Anda di halaman 1dari 3



Dr. Arshad Zaman Khan


1. Difference between conventional and modern concrete systems.

2. Introduction to cement phases.
3. Chemical and mineral admixtures.
4. Powder particle characterization and surface morphology.
5. Hydration kinetics, dormant period, study of hydration kinetics/products.
6. Electrical resistivity, pulse velocity and Vicat as hydration indicators.
7. Deleterious mechanism on concrete.
8. Flow, strength, durability and microstructure studies of modern concrete.
9. Stability of concrete, dimensional stability.
10. Shrinkage compensating concrete.
11. High early strength grout systems.
12. Setting ad hardening phases of concrete.

Conventional Building Construction (aka In-Situ, Cast-in-Place, Stick-Built)


1. Labour intensive use only if labor is cheap.

2. Uses Formwork and Falsework to be removed after the concrete has hardened and developed
enough strength to support its own weight and the applied loads.

Formwork Mould into which concrete is poured to set to the profile of the mould.
Falsework The part that supports the formwork.
3. Can achieve any shape.
4. Homogeneous connections with all structural members/components, strong anchorage, bond and
5. Can make alterations/changes until the concrete is poured.
6. Can make design changes.
7. Easy to monitor and coordinate on site.


1. Quality of the finished work is poor honeycombing, bulging, cracks, etc.

2. Labour intensive use only if labor is cheap.
3. Site conditions dirty, dangerous, difficult (3-D work).
4. On site wastage concrete, formwork, falsework.
5. Slow speed of construction.
6. Linear construction each step/phase depends on previous one.
7. Depends on weather and labour.
8. Safety issues with formwork/falsework.
Modern Construction (aka permanent modular construction - PMC)


1. Repetitive design.
2. Saves time and money 50% or more quicker than CIP system.
3. Safe working environment.
4. No wastage of material.
5. Maximum value of product.
6. Less number of people on site.
7. Robust construction energy efficient.
8. 60-90% manufactured of-site in controlled environment.
9. Components are quality controlled and ready to install.
10. Less inconvenience on site no noise, traffic disruptions, time to complete construction on site,
construction at any convenient time.
11. Quick construction design, manufacture/fabrication in factory, delivery, assemblage on location.
12. Building Information Modelling (BIM) helps in reducing design errors during manufacture, allows for
testing for clashes and clearance zones and construction sequence before pre-fabrication.
13. Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) helps in fabrication of identical/repeat/same components.
14. Accuracy at design stage allows for a tolerant design.
15. No inspection hassles.
16. Reliable construction schedule.


1. No design changes limited design options.

2. Off-the-shelf product no architectural flair take it or leave it.
3. Site must be pre-planned and suitable access, delivery, lifting, etc.
4. Local suppliers/contractors/labor is minimized.
5. Hard liaison coordination, logistics, installation can be disruptive.
6. Reduced resell value.
7. Difficult to finance.


Do not compromise on:

a) Design.
b) Cost.
c) Feeling of satisfaction at the end priceless.