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Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

1. _____ President William McKinley asked Congress to declare war on Spain mainly
because the
A) Spanish government had insulted him.
B) Teller Amendment had been passed.
C) American people demanded it.
D) justice of obtaining Cuban independence was clear.
E) business community favored the conflict.

2. _____ The independent republic annexed by the United States during the Spanish-
American War, but not acquired as a result of the war

3. _____ Either one of the two nations whose boundary dispute in 1895 nearly involved
the United States in war.

4. In his book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis, the Reverend
Josiah Strong advocated American expansion
A) to open up new markets for industrial goods.
B) to spread American religion and values.
C) to ease labor violence at home.
D) to maintain white racial superiority.
E) to maintain the international balance of power.

5. The clash between Germany and America over the Samoan islands eventually resulted
A) a new American doctrine opposing any colonialism in the Pacific.
B) the intervention of Japan to prevent a German-American war.
C) a small naval war between the two emerging powers.
D) complete independence for all of Samoa.
E) a colonial division of the islands between Germany and the United States.

6. During the boundary dispute between Venezuela and Britain, the United States
A) was only twisting the [British] lion's tail for domestic political effect.
B) asserted its strong belief in Latin American independence.
C) threatened war unless Britain backed down and accepted Venezuela's claim.
D) sought a peaceful negotiated settlement.
E) failed to invoke the Monroe Doctrine.

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7. A primary reason that the British submitted their border dispute with Venezuela to
arbitration was
A) to undermine Spain's close relations with the Latin American republics.
B) that they accepted America's complete domination of Latin America.
C) that their growing tensions with Germany made Britain reluctant to engage in
conflict with the United States.
D) that they expected the Monroe Doctrine to be ruled invalid in the World Court.
E) to end their costly involvement in South America.

8. The Venezuela boundary dispute was settled by

A) the mediation of Brazil and Colombia.
B) arbitration of the Venezuelan and British claims.
C) British concession of the disputed territory to Venezuela.
D) a brief war between Venezuela and British Guiana.
E) stationing United States marines along the disputed border.

9. President Grover Cleveland rejected the effort to annex Hawaii because

A) the U.S. would then have to establish military bases in Hawaii.
B) passage of the McKinley Tariff made Hawaiian sugar unprofitable.
C) he wanted to protect the interests of Louisiana sugar producers.
D) he believed that the native Hawaiians had been wronged and that a majority
opposed annexation to the United States.
E) the United States did not have the naval power to protect the islands against
Japanese or German threats.

10. In an attempt to persuade Spain to leave Cuba or to encourage the United States to help
Cuba to gain its independence, Cuban insurrectos
A) blew up the battleship Maine.
B) began assassinating Spanish officials.
C) adopted a scorched-earth policy of burning cane fields and sugar mills.
D) made guerilla raids on Havana.
E) attacked Spanish shipping on the high seas.

11. Americans favored providing aid to the Cuban revolutionaries for all of the following
reasons except
A) fear that Spanish misrule in Cuba menaced the Gulf of Mexico and the route to the
proposed Panama Canal. .
B) the atrocity stories reported in the yellow press.
C) sympathy for Cuban patriots fighting for their freedom.
D) a belief that Spain's control of Cuba violated the anti-colonial provisions of the
Monroe Doctrine.
E) popular outrage at the Spanish use of reconcentration camps.

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12. The battleship Maine was officially sent to Cuba to
A) stop rioting by the Cuban rebels.
B) demonstrate American power to Spain.
C) protect and evacuate American citizens.
D) offer a way for Cuban rebels to escape to Florida.
E) provoke a war with Spain.

13. The battleship Maine was sunk by

A) reporters working for William Randolph Hearst.
B) the Spanish.
C) a mine planted by pro-Cuban Americans.
D) Cuban rebels.
E) an explosion on the ship.

14. A major weakness of Spain in the Spanish-American War was

A) its very small army in Cuba.
B) its unpreparedness to fight in a tropical climate.
C) its inability to wage guerilla war.
D) the lack of support from its European allies.
E) the wretched condition of its navy.

15. The Rough Riders, organized principally by Teddy Roosevelt,

A) were trained in guerilla warfare.
B) managed to take San Juan Hill unassisted.
C) were commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood.
D) were a well-disciplined fighting force.
E) consisted primarily of Roosevelt's upper-class friends.

16. During the Spanish-American War, the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed at the Battle
A) Manila Bay.
B) Havana.
C) Santiago.
D) Guantanamo.
E) Samoa.

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17. When the United States invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War,
A) heavy fighting occurred in the harbor at San Juan.
B) its intentions were to grant Puerto Rican independence.
C) the resulting battle ended the war.
D) most of the population greeted the invaders as liberating heroes.
E) the army encountered stiff resistance from the Spanish.

18. The greatest loss of life for American fighting men during the Spanish-American War
resulted from
A) the war in the Philippines.
B) land battles in the Cuban campaign.
C) sickness in both Cuba and the United States.
D) the bungling of unprofessional military volunteers.
E) naval battles in the Caribbean.

19. At the time, the most controversial event associated with the Spanish-American War
was the
A) adoption of the Teller Amendment.
B) acquisition of Puerto Rico.
C) declaration of war against Spain.
D) adoption of the Platt Amendment.
E) acquisition of the Philippines.

20. Starting in 1917, many Puerto Ricans came to the mainland United States seeking
A) to learn English.
B) citizenship.
C) employment.
D) independence.
E) political refuge.

21. By acquiring the Philippine Islands at the end of the Spanish-American War, the United
A) assumed commitments that would be difficult to defend.
B) developed popular support for a big navy.
C) became a full-fledged East Asian power.
D) assumed rule over millions of Asian people.
E) all of the above.

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22. The Philippine insurrection was finally broken in 1901 when
A) the islands were given their independence.
B) the Senate passed a resolution pledging eventual independence for the Philippines.
C) the Filipino resistance army splintered.
D) Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader, was captured.
E) American troops overwhelmed the Filipino rebels.

23. President McKinley's policy of benevolent assimilation in the Philippines

A) recognized the value of traditional Filipino culture.
B) failed to solve serious sanitation and public-health problems.
C) worked remarkably well and led to the early granting of the Philippine
D) fell short of providing an effective public-school system for the Filipinos.
E) was not appreciated by the Filipinos.

24. When Filipinos first came to the United States, they worked mainly as
A) railroad laborers.
B) industrial laborers.
C) chefs.
D) agricultural laborers.
E) servants in the navy.

25. Many Americans became concerned about the increasing foreign intervention in China
because they
A) wanted exclusive trade rights with the Chinese.
B) feared German military domination of China.
C) believed that such intervention undermined Chinese sovereignty.
D) disliked the racial attitudes displayed by the Europeans.
E) feared that American missions would be jeopardized and Chinese markets closed to

26. Once the Boxer uprising ended,

A) the United States became China's most dangerous enemy.
B) China gained more respect from foreign powers.
C) the Open Door policy was abandoned.
D) China welcomed foreign economic investment.
E) China was spared further partition by foreign powers.

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27. Teddy Roosevelt received the Republican vice-presidential nomination in 1900 mainly
A) Mark Hanna supported his candidacy.
B) his presence on the ticket would appeal to western voters.
C) his personal warmth balanced McKinley's aloofness.
D) New York party bosses wanted him out of the governorship.
E) his progressivism balanced McKinley's conservatism.

28. The extended Open Door policy advocated in Secretary John Hay's second note called
on all big powers, including the United States, to
A) guarantee the independence of Cuba.
B) maintain a balance of power in East Asia.
C) observe the territorial integrity of China.
D) pursue further investment in China.
E) recognize Philippine independence at an early date.

29. Just before his nomination for vice president on the Republican ticket in 1900, Theodore
Roosevelt served as
A) U.S. senator from New York.
B) governor-general of the Philippines.
C) governor of New York.
D) assistant secretary of the navy in McKinley's cabinet.
E) secretary of war in McKinley's cabinet.

30. The Republicans won the 1900 election mainly because of

A) public opposition to a third term as president for Grover Cleveland.
B) the prosperity achieved during McKinley's first term.
C) their support of imperialism.
D) their support of freedom abroad.
E) Bryan's lackluster campaign.

31. As president, Teddy Roosevelt proved

A) a good politician but a poor administrator.
B) unable to relate to ordinary citizens.
C) a consistently aggressive liberal.
D) progressive but willing to compromise.
E) a strong domestic leader but weak in foreign affairs.

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32. Construction of an isthmian canal was motivated mainly by
A) the Panamanian Revolution.
B) the British rejection of the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
C) a desire to improve the defense of the United States.
D) American economic interests in Central America.
E) continued volcanic activity in Nicaragua.

33. The British gave up their opposition to an American-controlled isthmian canal because
A) were involved in a war with India.
B) sold their rights to Philippe Bunau-Varilla.
C) accepted American domination of Latin America.
D) confronted an unfriendly Europe and were bogged down in the Boer War.
E) could see no economic gains in continuing to block canal construction.

34. The alternative route to Panama seriously considered as the location for a canal between
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was
A) Mexico.
B) Colombia.
C) Nicaragua.
D) Costa Rica.
E) British Honduras.

35. The United States entered the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with __________, the Hay-
Pauncefote Treaty with __________, and the Gentlemen's Agreement with __________.
A) Japan; Britain; Panama
B) Britain; Britain; Japan
C) Panama; France; Britain
D) Panama; Britain; Britain
E) Panama; Britain; Japan

36. The United States gained a perpetual lease on the Panama Canal Zone in the
A) Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
B) Teller Amendment.
C) Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty.
D) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
E) Gentlemen's Agreement.

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37. The Colombian Senate rejected the treaty with the United States for a canal because
A) it did not like Teddy Roosevelt.
B) the United States was not paying the Colombian government enough money.
C) it hoped to build the canal itself.
D) it did not want a canal through its territory.
E) a better deal was worked out with the French.

38. The revolution in Panama began when

A) Colombian troops invaded the isthmus.
B) a Colombian officer shot several Panamanian civilians.
C) a Chinese civilian and a donkey were killed.
D) the United States invaded the area.
E) the U.S. Congress rejected a treaty for the sale of Panama to Colombia.

39. Teddy Roosevelt wanted an isthmian canal constructed quickly because

A) a revolution in Panama was imminent.
B) the presidential election of 1904 was approaching.
C) it was essential to deploy a two-ocean navy immediately.
D) he wished to avoid the onset of a yellow fever epidemic.
E) he feared that the French would build a competing canal.

40. During the building of the Panama Canal, all of the following difficulties were
encountered except
A) labor troubles.
B) landslides.
C) yellow fever.
D) guerrilla warfare waged by Panamanian rebels against the United States.
E) poor sanitation.

41. American involvement in the affairs of Latin American nations at the turn of the century
usually stemmed from
A) a desire to strengthen Latin American democracy.
B) the fact that they were chronically in debt.
C) the desire to control the flow of Latin American immigrants into the United States.
D) the need to defend these nations against a reassertion of Spanish power.
E) the hope that involvement would lead to their outright acquisition by the United

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42. The Roosevelt Corollary added a new provision to the Monroe Doctrine that was
specifically designed to
A) justify U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries.
B) establish a friendly partnership with Britain so that it could join the United States in
policing Latin American affairs.
C) stop European colonization in the Western Hemisphere.
D) enable the U.S. to rule Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone.
E) restore cordial relations between the United States and Latin American countries.

43. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War started because

A) the United States refused to force Russia from Sakhalin Island.
B) Russia had forced Japan out of China.
C) Russia feared growing Japanese power in the Pacific.
D) of racial tensions between Russians and Japanese.
E) Russia was seeking ice-free ports in Chinese Manchuria.

44. Theodore Roosevelt became involved in the peace settlement for the Russo-Japanese
A) when Russia asked for his assistance.
B) because he feared that the British might intervene and thus gain prestige.
C) as a way of enhancing America's position in East Asia.
D) when Japan secretly asked him to help.
E) on his own initiative.

45. As a result of the Russo-Japanese War,

A) Russia became a major power in East Asia.
B) U.S. relations with Japan improved.
C) U.S. relations with Russia improved.
D) Japan received a large financial indemnity from Russia.
E) Japan won a territorial concession on Sakhalin Island.

46. The Gentlemen's Agreement that Teddy Roosevelt worked out with the Japanese in
A) put a stop to the racist yellow journalism being practiced in the United States.
B) concluded the Russo-Japanese War.
C) restricted Japanese immigration to upper-class gentlemen.
D) caused Japan to halt the flow of laborers to America in return for the repeal of a
racist school decree by the San Francisco School Board.
E) helped him to win the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize.

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47. Japanese immigrants first entered U.S. territory to work as
A) laborers on Hawaii's sugar plantations.
B) factory workers in California's canning industry.
C) construction workers on the transcontinental railroad.
D) yellow peril villains in the Hollywood movie industry.
E) servants and gardeners for San Francisco's wealthy elite.

48. In the Root-Takahira agreement of 1908,

A) Japan agreed to accept U.S. control of the Philippines in exchange for Japanese
domination of Manchuria.
B) the United States agreed to accept a Japanese sphere of influence in China.
C) the Japanese agreed to accept the segregation of Japanese children in California
schools in return for the United States' recognition of Japanese control of Korea.
D) the Japanese government agreed to limit the number of Japanese immigrant laborers
entering the United States.
E) the United States and Japan agreed to respect each other's territorial holdings in the

49. A group of historians known as the New Left revisionists argued that the United
States' burst of overseas expansion
A) was necessary to maintain an international balance of power.
B) was designed to create an informal empire that would guarantee American
economic dominance of foreign markets and investments.
C) was motivated by a desire among American men to assert their masculinity.
D) was motivated by naive idealism.
E) sought to build a colonial empire.

50. The United States declared war on Germany

A) because Wall Street bankers demanded it.
B) after Mexico signed an alliance with Germany.
C) after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels.
D) in response to demands by American munitions makers.
E) as a result of treaty obligations.

51. The major problem for George Creel and his Committee on Public Information was that
A) the entertainment industry was not willing to go along with the propaganda
B) he oversold Wilson's ideals and led the world to expect too much.
C) U.S. allies refused to cooperate.
D) the public was skeptical of government propaganda.
E) he relied too much on formal laws and military force to gain compliance.

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52. Match each civilian administrator below with the World War I mobilization agency that
he directed.
A. George Creel 1. War Industries Board
B. Herbert Hoover 2. Committee on Public Information
C. Bernard Baruch 3. Food Administration
D. William Howard Taft 4. National War Labor Board
A) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
B) A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4
C) A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
D) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
E) A-3, B-2, C-l, D-4

53. When the United States entered World War I, it was

A) well prepared for land combat but not for naval warfare.
B) well prepared industrially but not militarily.
C) well prepared militarily but not industrially.
D) poorly prepared to leap into global war.
E) well prepared thanks to the foresight of Woodrow Wilson.

54. The 1919 steel strike resulted in

A) a grievous setback crippling the union movement for a decade.
B) higher wages.
C) the eight-hour workday.
D) a general strike in Seattle and Pittsburgh.
E) the right to bargain collectively.

55. Most wartime mobilization agencies relied on _______________ to prepare the

economy for war.
A) voluntary compliance
B) court decisions
C) business trade organizations.
D) presidential edict
E) congressional legislation

56. The United States used all of the following methods to support the war effort except
A) seizing enemy merchant vessels trapped in American harbors.
B) restricting the manufacture of beer.
C) having heatless Mondays to conserve fuel.
D) using government power extensively to regulate the economy.
E) forcing some people to buy war bonds.

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57. The World War I military draft
A) included women as well as men.
B) was not as fair as the Civil War draft.
C) caused widespread resistance and riots.
D) permitted men to purchase substitutes to go in their place.
E) generally worked fairly and effectively to provide military manpower.

58. When the United States entered the war in 1917, most Americans did not believe that
A) mobilization for war should be largely voluntary.
B) the navy was obligated to defend freedom of the seas.
C) it would be necessary to send a large American army to Europe.
D) the United States would have to ship war materiels to the Allies.
E) it would be necessary to continue making loans to the Allies.

59. During World War I, American troops fought in all of the following countries except
A) France.
B) Belgium.
C) Italy.
D) Czechoslovakia.
E) Russia.

60. The two major battles of World War I in which United States forces engaged were
A) Jutland and Trafalgar.
B) Gallipoli and Locarno.
C) Ypres and the Ardennes Forest.
D) St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
E) Verdun and the Somme.

61. Russia's withdrawal from World War I in 1918 resulted in

A) the United States' entry into the war.
B) Germany's surrender to the Allies.
C) a communist takeover of that country.
D) a setback for the idea of a war for democracy.
E) the release of thousands of German troops for deployment on the front in France.

62. The Second Battle of the Marne was significant because it

A) forced the Kaiser to abdicate.
B) saw the first use of combat aircraft.
C) marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never reversed.
D) was the first time American troops fought by themselves.
E) was the first time American troops saw action in France.

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63. The chief difference between Woodrow Wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the
Paris peace table was that Wilson
A) refused to play politics with the peace powers.
B) lacked their popularity in Europe.
C) was not popular with his own people.
D) brought some of his political opponents with him.
E) did not command a legislative majority at home.

64. Who was finally most responsible for the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles?
A) isolationists
B) Henry Cabot Lodge
C) liberals
D) Woodrow Wilson
E) Republicans

65. Woodrow Wilson's call for a solemn referendum in 1920 referred to

A) the role of women as first-time voters in the 1920 election.
B) his decision to seek a third term as president.
C) his belief in the moral unfitness of Warren G. Harding for the presidency.
D) a proposed constitutional amendment authorizing the League.
E) his belief that the presidential election should determine the fate of the Treaty of

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Answer Key
1. (No Answer Provided)
2. (No Answer Provided)
3. (No Answer Provided)
4. B
5. E
6. C
7. C
8. B
9. D
10. C
11. D
12. C
13. E
14. E
15. C
16. C
17. D
18. C
19. E
20. C
21. E
22. D
23. E
24. D
25. E
26. E
27. D
28. C
29. C
30. B
31. D
32. C
33. D
34. C
35. E
36. C
37. B
38. C
39. B
40. D
41. B
42. A
43. E
44. D

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45. E
46. D
47. A
48. E
49. B
50. C
51. B
52. B
53. D
54. A
55. A
56. D
57. E
58. C
59. D
60. D
61. E
62. C
63. E
64. D
65. E

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