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ommunication is neither the transmission of a message nor the message itself.

It is the mutual exchange

of understanding, originating with the receiver. Communication needs to be effective in business.
Communication is the essence of management. The basic functions of management
(Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling) cannot be performed well without effective

Business communication involves constant flow of information. Feedback is integral part of business
communication. Organizations these days are verly large and involve large number of people. There are
various levels of hierarchy in an organization. Greater the number of levels, the more difficult is the job of
managing the organization. Communication here plays a very important role in process of directing and
controlling the people in the oragnization. Immediate feedback can be obtained and misunderstandings if
any can be avoided. There should be effective communication between superiors and subordinated in an
organization, between organization and society at large (for example between management and trade
unions). It is essential for success and growth of an organization. Communication gaps should not occur
in any organization.

Business Communication is goal oriented. The rules, regulations and policies of a company have to be
communicated to people within and outside the organization. Business Communication is regulated by
certain rules and norms. In early times, business communication was limited to paper-work, telephone
calls etc. But now with advent of technology, we have cell phones, video conferencing, emails, satellite
communication to support business communication. Effective business communication helps in building
goodwill of an organization.

Business Communication can be of two types:

1. Oral Communication - An oral communication can be formal or informal. Generally business

communication is a formal means of communication, like : meetings, interviews, group
discussion, speeches etc. An example of Informal business communication would be -
2. Written Communication - Written means of business communication includes - agenda, reports,
manuals etc.

Components of Communication
Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process.
Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to
the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as
intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process
and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is
understood by him.
Communication Process
The main components of communication process are as follows:

1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be
physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The
sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.
2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use
of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required
response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees.
Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach,
skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The
verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message
by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.
3. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits
the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be
conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.
4. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must
choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be
conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is
essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice
of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance -
Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while
an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as
misunderstandings are cleared then and there.
5. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended /
aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon
various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the
reliance of encoder on decoder.
6. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender
to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation
of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of
smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.

Oral Communication - Meaning,

Advantages and Limitations
Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each
other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all
forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication
matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication
(meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.

Advantages of Oral Communication

There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is

There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in
the decisions previously taken.
The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made
quickly without any delay.
Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts.
Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many
issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.
Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy.
Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational
Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.

Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication

Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is formal
and very organized.
Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and not as
organized as written communication.
Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case of
meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times.
Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady.
There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials.
It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience.
Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in
investigation work.

Written Communication - Meaning,

Advantages and Disadvantages
Written communication has great significance in todays business world. It is an innovative activity of the
mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business
development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective
writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well
as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while
speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

Advantages of Written Communication

Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an
It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.

It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is

impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by
the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.

Written communication is more precise and explicit.

Effective written communication develops and enhances an organizations image.

It provides ready records and references.

Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.

Disadvantages of Written Communication

Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the
manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.

Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their
doubts, the response is not spontaneous.

Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and
sending of message takes time.

Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary
use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organizations reputation.

Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.

Non Verbal Communication - Actions

Speak Louder than Words
Scenario 1 You are sitting in front of an interview panel with arms crossed. So far you have not been
asked a single question, however, your crossed arms have spoken louder than the words.

Tip 1 Never keep your arms crossed especially during formal one-on-one meetings. It suggests you are
not open to feedback and could also suggest that you are trying to dominate the situation.

Scenario 2 You are giving a presentation to a group of 20 people. You keep your gaze fixed at the
centre of the class / room through the presentation your gaze has spoken louder than your words.
Tip 2 Your gaze at one person should not be more than 4 - 5 seconds while delivering a presentation /
communicating with a large group unless you are addressing an individual.

Scenario 1 and 2 clearly demonstrate the importance of Non Verbal Communication.

What is Non Verbal Communication ?

It is communication of feelings, emotions, attitudes, and thoughts through body movements / gestures /
eye contact, etc.

The components of Non Verbal Communication are:

Kinesics: It is the study of facial expressions, postures & gestures. Did you know that while in
Argentina to raise a fist in the air with knuckles pointing outwards expresses victory, in Lebanon,
raising a closed fist is considered rude?
Oculesics: It is the study of the role of eye contact in non verbal communication. Did you know
that in the first 90 sec - 4 min you decide that you are interested in someone or not. Studies
reveal that 50% of this first impression comes from non-verbal communication which includes
oculesics. Only 7% of comes from words - that we actually say.
Haptics: It is the study of touching. Did you know that acceptable level of touching vary from one
culture to another? In Thailand, touching someone's head may be considered as rude.
Proxemics: It is the study of measurable distance between people as they interact. Did you know
that the amount of personal space when having an informal conversation should vary between 18
inches - 4 feet while, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people should
be around 10-12 feet?
Chronemics: It is the study of use of time in non verbal communication. Have you ever observed
that while AN employee will not worry about running a few minutes late to meet a colleague, a
manager who has a meeting with the CEO, a late arrival will be considered as a nonverbal cue
that he / she does not give adequate respect to his superior?
Paralinguistics: It is the study of variations in pitch, speed, volume, and pauses to convey
meaning. Interestingly, when the speaker is making a presentation and is looking for a response,
he will pause. However, when no response is desired, he will talk faster with minimal pause.
Physical Appearance: Your physical appearance always contributes towards how people
perceive you. Neatly combed hair, ironed clothes and a lively smile will always carry more weight
than words.

Remember, what we say is less important than how we say it as words are only 7% of our
communication. Understand and enjoy non verbal communication as it helps forming better first
impressions. Good luck!

Importance of Communication in an
Effective Communication is significant for managers in the organizations so as to perform the basic
functions of management, i.e., Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling.

Communication helps managers to perform their jobs and responsibilities. Communication serves as a
foundation for planning. All the essential information must be communicated to the managers who in-turn
must communicate the plans so as to implement them. Organizing also requires effective communication
with others about their job task. Similarly leaders as managers must communicate effectively with their
subordinates so as to achieve the team goals. Controlling is not possible without written and oral
Managers devote a great part of their time in communication. They generally devote approximately 6
hours per day in communicating. They spend great time on face to face or telephonic communication with
their superiors, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers also use Written
Communication in form of letters, reports or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.

Thus, we can say that effective communication is a building block of successful organizations. In
other words, communication acts as organizational blood.

The importance of communication in an organization can be summarized as follows:

1. Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to
be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is
not up to the mark.
2. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making
process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions.
3. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individuals attitudes, i.e., a well informed
individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines,
journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding
employees attitudes.
4. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual
fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication.
5. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling
organizational members behaviour in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and
certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must
comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work
problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of

An effective and efficient communication system requires managerial proficiency in delivering and
receiving messages. A manager must discover various barriers to communication, analyze the reasons for
their occurrence and take preventive steps to avoid those barriers. Thus, the primary responsibility of a
manager is to develop and maintain an effective communication system in the organization.

Communication Flows in an
In an organization, communication flows in 5 main directions-

1. Downward
2. Upward
3. Lateral
4. Diagonal
5. External

1. Downward Flow of Communication: Communication that flows from a higher level in an

organization to a lower level is a downward communication. In other words, communication from
superiors to subordinates in a chain of command is a downward communication. This
communication flow is used by the managers to transmit work-related information to the
employees at lower levels. Employees require this information for performing their jobs and for
meeting the expectations of their managers. Downward communication is used by the managers
for the following purposes -
Providing feedback on employees performance

Giving job instructions

Providing a complete understanding of the employees job as well as to
communicate them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization.
Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees.
Highlighting the areas of attention.
Organizational publications, circulars, letter to employees, group meetings etc are all
examples of downward communication. In order to have effective and error-free
downward communication, managers must:

Specify communication objective

Ensure that the message is accurate, specific and unambiguous.
Utilize the best communication technique to convey the message to the receiver
in right form

2. Upward Flow of Communication: Communication that flows to a higher level in an organization

is called upward communication. It provides feedback on how well the organization is functioning.
The subordinates use upward communication to convey their problems and performances to their

The subordinates also use upward communication to tell how well they have understood the
downward communication. It can also be used by the employees to share their views and ideas
and to participate in the decision-making process.

Upward communication leads to a more committed and loyal workforce in an organization

because the employees are given a chance to raise and speak dissatisfaction issues to the
higher levels. The managers get to know about the employees feelings towards their jobs, peers,
supervisor and organization in general. Managers can thus accordingly take actions for improving

Grievance Redressal System, Complaint and Suggestion Box, Job Satisfaction surveys etc all
help in improving upward communication. Other examples of Upward Communication are -
performance reports made by low level management for reviewing by higher level management,
employee attitude surveys, letters from employees, employee-manager discussions etc.

3. Lateral / Horizontal Communication: Communication that takes place at same levels of

hierarchy in an organization is called lateral communication, i.e., communication between peers,
between managers at same levels or between any horizontally equivalent organizational member.
The advantages of horizontal communication are as follows:

It is time saving.

It facilitates co-ordination of the task.

It facilitates co-operation among team members.

It provides emotional and social assistance to the organizational members.

It helps in solving various organizational problems.

It is a means of information sharing

It can also be used for resolving conflicts of a department with other department or
conflicts within a department.

4. Diagonal Communication: Communication that takes place between a manager and employees
of other workgroups is called diagonal communication. It generally does not appear on
organizational chart. For instance - To design a training module a training manager interacts with
an Operations personnel to enquire about the way they perform their task.
5. External Communication: Communication that takes place between a manager and external
groups such as - suppliers, vendors, banks, financial institutes etc. For instance - To raise capital
the Managing director would interact with the Bank Manager.

Use of Body Language in

Did you know that while in India or America a "fantastic" or an "ok" sign is demonstrated by forming a
circle with your thumb and forefinger, in Tunisia the same symbol means "I will kill you" and in Japan it
means "money"?

Kinesics or study of body language must be understood by all. Whether it is an interview or a

presentation, one must be aware of how to use body language effectively.

Read on to understand more about various non verbal components of communication...

1. Eye Contact: Always maintain eye contact with your audience. However, a person must ensure
that he / she should not fix his gaze at one person for more than 5 seconds. Too much fluttering
of eyes could indicate lack of confidence. Staring at a person could be daunting and hence is not
such a good idea.
2. Hand Shake: While shaking hands especially in a professional environment, the hand shake
should be firm and not loose. An iron handshake [very strong handshake] can indicate that a
person is trying to dominate.
3. Crossing your Arms: Crossing your arms could imply that a person is not open to new ideas /
opinion especially in case of giving a presentation. However, in a one-on-one interview if the
interviewer has his / her arms crossed, the candidate could do the same.
4. Sitting Posture: Leaning on a chair is not a good idea. One must sit upright though in a relaxed
position. Sitting back in your chair implies lack of interest or rejection.
5. Gesture: Gesture refers to a type of non verbal communication which uses a part of the body
with or without verbal communication. Gestures include facial expressions, nods [which is a sign
of approval in most cultures], head bobbling / shaking.
6. Facial Expression: The face is a best reflection of what a person feels. More often than not it is
easy to recognize if a person is happy, sad, anxious, irritated, or excited. It is very important that
in a professional scenario a person must control his / her facial expressions. For e.g. If a
presenter gets a feel that his presentation is not going on very well, he / she should not show the
sign of losing of hope and instead try for a greater involvement from the participants.

Enjoy working with kinesics. Good Luck!

Grapevine Communication (Informal

Business Communication)
Download PPT for Complete Course on Grapevine is an informal channel of business
Grapevine Communication communication. It is called so because it stretches
throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of
the authority levels. Man as we know is a social animal.
Despite existence of formal channels in an organization, the
informal channels tend to develop when he interacts with
other people in organization. It exists more at lower levels of

Grapevine generally develops due to various reasons. One

of them is that when an organization is facing recession, the
employees sense uncertainty. Also, at times employees do
not have self-confidence due to which they form unions.
Sometimes the managers show preferential treatment and
favour some employees giving a segregated feeling to other
employees. Thus, when employees sense a need to
exchange their views, they go for grapevine network as they
cannot use the formal channel of communication in that
Total Slides: 44 case. Generally during breaks in cafeteria,the subordinates
talk about their superiors attitude and behaviour and
exchange views with their peers. They discuss rumours
about promotion and transfer of other employees. Thus,
grapevine spreads like fire and it is not easy to trace the
cause of such communication at times.

Examples of Grapevine Network of Communication

1. Suppose the profit amount of a company is known. Rumour is spread that this much profit is there
and on that basis bonus is declared.
2. CEO may be in relation to the Production Manager. They may have friendly relations with each
Pros and Cons of Grapevine Communication
Advantages of Grapevine Communication

1. Grapevine channels carry information rapidly. As soon as an employee gets to know some
confidential information, he becomes inquisitive and passes the details then to his closest friend
who in turn passes it to other. Thus, it spreads hastily.
2. The managers get to know the reactions of their subordinates on their policies. Thus, the
feedback obtained is quick compared to formal channel of communication.
3. The grapevine creates a sense of unity among the employees who share and discuss their views
with each other. Thus, grapevine helps in developing group cohesiveness.
4. The grapevine serves as an emotional supportive value.
5. The grapevine is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work.

Disadvantages of Grapevine Communication

1. The grapevine carries partial information at times as it is more based on rumours. Thus, it does
not clearly depicts the complete state of affairs.
2. The grapevine is not trustworthy always as it does not follows official path of communication and
is spread more by gossips and unconfirmed report.
3. The productivity of employees may be hampered as they spend more time talking rather than
4. The grapevine leads to making hostility against the executives.
5. The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the organization as it may carry false negative
information about the high level people of the organization.

A smart manager should take care of all the disadvantages of the grapevine and try to minimize them. At
the same time, he should make best possible use of advantages of grapevine.

Feedback Communication
Receivers are not just passive absorbers of messages; they receive the message and respond to them.
This response of a receiver to senders message is called Feedback. Sometimes a feedback could be a
non-verbal smiles, sighs etc. Sometimes it is oral, as when you react to a colleagues ideas with
questions or comments. Feedback can also be written like - replying to an e-mail, etc.

Feedback is your audiences response; it enables you to evaluate the effectiveness of your message. If
your audience doesnt understand what you mean, you can tell by the response and then refine the
message accordingly.

Giving your audience a chance to provide feedback is crucial for maintaining an open communication
climate. The manager must create an environment that encourages feedback. For example after
explaining the job to the subordinated he must ask them whether they have understood it or not. He
should ask questions like Do you understand?, Do you have any doubts? etc. At the same time he
must allow his subordinated to express their views also.

Feedback is essential in communication so as to know whether the recipient has understood the
message in the same terms as intended by the sender and whether he agrees to that message or not.
There are lot of ways in which company takes feedback from their employees, such as : Employee
surveys, memos, emails, open-door policies, company news letter etc. Employees are not always willing
to provide feedback. The organization has to work a lot to get the accurate feedback. The managers
encourage feedback by asking specific questions, allowing their employees to express general views, etc.
The organization should be receptive to their employees feedback.

A manger should ensure that a feedback should:

1. Focus on a particular behaviour - It should be specific rather than being general.

2. Impersonal - Feedback should be job related, the manager should not criticize anyone personally.
3. Goal oriented - If we have something negative to say about the person, we should always direct it
to the recipients goal.
4. Well timed - Feedback is most effective when there is a short gap between the recipients
behaviour and the receipt of that feedback.
5. Use I statements - Manager should make use of statements with the words like I, However
etc. For example instead of sayingYou were absent from work yesterday, manager should sayI
was annoyes when you missed your work yesterday.
6. Ensure understanding - For feedback to be effective, the manager should make sure that the
recipients understands the feedback properly.
7. While giving negative feedback to the recipient, the manager should not mention the factors
which are not in control of the recipient.

Communication Barriers - Reasons for

Communication Breakdown
Communication is a process beginning with a sender who encodes the message and passes it through
some channel to the receiver who decodes the message. Communication is fruitful if and only if the
messages sent by the sender is interpreted with same meaning by the receiver. If any kind of disturbance
blocks any step of communication, the message will be destroyed. Due to such disturbances, managers
in an organization face severe problems. Thus the managers must locate such barriers and take steps to
get rid of them.

There are several barriers that affects the flow of communication in an organization. These barriers
interrupt the flow of communication from the sender to the reciever, thus making communication
ineffective. It is essential for managers to overcome these barriers. The main barriers of communication
are summarized below.
Following are the main communication barriers:
1. Perceptual and Language
Differences: Perception is generally
how each individual interprets the world
around him. All generally want to receive
messages which are significant to them.
But any message which is against their
values is not accepted. A same event
may be taken differently by different
individuals. For example : A person is on
leave for a month due to personal
reasons (family member being critical).
The HR Manager might be in confusion
whether to retain that employee or not,
the immediate manager might think of
replacement because his teams
productivity is being hampered, the
family members might take him as an
emotional support.

The linguistic differences also lead to

communication breakdown. Same word
may mean different to different
individuals. For example: consider a
word value.

a. What is the value of this

b. I value our relation?
c. What is the value of learning
technical skills?

Value means different in different sentences. Communication breakdown occurs if there is

wrong perception by the receiver.

2. Information Overload: Managers are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to

control this information flow else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or
overlooked. As a result communication is less effective.
3. Inattention: At times we just not listen, but only hear. For example a traveler may pay attention to
one NO PARKING sign, but if such sign is put all over the city, he no longer listens to it. Thus,
repetitive messages should be ignored for effective communication. Similarly if a superior is
engrossed in his paper work and his subordinate explains him his problem, the superior may not
get what he is saying and it leads to disappointment of subordinate.
4. Time Pressures: Often in organization the targets have to be achieved within a specified time
period, the failure of which has adverse consequences. In a haste to meet deadlines, the formal
channels of communication are shortened, or messages are partially given, i.e., not completely
transferred. Thus sufficient time should be given for effective communication.
5. Distraction/Noise: Communication is also affected a lot by noise to distractions. Physical
distractions are also there such as, poor lightning, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room also
affects communication in a meeting. Similarly use of loud speakers interferes with
6. Emotions: Emotional state at a particular point of time also affects communication. If the receiver
feels that communicator is angry he interprets that the information being sent is very bad. While
he takes it differently if the communicator is happy and jovial (in that case the message is
interpreted to be good and interesting).
7. Complexity in Organizational Structure: Greater the hierarchy in an organization (i.e. more the
number of managerial levels), more is the chances of communication getting destroyed. Only the
people at the top level can see the overall picture while the people at low level just have
knowledge about their own area and a little knowledge about other areas.
8. Poor retention: Human memory cannot function beyond a limit. One cant always retain what is
being told specially if he is not interested or not attentive. This leads to communication

Effect of Communication Barriers in

Business Communication
An organization is an individuals first home as one spends the maximum time here only. No organization
runs for charity, it is really important that the organization achieve its goals. How does an organization
become successful ? How will an organization achieve its goals ?.

The employees are the assets for any organization and the profitability of any organization is directly
proportional to the labour put by its employees. Putting labour does not mean getting involved in hard
physical work or digging the gold mines, it actually refers to the smart work done by employees,
transparency between the team members, free flow of information from the superior to the subordinates.
How does free flow of information happen? How is the transparency between the team members
achieved ? - Through Communication and not only through communication but effective communication.

In organizations the barriers in communication go a long way in distortion of the message and the
information does not reach in its desired form.

Imagine a situation where you want some report from your team members which needs to be forwarded
to the managing director of the organization. What if your team misinterprets your information, screws up
the project and fails to submit it within the deadline. The managing director will literally sit on your head
and make your life miserable. The poor communication can actually cost you your job.

Let us now understand how barriers in communication effect business communication.

Noise acts as a devil in business communication. Any information downloaded at a noisy place is
bound to get distorted and result in a complete mess.

Petty wanted to go through the complete budget of the sales, marketing and the operations team. She
passed on this information to Joe at his workstation around which lots of other employees were shouting,
the base phone was constantly ringing and the photocopier machine was making a terrible noise. At the
end of the day, Joe submitted the report but the budget for the operations team was missing in the report.
Joe actually had heard only about sales and marketing department and thus skipped the report of the
operations team. Petty fired Joe and even stopped his appraisal. Unwanted distractions, noise, chit chats
of the other employees etc played the culprit and poor Joe missed out on his promotion. Noise reduces
the chances of the correct flow of information from the sender to the receiver. If the office is noisy, errors
are bound to happen and thus increasing conflicts among the team members and decreasing the
efficiency of the employees.

Unorganized and Haphazard thoughts also lead to ineffective communication in organizations.

Business communications are bound to suffer due to ineffective communication. If any individual wants
something from his team members, he first must be himself very clear what actually he expects from his
team. The boss must clearly mention his team members key responsibility areas in clear words to avoid
wastage of manpower, duplicacy of work, effective time management and more output from them.
Not cross checking among themselves or with the superiors also spoils the business communication to a
large extent.

Misha was sharing her phone number with her client and she never bothered to verify with her client
whether he has noted the correct number or not. One day, the client had a major query and he had to
discuss with Misha on an urgent basis. He kept on trying the same number which Misha gave but
someone else was responding. He then had to call the front desk lady to get connected with Misha and
obviously he was furious. The client had wrongly noted Mishas number and thus wasted his precious
time and lost his temper. While sharing any important contact number it is the responsibility of the
speaker to cross check with the listener. Email ids must be spelled out properly to avoid wrong spellings
and unnecessary wastage of time.

During any business meeting, presentation or seminar, the speaker has to be very careful about
his pitch and tone. It has been observed that during seminars or presentations only the front benchers
are attentive, the last benchers are almost lost in their own sweet world. The person who chairs the
meeting has to speak very clearly, has to be very confident and must maintain a tone audible to
everyone, even to the individuals sitting on the last row. Information must pass to them also to expect the
best out of them and increase their efficiency. Try to make the seminar or the meeting interactive. Dont
just speak, also invite questions from the team. After any seminar or meeting, the superior or the incharge
must send the minutes of the meeting through e mail to all the required recipients to avoid last minute
confusions and discrepancies. The speaker must ensure whether everyone is clear or not ?

In any organization, it is mandatory to understand which employee can do a particular assignment, and
which employee is not fit for a particular role. Chelsea was not keen for a branding profile but his boss
could never understand her interest and always wondered why Chelsea was not effectively performing ?
In any organization, before assigning responsibilities to the employees, it is a must to understand the
employee and his area of specialization and interest. Communication will be for sure ineffective if a
person from an accounting background is asked to deliver a presentation on sales techniques. He is
bound to get nervous and the message will fail in creating the required impact. Dont just impose work on
any employee, give him the work he enjoys doing the most.

Difference in thought process also results in a poor communication in business areas. A boss and
the employee can never think on the same level. Let us try to understand the situation with the help of an

Jude to Harry - Harry, I need the complete financial report by end of the day

By financial report, Jude actually meant the complete financial analysis, which would include the complete
details of how much the company spends in advertising, promotional activities, and other marketing
activities.,analyse the inflow and outflow of expenditure patterns and so on.

Harry could never understand Judes thought process. He simply compiled the expenditure details and
handed over to Jude. Jude was obviously not happy. He was expecting much more from Harry. Harry had
to resubmit the project resulting in duplicacy of effort and wastage of time. Jude should have made it very
clear from the very beginning what all he was expecting from Harry. He kept half of his things within
himself and did not share with Harry. Poor Harry had to redo his work. Every individual has a different
mindset, different level of understanding and thus it is important to share each and every detail with
others and clarify the things from the very beginning.

One should remember that the listeners are also a part of the conversation. The listeners must give their
feedback at the end of the conversation. If you are not clear what your boss is expecting out of you, or
what you are actually supposed to do, please ASK. Dont hesitate, ask questions. Dont hide your queries,
ask and clear your doubts then and there only. Your boss will only feel happy if you share your queries
with him.
For the successful running of an organization, it is important that transparency is maintained among the
employees at all levels. Communication barriers must be overcome in organizations to ensure the free
flow of information between the sender and the recipient and for an effective communication among the
employees. Effective communication reduces the error rate, reduces conflicts and mis understandings
and in turn increases the profitability of the organization. Every employee must try their level best to avoid
the communication barriers in organizations for an effective business communication.

Overcoming Communication Barriers

There are a lot of communication barriers faced these days by all. The message intended by the sender
is not understood by the receiver in the same terms and sense and thus communication breakdown
occurs. It is essential to deal and cope up with these communication barriers so as to ensure smooth and
effective communication.

As, in the previous section we have discussed the major barriers of communication. Lets talk about how
to overcome these barriers of communication.

1. Eliminating differences in perception: The organization should ensure that it is recruiting right
individuals on the job. Its the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has
command over the written and spoken language. There should be proper Induction program so
that the policies of the company are clear to all the employees. There should be proper trainings
conducted for required employees (for eg: Voice and Accent training).
2. Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized. Use of
ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided.
3. Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication barrier which
must be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the source of noise and then
eliminate that source.
4. Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between listening and
hearing. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is heard.
By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the
receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker.
5. Emotional State: During communication one should make effective use of body language.
He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret
the message being delivered. For example, if the conveyer of the message is in a bad mood then
the receiver might think that the information being delivered is not good.
6. Simple Organizational Structure: The organizational structure should not be complex. The
number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be a ideal span of control within
the organization. Simpler the organizational structure, more effective will be the communication.
7. Avoid Information Overload: The managers should know how to prioritize their work. They
should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with their
subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively.
8. Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the feedback
might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to
effective communication between the superior and subordinate.
9. Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select the medium of communication.
Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings. Use of
written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex messages. For
significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of communication such as :
Memos, Notices etc.
10. Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an organization the managers
should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without skipping the formal
channels of communication. There should not be much pressure on employees to meet their

Seven Cs of Effective Communication

There are 7 Cs of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral
communication. These are as follows:

1. Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the
audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receivers mind set and
convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features:
Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization.
Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost
is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is complete.
A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It
leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.
Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the
audience/readers/receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information.
It persuades the audience.
2. Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in
least possible words without forgoing the other Cs of communication. Conciseness is a necessity
for effective communication. Concise communication has following features:
It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving.
It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless
Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the
Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience.
Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.
3. Consideration - Consideration implies stepping into the shoes of others. Effective
communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audiences view points,
background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their
requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-respect of the audience is
maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the
audiences needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication
are as follows:
Emphasize on you approach.
Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a
positive reaction from the audience.
Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on what is possible rather than
what is impossible. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks,
warm, healthy, help, etc.
4. Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to
achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features:
It makes understanding easier.
Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.
Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.
5. Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and
general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features:
It is supported with specific facts and figures.
It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
6. Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the senders expression as
well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite,
judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features:
Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the
receiver of the message.
Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.
It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message.
It is not at all biased.
7. Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in
communication. Correct communication has following features:
The message is exact, correct and well-timed.
If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level.
Correct message has greater impact on the audience/readers.
It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.
It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Awareness of these 7 Cs of communication makes you an effective communicator.