest in structural plate
systems stiffened by beams has been widespread in recent years due to the economic
and structural advantages of such systems. Stiffened plate structures are efficient,
economical, functional and readily constructed of most common materials.
Stiffened plates are commonly used for the construction of long river or valley
bridge decks, of long span slabs or of retaining wall structures. In most of the
aforementioned cases, for example, prestressing of the plate of the deck, retaining
wall structures used as abutments of a bridge, the ribbed plate is subjected to
simultaneous transverse and inplane loading. The extensive uses of the
aforementioned plate structures necessitate a rigorous analysis.

Katsikadelis and Sapountzakis (2001) state that stiffened plate structures are
efficient, economical, functional and readily constructed of most common
materials. Two design parameters of stiffened plates, namely effective breadth and
effective width, are commonly used in structural engineering for thoroughly
different engineering purposes. Both of these parameters are used to describe the
effectiveness of a breadth or width of stiffened plate structures in which the axial
stress distribution across the plate is not uniform.

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2.2 CODAL RECOMMENDATIONS

2.2.1 IS Code Recommendations

The code recommendations for flat slabs in this regard are based mainly on studies
reported based on the direct design method and the recommendations provided are
all empirical.

1. Negative moment at the exterior support


Column strip

Mcs,ext = 1) 1.0Mo,ext if column width <0.75l2

2) (bcs / l2)Mo,ext otherwise

Half middle strip

Mhms,ext = 1) 0 if column width <0.75l2

2) 0.5(1-bcs / l2)M0,ext otherwise

Where bcs is the width of the column strip

2. Negative moment at the interior support

Column strip - Mcs,int = 0.75M0,int


Half middle strip - Mhms,int = 0.125 M0,int

3. Positive moment for all the spans

Column strip - Mcs = 0.60M0


Half middle strip - Mhms = 0.20 M0

In the case of a panel with a discontinuous edge in the direction of M0 , such as in


the external equivalent frame, the design of the half column strip adjoining and
parallel to the discontinuous edge, as well as the middle strip in the panel, depends
on whether a marginal bema or a wall supporting the slab at the edge. If such
stiffening of the edge exists, the bending moment in the half column strip should be
taken as one quarter of that for the first interior column strips and the moment in
the middle trip as twice that assigned to the half middle strip corresponding to the
first row of the interior column.

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2.2.2 Canadian code recommendations

A more simplified scheme for transverse distribution of moment, which accounts


for the ability of slabs to redistribute moments, is given in the Canadian code (CSA
A23.3). Slabs are highly statically indeterminate and usually greatly under
reinforced. This ability of slab gives the designer considerable leeway in adjusting
the moment field and designing the reinforcement accordingly. The Canadian code
gives a range of values for the column strip share of moment, from which the
designer can choose an appropriate value; the balances apportioned to the middle
strip. For slabs with beams, the distribution is between the beam part and the slab
part, the proportions being depended on the beam stiffness ratio and the aspect ratio.
This procedure is applicable to both DDM and EFM.

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CHAPTER 3

ANALYSIS IN SAP2000

3.1 SAP2000

The first numerical analysis was done using SAP2000 software with finite elements.
The SAP2000 is a structural engineering software for linear and nonlinear static and
dynamic analyses of several types of structures, simulating their behaviour when
submitted to a wide range of demands.

3.1.1 The Shell Element

The Shell element is an area element used to model shells, membranes and plates
in structures in two and three dimensions. The SAP2000 software defines two types
of Shell element. They are denominated as homogeneous shell, used for
homogenous materials, and as layered shell, used when the element is formed by
heterogeneous materials or by more than one material. However, the software only
allows nonlinear analyses when the element is a layered shell. Each element has its
local coordinate system for the definition of material properties, loads and output
of results. Tensions, internal forces and moments are determined by the Gauss
quadrature method and extrapolated to the nodes.

3.1.2 The Frame Element

The Frame Element is a tridimensional element with six degrees of freedom per
node: three degrees of freedom for translation and three degrees of freedom for
rotation. It is used for two or three dimensional modelling of frames, trusses and
grids.

The formulation of the Frame element includes the determination of biaxial


bending, torsion, axial and shear stress, through the integration of the tensions
along the section. Those stresses are determined at the ends of each element and at
points along the element chosen by the user.

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In the FE model of the waffle slab under study, the slabs were modelled using shell
elements, and the ribs were modelled with frame elements. A linear analysis of the
structure was carried out, applying two types of loads in the following sequence:
dead load, a live load applied both directly applied on the shell elements as a
distributed load.

Fig 3.1 Shell element in SAP2000

Fig 3 Frame element in SAP2000

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3.2 CONVERGENCE STUDY

The convergence study was carried out to find the optimum mesh size with which
the further analysis is done. With this study, it is found that there is not much
difference between the 6X6 and 8X8 mesh and the convergence value is very
narrow between them. So, for easier and accurate analysis, 6X6 mesh has been
adopted throughout the entire analysis.

Fig 3.3 2X2 mesh

Fig 3.4 4X4 mesh

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Fig 3.5 6 X 6 mesh

Fig 3.6 8 X 8 mesh

The convergence of the bending moment along 1-1 direction with mesh size is
shown in Fig. 3.7.

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

4.1 MOMENT CONTOUR PLOTS

4.1.1 Aspect Ratio 1.0

The frame dimension was taken as 80mm X 120mm with the spacing of the
beam at 2m in x-direction and 2m in y-direction throughout in the aspect ratio
of 1. The total length of the grid is 20m with each panel divided equally of 2m
length. The shell thickness is taken as 150mm throughout the analysis. Each
panel was divided into 6X6 mesh and the maximum moments about x-direction
were found.

Fig 4.1 - Slab dimension 80mm X 120mm

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Fig 4.2 - Slab Dimension 80mm X 140mm

Fig 4.3 Slab dimension 100mm X 150mm

16
Fig 4.4 - Slab dimension 100mm X 175 mm

Fig 4.5 - Slab dimension 150mm X 225mm

17
`

Fig 4.6 - Slab dimension 150 - 150mm X 262.5mm

4.1.2 Aspect ratio 1.4

In this aspect ratio, the length of the slab in x-direction is kept constant of 20m and
the length of the grid in y-direction is taken as 14.28m. For analysis, the thickness
of beam is varied as 80,100 and 150 mm and the depth is varied as 1.5, 1.75, 2 and
3 times the thickness of the beam. Few of the moment variation pictures are posted
here. The slab thickness is150mm and spacing in x-direction is 2m and in y-
direction is 1.43m.

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Fig 4.7 - Slab dimension 80mm X 140mm

Fig 4.8 - Slab dimension 100mm X 150m

19
Fig 4.9 - Slab dimension 100mm X 175mm

Fig 4.10 - Slab dimension 150mm X 225m

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Fig 4.11 - Slab dimension 150mm X 262.5m

4.1.3 Aspect ratio 1.6

In this aspect ratio, the length of the grid in x-direction is 20m and in y-direction is
12.5m. each panel consists of 6X6 meah and measuring 2m in x-direction and
1.25m in y-direction. The moments about both x and y direction were analyzed.

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Fig 4.12 - Slab dimension 80mm X 120m

Fig 4.13 - Slab dimension 80mm X 140m

22
Fig 4.14 - Slab dimension - 100mm X 150mm

Fig 4.15 - Slab dimension 100mm X 175mm

23
Fig 4.16 - Slab dimension 150mm X 225mm

Fig 4.17 - Slab dimension 150mm X 262.5mm

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4.1.4 Aspect Ratio 1.8

In this aspect ratio, the length of the slab in x-direction is kept constant of 20m and
the length of the grid in y-direction is taken as 11.11m. For analysis, the thickness
of beam is varied as 80,100 and 150 mm and the depth is varied as 1.5, 1.75, 2 and
3 times the thickness of the beam. Few of the moment variation pictures are posted
here. The slab thickness is150mm and spacing in x-direction is 2m and in y-
direction is 1.11m.

Fig 4.18 - Slab Dimension 80mm X 120mm

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Fig 4.19 - Slab Dimension 80mm X 160mm

Fig 4.20 - Slab Dimension 100mm X 150mm

26
Fig 4.21 - Slab Dimension 100mm X 175mm

Fig 4.22 - Slab Dimension 100mm X 200mm

27
Fig 4.23 - Slab Dimension 150mm X 225mm

Fig 4.24 - Slab Dimension 150mm X 262.5mm

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Fig 4.25 - Slab Dimension 150mm X 300mm

4.2 MOMENT COEFFICIENT PLOTS

The maximum bending moments per unit width in a slab are given by the following
equations:
Mx = xwly2
My = ywly2
Where x and y are coefficients. Mx and My are moment on strips of unit width
spanning lx and ly respectively. ly is the length of longer span.
The maximum positive and negative moments about both the axes are found from
the software results and the coefficients are found respectively using that formula.

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4.2.1 Spacing of panels 1m

Table 4.1 Slab Thickness 80mm

0.5

0.45
0.667
x+

0.4 0.5714
0.5
0.35 0.333

0.3
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.26 x+ of 80mm slab thickness

30
0.48
0.46
0.44
0.42
0.667
y+ 0.4
0.38 0.5714
0.36 0.5
0.34 0.333
0.32
0.3
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.27 y+ of 80mm slab thickness

0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
x-

0.14 0.667

0.13 0.5714
0.12 0.5
0.11 0.333
0.1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.28. x- of 80mm slab thickness

31
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
y-

0.14 0.667
0.13 0.5714
0.12 0.5
0.11
0.333
0.1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.29 y- of 80mm slab thickness

0.45

0.4

0.35
x+

0.3 0.667
0.5714
0.25
0.5
0.2
0.333
0.15
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.30 x+ of 100mm slab thickness

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Table 4.2 Slab Thickness 100mm

33
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.667
x- 0.3
0.5714
0.25
0.5
0.2
0.333
0.15
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.31 x- of 100mm slab thickness

0.45
0.4
0.35
0.667
y+

0.3
0.5714
0.25
0.5
0.2
0.333
0.15
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.32 y+ of 100mm slab thickness

34
0.22

0.2

y- 0.18

0.16 0.667
0.5714
0.14
0.5
0.12
0.333
0.1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.33 y- of 100mm slab thickness

0.3
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22 0.667
x+

0.2 0.5714
0.18
0.5
0.16
0.14 0.333
0.12
0.1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.34 x+ of 150mm slab thickness

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Table 4.3 Slab Thickness 150mm

36
0.22

0.2

x- 0.18

0.16 0.667

0.14 0.5714
0.5
0.12
0.333
0.1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.35 x- of 150mm slab thickness

0.3
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
y+

0.2 0.667
0.18
0.5714
0.16
0.14 0.5
0.12 0.333
0.1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.36 y+ of 150mm slab thickness

37
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.17
0.15
y-

0.13 0.667
0.11 0.5714
0.09 0.5
0.07 0.333
0.05
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.37 y- of 150mm slab thickness

0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
x+,

0.2 0.667
0.15 0.5714
0.1 0.5
0.05 0.333
0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.38 x+ of 80mm slab thickness

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4.2.2 Spacing of panels 2m

Table 4.4 Slab Thickness 80mm

39
0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2 0.667
y+

0.5714
0.15
0.5
0.1 0.33

0.05

0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.39 y+ of 80mm slab thickness

0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
x-

0.05
0.04 0.667
0.03 0.5714
0.02 0.5
0.01 0.333

0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.40 x- of 80mm slab thickness

40
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
y-

0.04 0.667

0.03 0.5714
0.5
0.02
0.33
0.01
0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.41 y- of 80mm slab thickness

0.3

0.25

0.2
y+

0.15
0.667
0.1 0.5714
0.5
0.05
0.333
0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.42 y+ of 100mm slab thickness

41
0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25
x+

0.2
0.667
0.15 0.5714
0.1 0.5

0.05 0.333

0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.43 x+ of 100mm slab thickness

0.12

0.1

0.08
x-

0.06
0.667
0.04 0.5714
0.5
0.02
0.333
0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.44 x- of 100mm slab thickness

42
Table 4.5 Slab Thickness 100 mm

43
0.12

0.1

0.08
y -

0.06
0.667
0.04 0.5714
0.5
0.02
0.333

0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.45 y- of 100mm slab thickness

0.25

0.2

0.15
x+

0.1 0.667
0.5714

0.05 0.5
0.333
0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.46 x+ of 150mm slab thickness

44
Table 4.6 Slab Thickness 150mm

45
0.25

0.2

0.15
y +

0.667
0.1
0.5714
0.5
0.05
0.333

0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.47 y+ of 150mm slab thickness

0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
x-

0.667
0.04
0.5714
0.03
0.5
0.02
0.333
0.01
0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.48 x- of 150mm slab thickness

46
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
y -

0.05
0.667
0.04
0.5714
0.03
0.02 0.5

0.01 0.333
0
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Ly/Lx

Fig 4.49 y- of 150mm slab thickness

The above plots from Fig 4.26 to Fig 4.49 give the distribution of the positive and
negative moment coefficients along the long and short spans. The figures indicate
a decreasing trend in the distribution of short span moment after an aspect ratio of
1.4. Also the distribution of slab moments decrease as the stiffness (thickness) of
the ribs increase with respect to the slab thickness for all values of slab to rib
thickness ratios. Between the slabs with panel spacings of 1m and 2m, it is seen that
more slab moments exist in the 1m spaced panels than the 2m spaced panels, for all
values of slab to rib thickness.

47
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS

5. CONCLUSIONS

The following conclusions can be derived from the current study:

1. The moment coefficients for the various cases of aspect ratios and
thickness ratios have been estimated using SAP2000.
2. Unlike normal solid slabs, the attraction of moments towards short edge
does not constantly increase as aspect ratio increases.This is an effect of
the individual panels aspect ratio, which decides the values of the span
and edge moments.
3. As rib depth increases, the moment coefficient of the slab decreases for
the same aspect ratio. As ribs become stiffer than the slabs, more
moment is distributed to it, decreasing the slab moments. This result
may be useful for economical design of the slabs.
4. Since long span was maintained at same length, the long span coefficient
y decreases constantly with aspect ratio as compared to short span
coefficient. It is felt that with wider results could be used as useful
design aids.

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CHAPTER 6

REFERENCES

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6. BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE
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