Anda di halaman 1dari 38

1a Permeability of rocks is one of the Jactors that affect the volume of water in a l5l

river. Using a well-labelled diagram, explain how it influences the volume of the
river.

Study Figure 1 below.

Source: http://www.kaleberq.com/Dortanqeles/alava/topomao iDq

b. ldentify the coastal landform shown in Figure 1 and explain its formation t6l

c. Choose and explain any three erosion processes from the following: 161
.attrition .corraston
.hydraulic action .solution

Figure 2 shows the Singapore River in 1960s and the same course of the river in
2004.
Figure 2

d. ldentify ihe type of channelisation shown in Fig 2 and discuss the impacts of such [8]
type of channelisation.

ANSWERS

'1a. Permeability of rocks is one ofthe factors that affect the volume of water in a [6]
river. Using a well-labelled diagram, explain how it influences the volume of the
river-

,u,oi,.,' f,i;;;"'1$
I I i u,'--
l r pt.riar LfJfr +
@;- iWt*
b-fwr,\tq
Y:r:.,#Y
Award 1m for any ONE of the diagrams, 1m for annotation

- When rain falls on higher permeable rocks, there is high inJiltration of


rainwater into the the ground
- Less surface runoffflows on the ground
- With lesser permeabile rocks, less water will seep into the ground
- Greater surface runoff results
[1m for each poini. I\,4ax. -5m1

Study Figure 1 below

Figure I

SoLrrce: http://www.kale .com/oorianqeles/alava/toporna

its formation' t6l


ldentify the coastal landform shown in Figure 1 and explain

- Clifi. high. steep rock face alonq ihe coast


- Formeiwhen waves repeateclly pound against a rocky coastin the rock
- itrif wear.ens tne rocks, causing lines of weakness to form
face
- Ove, tim., the waves erode the coast to cut a notch along the lines of
weakness
- The notch may be further eroded to form a cave
repeated
- fn" ou"rnunging part of the notch eventually collapse.with a cliff'
pounolng or ii,"-*"ues. The part of the coast that is left forms
following: t6l
Choose and explain any ihree erosion processes from the
.a rition 'corrasion
.hydraulic action 'solution
hvdraulic action
- force of last movinq water slronq enough
- ioo""n rocks and s;il which are dislodged and carried down the rlver
- river channel is eroded as a result
*
corrosion/abrasion
]- r.olr.?rusr""ts are dragged along the river bed 9l 'iu"'gulk" -- as
-
- the qrinJino lhe river channel o widen and deepen
aclion causes
r".1"-" i"lrare scraped off the sides and bottom and carried away
""J
r

with the water


- particularly effective during a flood when a river's energy is at its
maximum

attrition
- the load which the river carriers collide with one another as they move
- over time, the collision causes the materials to break down into smaller
pieces.
- Larger rocks are slowly broken down and their rough edges smoothed
out.
solution
- rain reacts with carbon dioxide forming carbonic acid.
- As the rainwater falls into rivers, the weak acid dissolved the minerals
preseni in the rocks on the river bed and banks.
- Eg. When a river flows over limestone, a chemical reaction occurs
beh,,r'een carbonic acid in the water and calcium carbonate in the
limestone.
- Caicium carbonate dissolves to form calcium bicarbonate which is
soluble in waier (solution)

Award 2 marks for each process

Figure 2 shows the Singapore River in 1960s and the same course of the river
in 2004.

Figure 2

ldentify the type of channelisation shown in the Fig 2 above, and discuss the tBl
impacts of this type of channelisation.

River Re-Sectioning [1]

Positive impacts (Max 4 mks):


- Re-sectionlng is the widening and deepening of the river channel [1].
- This increases the river's capability to hold water thus decreasing the
chances offlooding [1].
- Re-sectioning also increases the amount of suface runoff from the
surrounding areas into the river [1/2]. As more surface runoff can now
enter the river, there will be lower chances offlooding [1/2].
The river bed and banks may be smoothened by replacing the soil of
river banks and bed with cement and granite [1]
As there is now less friction between the water and the river bed and
banks, speed of the river increases allowing water to flow away without
flooding the surrounding banks [1].

Negative impacts (max 4 mks):


- lf re-sectioning takes place upstream, the volume of water flowing
downstream is increased [1].
- The channel in ihe area downstream may not be able to contain the
increased flow of water and flooding takes place downstream [1]
- Re-sectioning allows the river to increase its speed and energy'
resulting in more sediments being carried downsiream ['1].
- Overtime, build up of sediments results downstream causing the
channel to be shallower downstream, and flooding might take place [1].
- lt is costly to replace soil at the riverbed and banks with cement and
granite [1].
- lt is also difficult for re-sectioning to take place in a river with existing
river activities [1].
Figure 1a below shows a Hjulstrom Curve, which shows the velocity
(speed of river flow) against the size of particles.

Flow
Velochy r

mm per s€c

eq 9-.
vo A _ n a o

Diameter of Sed;ment (mm)

Fis. 1a

Using Fig. 1a, explain how the process of,erosion' is influenced bv size of
load and river vetocity. I4l
a Explajn, with the aid of relevant diagrams and examples,
transportation processes in a river.
lgg
t41

FMSS I\]IYE 2OO8


GEOG ELECTIW SEC 4 EXPRESS
valley in the lower course
Figure 1b below shows part of a river and its

Fis 1b

For feaiure labelled X OR Y

i identify the feature


of the feature
ii with the aid of diagrams' describe the formation

FMSS lvfr'E 2008


GEOG ELECTM SEC '1 EXPRESS
ct
Fig. 1c

ldentify and describe the coastal protection measure shown in Fig. 1c


above. Explain how this feature protects the coast. t3l

cI "Encouraging the groMh of coral reefs is a more effective form of coastal


management than the use of Seawalls."
Do you agree with the statement? t8l

---end of paper----

IMSS T{\'E 2OO8


GTOG ELECTII,€ SEC 4 EXPRESS
Answers
the velocity against the size
1ai Fig 1a shows a Hjulstrom Curve' which shows
of oarticles.
tn" the higher the speed needed 10 erode
tt require a speed of
For example, the particle srzes more tl.rln-i
'"rl"linl"o"*'"le "u"h "" ""nd require a speed of
tt ut Pebbles (10mm)
;"#ftft;dm"ni;"" i"
"to* "taed
10Oomm/sec to be eroded . , , "^-*,-^^ ,itl
in
riiiiiilllj, tjii"t" ot o stt' require a slower speed of about 1somm/sec
order to be eroded such as
#;;;;;;;;;; ;"e that very fine particles' from o 0o1 mm to 0 1mm'
iiliil"i !iri. to iooot*i""" in order to erode [1] as these
ot ,p
'ii"ri"cohesive'
particles are highlY "p""0

aii
stones' are moved
iraction: Larger sized materials, like boulders and rast
il;;;i;# il.lli;g oi"iloing'"rons tne river durins floods or bv a
bed
flowing river.

Saltation:Smallmaterials,likepebblesandcoarsesandparticles'aremoved the
ffi;:;;; i;" ;;iius oi bouncing motions/are lifted up and dropped onto
river bed over and over again'

Susoension:Fineparticles,suchaSsiltandclay'arecarriedbyfloatingalongthe
rive; without touching lhe river bed'
is dissolved in the river water
Solution: Soluble minerals, like calcium carbonate'
and transPorted downstream
oiagram three marks for explanation of2
processes)
iir"rl i"i ""itroj"

Feature X:
'r\Llio"ur" o""rt *nen a river twists and turns' and forms-hoop-like
;":i]::iiiril;;; irost prominent in the lower course or a river' As
j"i i6o*i,ion continue on the concave and convex banks
"i"ii"tl
t"""""ii""ru i l"" t"ander may become more and more pron"yT:l:l:-
; river breaks througn me
iJ".!""""1"i"ii'oi nanow nect< 1t1 Euenlually the
l he meander is graduallv
;".;"k;;'ll;;J ,hr";sh a straighL-channel lil
:;;fd ffi;"',i* inJ is seiarateo t'om ihl main river channel forming
an ox-bow lake [1]
I mark for diagrams

Feature Y:
li["i its
in"r" i" n"ruv rain a river may rlood and overflowloses!ii!":, ttl
over a larger area the water speeo
e" t-n" nooo*ut"l.
;il;i;ilft;"]5 irl wn"n t'"
"[reads oesins to deposit its load the
'ii"'
rMSS N'['E 2008
GEOG ELECTIVE SEC 4 EX?RISS
heavier and coarser materials will be deposited first and lefi near the
banks of the river [1] while the finer and lighter materials such as silt and
clay are deposiied further away. [1] After several floods, the continuous
accumulation of coarser materials on the banks of the river helps to raise
the banks higher than the floodplain forming naiural embankments
called levees. ['11 1 mark for diagrams.

ci Groynes are low walls built at right angles to the beach. [1]
They prevent materials from being transported away by
longshore drift [1]. This enables the transported materials to accumulate
on the updrift side of the groynes facing the longshore drift, thus
protecting the coast from erosion. ['1]

cii Level 1 (0-3m)

Brief or general description of how coral reef and seawalls protect the coast

Eg Coral reefs grow along the coast and they can weaken wave energy.

Seawalls can be built along the coast to absorb the energy of waves before ihey
can erode away loose materials.

No relevant examples.

No stand on their effectiveness.

Level 2 (4-6m)

General descripiion of how coral reef and seawalls protect the coast.

Eg Coral reefs grow aiong tropical coast- Natural reefs can be conserved and
protected while damaged reefs can be restored.

Seawalls can be built along ihe coasl. These siructures absorb the energy of
waves before they can erode away loose materials.

Suppoding examples given.

Eg Some corai reefs can be found along the coast of Peninsular l\,4alaysia. Some
seawalls can be found along the coasts of Penin$ular l\,4alaysia.

l\,4akes a weak stand on their effectiveness

rMss t-{\.E 2008


GEOG ELECTIVF SF,C 4 FXPRFSS
Eg Coral reefs are highly effective as they can weaken wave energy Similarly'
seawalls prolect the coast from erosion.

Level 3 (7-Bm)

Deialled explanaiion of how coral reef and seawalis protect ihe coast-

I\,4anyt[opica] coasts are protected by coral reefs which weaken wave energy
Natural reefs can be conserved and protected while damaged reefs can be
restored. Artificial reefs can be created along the coast by placing
environmentally friendly and durable malerials such as steel or concrete on the
sea-floor.

Seawails can be built along the coast- These struciures absorb the energy of
waves before they can erode away loose materials. Seawalls can be rnade of
concrete, rocks or wood.

Relevant supporting evidence and examples given.

Coral reefs can be found alonq the east coast of Trengganu in Peninsular
Malaysia. Seawalls can be found along the coasts of Penang and fi,4alacca in
Peninsular Malaysia.

l\,4akes a strong stand of their effectiveness.

Man-made reefs can be iust as protective of the coasts as naturally formed reefs
As they grow over lime, they form an effective barrier against \ /ave erosion They
can also help io enhance fishing opportunities and serve as undersea barriers to
reduce the impact of wave energy

Seawalls are especially effective in protecting cliffs from erosion. Ho\rever highly
erosive waves mean seawalls need constani maintenance io ensure lhey are
effective in protecting ihe coast.

FMSS N{\'E 2OO8


CEOG ELECTI\T SEC 4 EXPRESS
2(a) The figure below shows 4 river in the upper course.

(t Describe the riverprocesses that are takjng place


along this seciion ofthe rivcr.
to r esull in the lonration of thc
rorse.
(it \{arerlall.:rrc r co,rm,,"
".r.*"i"i"ain rhe upper ,or,,"e -' t"":;i
ueil labeled tlragrrn...horr hou r rerrcll. ,re' r'orm.d. "'"or r rc' rire,. siiq
"

(b) The figure below shows a river in the lower


course and the surounding flood plaitr.

(i) Explain why flooding occu6 in the arca.


(ii) *" seltlenents atons the river's flood plaim despite the L4)
lfl?T"Yr::H:'.
l2l
used in the area
(iir) Assess the effectiveness olthe flood management st-ategy
[g]
shown in the figure.

cr IANCYAT\C SECONDARY SCEOOL


or*sr srMES'rn"{ sx {MlNATION Z0lJlt
Geography Elcctiv€ (2192/02)

place alongthis s€ction oIthc


river to rcsultin the
are takrng
2(ai) nescribe the v€r processcs that t5l
form:rtion of the gorge
- .uer rs fast flowrng. high energv le"et
- ra.rd eroson txking Place
.",,". "" r,'aL""t" a' ior md r e o'iolal proce\'e<
;;:l; i;; .; ;;';;. *.':on oI he nrer bPd + r D d
- d;€p, nanow. \teep-sided \aLle)s
to'nr

in the upper course ofth€ river' usi"e w"trlabel€d


./-ii\
"'""' w.t'€ffa s are I common feature iound ,u,
ii""',-i'r'"" ho{ sarerfars
2 maks
:ri'e rormed'
Dra-grams. well labelled =
Exp lrnation a ma : rkq rock of different resistance)
aq a r€!rult of faulring and/or erosion along
(Accept fomahon ol waterfalls
flood plah'
the lofl€r course and the surrounding
21b) The ligur€ below shows a riv€r in
lr\ino evidence trom rhe ligure. I4l
ii1"'or"i" floodioe ottcn occurs itr the area
" - l*' "U r"""-J\F los "1e€) e\e'
",r'l
'low-lYing area, fiar Land
deDosirron rs raking Plrce r"h"lro*er
'l"i'".','o'"r *' "r cndrler ri\erclannel flooding
will result in
' i'"'"^" l' *r"'" i''t "ter a rain)
- *"lt"tl"" ln"v 1""" taken pLace in the upstream
"noor nood managemenr "raletsi"' t 'ter in a la'ge \orume or ualer
fiI ,'i""."' t',. "i ":i'e' arar Ege br'in dric' e 'lr
plains l2l
dong th€ river's flood
(i expl:rin whv settlemcnts are common
'.on is allu\ral soil
vefl sLritable lor growing rice dore{ic dre rran\pon
tor imgarron
',.ll,"i,iii "i' "1"'a '.irceor$drer
n"ta trP" rr"-t* L!(en bY larme^
'*" I8l
flood mmag€m€nt strategv used'
(iii) ass$s the effectiveness or th€
t e\el I (0 - lm)
'';,..''h;''''eg'"'""hotrnilre figu'ees buildrle d)le'andleree'
- r.i"nu a"t";1"' d'" uses ofdvkes andlevees
' No n;ntion ofiheir effectiveness

Level2 (4 6rn)
Identjfi es the straiegres
ri."u'''" a-""' -" Ine) p'F!'rr nooJ'
- in"'i'i" t'''i"'"r'or're'czTe'hod'orfloodpre\en'iorbnerL\
Level3 (7 8m)
' ldentifies the strateges rrev pre err nood'
o1'."u't " a''''r' 1"" I nrethods or flood'pre\enrron',,,fthe
- id*,1;;;;i;;;i;t"; ceihebJli;tauons orthe"e
he candrnares oprnion rhr
r'reranc( ' stmtegr€s used
- ;"":;' ';' ''"" ' 'hoqrrs 'n
(a) Study Fig. lAwhich shows the fonnation offeatures X andY.
Identify and describe, with the aid ofwell-labelled diagrams, the fomation of
features X and Y. 16l

Fig. 1A

(b) Study Fig. 1B which shows a coastal area.

Fig. 1B

(i) Explain, with the aid ofwell-labelled diagams, hovr' featue D is fomed. l8l

(ii) Explain what may happen to featwe D over time. t3l


(c) Evaluate the elfectiveness ofplanting mangroves along the shore as a coastal
protection measure. t8l

ANSWERS
1(a) Sludy Fig. 1A which shows the formalion of featu.es X and Y.
ldenti! and descrihe, wirh thc aid ofwell labelled diagnns, the formatio. of features X and Y. t6l

21n- diagrams 4 m- description

X - headland

1- Some coasts are made of rocks with different resistance to erosion


2- The less resistance rocks such as chalk, erode faster, compared to the
more resistant rocks like granite
The different rates of erosion of the rocks along a coast produce all
uneven coastline
the less resistant areas of rocks curve inwards as they get eroded away by
the wav€s
Y is eroded faster - bay
4- Th€ areas made up of more resistant rocks will protrude out form the
coastline
X is croded more slowly - headland

o) Study Fig. 1B which shows a coastal area.

(i) Explain, with the aid ofwell-labelled diagrams, how feature D is formed- t8l
r

2m - diagram 6m description

:a
0 :l:li,l:ir :r:l l.ibi)rf i :o;ii &
. lrryrfiErlri,apr+ Bil
S A ldlifiBr rtri i,.rhj;h , rlM!!i: fu nrkietrie.!ii
dry!*rdIr&: o,il, [iif.

D- spit

1- lolgshore currents transport sediments parrllel to the coast


2- when the lo[gshorc currents encounter a bay or a bend in the coast
rvith
shallow sheltercd water,
3- the currents get weaker and the materials they carry will be deposited
the direction ofthe longshorc drift
in
4- O,ver timc, the accumulation ofmaterials will result in a long, narrow
ridge
of sand.
5- with one end attached to the mainlatrd
and
6- the other extending illto the open sea.

1 (b) (ii) Explain what may happen to leaturc D over time.


f- iftherc is no change in th€ wind dircction, l3l
2- the spit may extenal seawarals, then it may eventuallyjoin
the island
and form a tombolo (refer to no.3 in djagram above)
3- ifthere is a change in wind direction r"he spit may extend ir another
direction
il- or it may become curvcd and crooked

l(c) Evaluale the efl'ectiveness ofplanting mangroves along


the slore as a coastal
protection measure.

Level 1 Attswers are tmbalanced, brief and lacking in ntnborotion-


l0-31
\o .uppodcd cu, Ltivcn, ot ,inple ,tarmenr\. c R. horked ,
"-',
b,rr,r.
One or two suggestions ofproteclive measues, bul no detail
e.g. hard engineering
soft engineering
Planting ofmangroves

Level 2 Measures mentioned, may be no -ore than giiiiiQ ofiiiiis;i I1-6!,


very brief des cription.
Briefstatements of elfectiveness. e.g. 'planting oJ mangroyes has helped to
anchar trees in the muddl) soil '

e.g. hard engineering : construction of structures, such as seawalls.


breakr,r aters . groynes and gabions
soft engineering : applying knowledge ofnatuml processes to stabilise the
coast and reduce erosion
Planting ofmangroves : soft engineering

Level 3 Candiddte at Lost I bnneStt oo,ll problem oJiach st orngy


,explains l7-81
co mpeten t b wi t h
o rdtio n.
e lab
Candidate makes a sLLpported stancl
Attempt to cohpare beneJits and/ or problems are well supported with

Given measure anil 2 other meas res nohted with some detail, e.g.
Planting of man$oves : many of the mangrove trees have prop ro-ots or
kneed roots that anchor the trees fuT y in the muddy soil. ihese rools also
bind the loo.e soil. and protecl ir lrom erosion.
Clear stateme ts of degree ofelfectiveness, e.g is effective in preventing coast
against erosion by waves and wind but requires the cooperation ofthe lical
people living in the area'

Given measure : mangrol)es and 2 other measLres : +ve a.nd ve points.


Nlention 2 other method -
e.g, hard engineering : construction ofstructures, such as seawalls,
breakwate$ , groJmes and gabions
soft engineering : applying knowledge ofnafural processes to stabilise the
coast and reduce erosion

Effective
Plantilrg qfmangrove is effective itr preventing coast against erosion by
waves and wind
il"5of lba-""gt * r*". ha prop rool\ or kneed roots lhat :rncbor
the trees firmly in the muddy soil
These roots also binal the loose soil, and protect it from erosiol

Ileffective and comparisons


lEFng -ungro.,es are fragile, mtrngroYe pltntirg exercises require the
cooperatior of the local people liYing in the area
e.g.ihe local people need to be mindful not to let animals like goats elrter
and graze on the new rlangroves
- may take up land leeded for cultivation
other methods : giv€ advantages trnd disadvantages :
Breakwaters built off the coast parallel tn i1-
+ve : Made of granite
Creates a zone ofshallow water befrYeen itself alrd the coast, so that
waves will break agaitrst it before reachilg the coast

-ve :Unable to provide complete protection


Leave certain areas ofthe coast unprotected
Expensive

Seawalls, Groynes, gabions :


Seawalls r
J[]-iud" of"oo".ete, absorbs the energy ofthe waves and protects th€
coast against strolg waves, €specially during storms
- Lasts longer (maintenalce not very lecessary)
- Helps to protection coast from erosiotr, but also allows for
deposition to take Place.
- Protects coast .gainst longshore drift
-ve : exp€nsive, in the long run, it may not protect a coast from erosion'
As waves break agaitrst the seawall' the energy from the waves is
redirected downwards, to the ttase ofthe seawall' resulting in a strong
backwash. The backwash Nears away the base ofth€ sea\aall, causing it
to weaken and colhpse.
' protects only a certain stretch.

Gabions : can be easily destroyed by polverful waves during storms and


the wir€s rust easily

Sfahilisins salrd dunes


+ve l protect human proPertY like houses and roads against coastal
erosion and flooding from waves
-ve : human activities on the dunes have damaged the vegetation and this
causes the saDd to be blown inla cove ns the roads and buildin
causing the entire town to be abandoned.

Beach nourishment:
Bringing sand to the beach.
- expensive! lasts for only 10 years
- tongshore drift will move it, needs replenishment

(a) Describe how tropical rainforests and tropical monsoon forests differ in ther
adaptalions to their environmenls ln tenns of t8l

TRT' TMF
Str'Llclure 5 vertical layers; more variety 3 v€rtical lavers
ofplants
Emergent layer - Canopy layer-
Canopy layer - Understorey layer
Understorey layer - UndergroMh layer
Shrub layer Canopy Layer
Undergrowth layer (25 to 30m)

- Topmost layer is the emergent -Trees are shorter and has lesser layers
layer where trees grow above
- the canopy to obtain as mush -do not forrn continLrous layer and more
sunlight as possible spread out than those in a tropical
rainforest -'open canopy'
- undergrowth layer which is - presence ofparasitic and non parasilic
sparse as there is little sunlight,
plants in this 1ayer.
block by the thick fotiage ofthe
canopy layer ; where fem,
> due to the seasons
:> lack of water
mosses, fungi and other small
during the dry seasons does not allow
plants live as they do not rcquirc
tees to grow great heights
much sunlight to grow,
)crowns ofthe canopy layer do not
interlock one another as the trces do not
grow as closely together.

UnderstoreyLayer (15m)

Undergowth (0-6m)

t dudng the wet season as therc is more


water & more sunlight can pass through
as the crowns ofthe canopy do not fom a
continuous laYer
) du.i"g uFaty s"us- us ttrer. ii tu.t
oi warer
Di\ ersiry Righ biodiversjtv- F. u., plrnG
c,t
- .. -
Consists of1nany species of 'p..i.t
-About 200 species ofplants can be lbund
plaDis and trees
in one hectare ofthe lorest -
One hectare of land has up
to 750 -trees are hardwoods
specles oftrees aDd up to 1500
-tlees are con]Inercially valuable
ies of other
Densiry -extrernely dense becaus.ofninil
temperatures and rainfal I
abundant plant growtTbi jesiiGI
than the tloprcal rainforest
-dense forest llke the tropica] rd;forest
ounng wet season
-forest appears spalse
) inconsistent rainfall
) to wirhstand the penod ofhieh
mi nf.ll
.) rs used a. fueluood. sandat*ood is
"al

Broad, waxy with drip tips


waxy *ith drip rlps
- Bamboo has narrow leaweq
) shed their lea\es during rhe dry
seas,_ru
to nnnrruze loss of water throush
tmrlspiration.
> leare( willgror qrrickJy agrir durinv
lhe uer season
) to drain offwaler easily during the wet
season to prevent the groMh olharmful
bacteri,
) to minimize the loss ofwater through

'to' 2 wh,ch.ho*.
,, roslrrry learures cnd rhccro.-,ectron
:*0,,t,t ofa ri\ er channel
describe,lvith the aid ofwell_labelled diagrarns. the
lormation offeature X_ t5l

lm - diagram 4m_description

X - levees
't- When there
is hearT rrin! a river may overflow its banks
This caus€s the lard on either side of th€ river to be flooded
wh€n the water recedes, the river leaves behind alluyium on the
banks
the coarse sediments are deposited closer to the river's edge,
1- orer time forming raised banks called levees

(ii) Discuss the advatrtages and disadvantages ofliving near these features. i4l
Advantages (2 m)
1- the levees may 4ct as protection to prevent water fiom river
orerflowing onto lhe lloodplain
2- floodplain nay bc fertile, suitable for growing crops
3- settlemenls may de\elop oo {he floodplains

Disadvantages (2 m)
1- the levees may break and water may overflow
2- the floodplains may get IIooded, crops trnd buildings are thus
destroyed by the floods

(c) Assess the effectiveness ofthe dykes as a method ofbant protection. t8t
Level 1 Answers are unbalancn,l, bri"Tar@
t0-31
No sLtpported elfectireness, or simple stateme ts, e.g. ,it warked,, ,it was a lot
better'.
One or two measures mentioned.
Level 2 Measurcs me tionetl, -oy Itero^@
I1-61
brief description.
Briefstdtenents of elfectiveness. e.g. ' the dykes prerent oyerflow'
One ot more measurc\ mcnti\ned.
Some dttempt L^ made to conlpare the bene/its and/ or problem, sLtpported b)j

Level 3 Cttftdidate e4)l.tifts at least 1 benelit and I proUen oJii stit"g-


t7-8t
c o tipeteht ly w it h e labotution-
Attehpt to compare benefits and/ or ptoblems ate well supported with
e&planation.
Given measure and 2 other measures ,tamed with sofie dctutit
I len! :4!:!:!!:J! delt ?? at qtfpctit eness. a.g is el1-eclir e in prer enliDe oan,ls
of the structure is
@intenance
hieh.

Dvkes

Effective
- fi-alts of sand, stone or concrete built along rivers that
often overflorl their
banks
- prevent overflot
- increase the capacif] oflhe ri\er lo hold waler
- ther€fore reduces the chances offlooding
Ineffective
-"otrtioo"t ttuita op of sediments on the river bed
- channel becomes shallower
- causing water levels to rise higher than the dyke walls
- river overflows
- higher dykes have to be built regularly
- sciimenis have to be dug up and removed from th€ nver on a
regular basis
- expensive

Others: gabions, revetmcnts, planting of vegetatiol

Gabions or revetments
- structures of small rocks contained in wire cages
- used to divert th€ flow ofwater from the river banks to the ceqtre
of the channel
- protects the river banks from being eroded
- ihis reduces the amount of sediments flowing into the river' thus
increasing th€ cnptcity ofthe river to hold water

Ineffeclive apd comParisoDs


- buitO up of\cdimeDt' oo tbe river bcd
"otttiouut
- channel becomes shallower
- river overflows
- expensiae
- cages may become rusty

Planting of vegetatron
Effective
- plalrting ofvegetation along a river can also protect river banks agailst
erosion as the roots oftrees and other plants hold the soil together lirmly
- vegetation slows down the rate ofsurface runoff
- preventing large amounts of water from enteritrg the river at any one time

Ineffective
- Young plants ar€ fragile, planting exercises require the cooperation ofthe
local people living itr the area
e.g. the local people need to be mindful not to let animals like goats etrter and
graze on the new vegetation
- may take up land needed for cultivation, agriculture
(a) Figure 4 shows the characteristics of two rivers.

River A River B

Amouni of rainfall (mm) 20 20

Gradient of river Steeo Gentle

Texture of river bed and bank Smooth channel Rouqh channel

Depth of river channel Deep channel Shallow channel

Figure 4

With reference to Figure 4, explain which river would have a faster


speed of flow.
(3)

(b) With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the processes ihal lead to
the formation of an oxbow lake.
(7)

(c) What are some problems thal may occur after channelisation has been
carried out to prevent a river from flooding? (3)

(d) Photograph A shows t\/o coaslal features caused by erosion.

Two coastal features caused by erosion


photograph A

From Photograph A, identify the coastal landforms


marked X and Y
and
explain how they are formed.
(4)

(e) Evaluate the effectiveness oftwo soft


engineerjng measures used io
protect the coast.
(8)

(a) Figure 4 shows the characieristics oftwo


rivers.

Amount of rainfall (mm

Gradient of river
Gentle
Texture of river bed and bank Smooth channel Rouqh channel
Depth of river channel Deep channel Shallow channel
Figure 4
With reference to Figure 4, explain which river would have a faster
speed of flow.
(3)

River A is likely to be faster flowing.


- This is because wiih river A is flowing from a steep gradient which will cause
the speed of the river to be high due to a stronger pull of gravity.
- The smooth texture of the channel means that the speed is speed of flow is
higher as ihere is lower friciion betvr'een water and lhe channel due to the
absence of obstacles.
- A deeper channel means a larger cenler which means a higher speed of
flow. This is because the center portion of the river channel is where the river
would flow the fastest.

(b) With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the processes thal lead to
the
formation of an oxbow lake. (i
- Over time, the meanders of a river become more pronounced causing the
hnro Concave (outer) banks of the river will shift closer together due to erosion
taking place on the concave banks.
- Eventually, the Concave (outer) banks will meet. The sediments deposited
on the inner bank will dam up the waier in the cut-off
- The river flow will be straight again, leaving a new feature known as the Ox-
bow lake.

Reserve 4m for labelinq

Formation of Ox bow lake


li-i$'ilrirll,
rl\. i'{cetrl rrlun&r
t' l)ri!* mdsl hjhld $ltrl1 ir*ir.tr

(cl has been


t!' What are some problems that may occur after channelisation
;ft;';,ii; il";;ia river trom'ttoooinsr (3)

downstream
- lncreased speed after channelisation result in llooding carried
- ;;;;;l;"-ti;;.uses speed of river 1o increase Hence' sedimenls
to sea resultrng in less sunlight reaching the seabed ..
jcn"igi"g ih; of the- river and lining the natural banks of the
river with
""rise
concretesuTfacesinchannelre-sectioning'alsoaffectplantsandanimalsaS
their habitats may be destroyed'

by erosion
(d) Photo A shows two coastalfeatures caused
PhotograPh A

From Photograph A, identify the coastal landforms marked X and Y


and
explain how they are formed. @)

- X: Headland, Y: Bay.
- Some coasts are made up of rocks with different resistance to erosion which
produces an uneven coastline.
- The part of ihe coast made up of less resistant rocks such as chalk' curve
inwards as ihey get eroded away faster by the waves to form bays.
- On the other htnd, the areas that are made up of more resistant rocks such
as granite protrude out from the coastline as they are less easily eroded to
form headlands.

(e) Evaluate the effectiveness of two soft engineering measures used to

protecl the coast. (8)


- For example sand which has been carried away by longshore drift to
another area along the coast can be broughl back and deposited on the
eroded beach.
- However, the effects of beach nourishment usually last for only about
ten years and the cost is especially high because beach quality sand is
very expensive and regular maintenance is required.

- The growth of coral reefs in shallow seas is another measure used to protect
coasi
- These reefs protect beaches against coastal erosion by reducing the
speed of waves approaching the coast, thus reducing the impact of
coastal erosion.
- However, human activiiies like dynamiie fishing, sand mining and land
reclamation have desiroyed coral reefs.
- The success of this measure in the long run depends on the
cooperation of many groups of people, including industries, fishermen
and the governmeni in ensuring the coral reefs are protected and are
thriving.

Any two of the above factors with elaboration and evaluation

(a) Figure 4 shows the characteristics of tvvo rivers.

River A River B

Amount of rainfall (mm) 20 20

Gradient of river Steeo Gentle

Texture of river bed and bank Smooth channel Rouqh channel

Deoth of river channel Deeo channel Shallow channel

Figure 4

With reference to Figure 4, explain which river would have a faster


speed of flow.
(3)

River A is likely to be faster flowing.


- This is because with river A is flowing from a steep gradient which will cause
the speed of the river to be high due to a stronger pull of gravity.
- The smooth texture of the channel means that the speed is speed of flow is
higher as there is lower friction between water and the channel due to the
absence of obslacles.
- A deeper channel means a larger center which means a higher speed of
flow. This is because the center portion of the river channel is where the dver
would flow the fastest.

(b) With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the processes that lead to
the
formation of an oxbow lake. Q\

- Over time, the meanders of a river become more pronounced causing the
two Concave (outer) banks of the river will shift closer together due to erosion
taking place on the concave banks.
- Eventually, the Concave (ouier) banks wiil meet. The sediments deposited
on the inner bank will dam up the water in the cut-off
- The river flow will be straight again, leaving a new feature known as the Ox-
bow lake.

Reserve 4m for labelinq

Formaljat alQx_bew la.Ke

Npillioil l.rt*{ |lr!,


&ditfi oil d]r'r., r]i!:x"rr

l!r!,r! liilcl rllilt Mratdrr


ft&x lic !11
I'ii }lj,f{rllr hjn{ tidd
*ghlq\*tii
(c) What are some problems that may occur after channelisation has been
carrjed out to prevent a iver from flooding? (3)

- lncreased speed after channelisation result in flooding downstrearn


- Channelisation causes speed of river to increase. Hence, sediments carried
to sea resulting in less sunlight reaching the seabed.
- Changing the course of the river and lining the natural banks of the river with
concrete surfaces in channel re-sectioning also affect plants and animals as
their habitats may be destroyed.

(d) Photo A shows two coastal features caused by erosion.

Photograph A

From Photograph A, jdentify the coastal landforms marked X and Y


and
explain how they are formed. (4)

- X: Headland, Y: Bay.
- Some coasts are made up of rocks with different resistance to erosion which
produces an uneven coastline.
- The pari of the coast made up of less resjstant rocks such as chalk, curve
inwards as they get eroded away faster by the waves to form bays.
- On the other hand, the areas that are made up of more resistani rocks such
as granite protrude out from the coastline as they are less easily eroded to
form headlands

(e) Evaluate the effectiveness of two soft engineering measures used to

protect the coast. (8)

Level
1(1-2m) Describes one/two measures used to protect coast wiih no
evaluation of effectiveness.

(3-5m) Describes one/two measures used to protect coast with brief


evaluation of the measures.

Evaluate one measure used to protect coast with detailed


evalUation.

3 (6-Bm) Explanation of two coastal proteciion measures and detailed


evaluation of two coastal protection measures

- Soft engineering measures involve applying knowledge of naiural processes


to stabilise the coast and reduce erosion.

- One of these measures is to stabilise coastal dunes.

- A coaslal dune is a ridge of sand piled up by wind on the coast, which


act as barriers along the coast protecting human property from coastal
erosion and flooding.
- Coastal dunes may be stabilised by planting vegetation like marram
grass, which prevents the sand from being blown away.
- While the vegetation can stabilise the coastal dunes, they cannot
totally prevenl erosion along the coast
- ln order for dunes to be stabilised in the long run, human activities
such as property development and recreational activjlies need to be
minimised along the coasts.

- Another measure is by planting mangroves along the coast to protect


against erosion by strong waves and winds.
- The roots of the mangroves bind the loose soil and prevent them from
being washed away.
- During the 2004 lndian Ocean Tsunami, places with mangrove forests
such as the coastal areas of Bangladesh suffered less damage.
- For mangrove protection of the coast to work, the cooperation of local
people living in the area is needed.
- As young mangroves are fragile, the local people need to be mindful
not to let animals like goats enter and graze on the new mangrove
plantalions.
- lt also takes time for the plants to mature and offer more protection for
the coast.

- Another measure is beach nourishment which is to add large amounts of


sand to a beach that is being eroded.
- For example sand which has been carried away by longshore drift to
another area along the coast can be brought back and deposited on the
eroded beach.
- However, ihe effects of beach nourishment usually last for only about
ten years and the cost is especially high because beach quality sand is
very expensive and regular mainlenance is required.

- The groMh of coral reefs in shallow seas is another measure used to protect
COAST
- These reefs protect beaGhes against coastal erosion by reducing the
speed of waves approaching the coasi, thus reducing the impacl of
coastal erosion.
- However, human activities like dynamite fishing, sand mining and land
reclamation have destroyed coral reefs.
- The success ofthis measure in the long run depends on the
cooperation of many groups of people, including industries, fishermen
and the government in ensuring the coral reefs are protected and are
thriving.

Any two of the above factors with elaboration and evaluation


Question 1: River and Coasts [25 marks]

Study the photograph below which shows the course of a river during winter.

Using evjdence from the photograph, explain howthe volumeof water will change as [2]
spring approaches.

Figure 1 below shows ihe amount of rainfall that is recorded for three basins on a [6]
particular day. Based on the information given, explain why the discharge for the
three basins will be different even though the amount of rainfall received js the same
for all three basins.

Basin A Basin B Basin C


Amount of rainfall (cm) 100 100 100
Duration of rainfall fmin) 30 20 30
Presence of veqeiation Yes No Yes
% of oorous soil 50 30 80
Fig. 1

With the help of a diagram, explain the formation of a delta. t41


Figure 2 below shows part of the south coast of UK.

Map to show ta.t ofthe soqth caas! 3{the [,,K

K'Y
ffi haid rock
n
.r;!€
sofl aock

-!.!f.:i

F\9.2

i) Label coastal features Y and Z. 121

ii) Explain the formation of Y and Z. t31

Evaluate the effectiveness of river channelization strategies t8l


ANSWIRS

Question 1: River and Coasts [25 marks]

a Study the photograph below which shows the course of a river during winter.

Using evidence from the photograph, explain howthevolumeof water will changeas [2]
spring approaches.

As spriDg approaches, the snow will melt [1] and this itrcreases thc volume of tvater irr the
fiver lll,
Figure 1 below shows the amouni of rainfall that is recorded for three basins on a [6]
particular day. Based on ihe information given, explain why the discharge for the
three basins will be different even though the amouni of rainfall received is the same
for all three basins

Basin A Basin B Basin C


Amount of rainfall (cm) 100 100 100
Duration of rainfall (min) 30 2A 30
Presence of veqetation Yes No Yes
% of porous soil 50 30 BO
Fig 1

Rivcr discharge is aflccted by amount and duration of rainfirll, presence of vegetation, size if
drainage basin and type of soil. Althougll the amount of rainfa]l is the same, river dischargc
rvill differ due to other factors such as duration ofrailfall, prcscnce of vegetation and typc of
soil. [1]

The longer the duration of rainfall, the higher thc intiltration rate, lower thc surlace runoff
and Iower rivcr dischrrgc. I1l

Thc presence of vcgctation will incrcasc thc infiltratioB rate; decr€ase the surface runoff and
leads to lorver vcr dischargc, I1l

The more porous the soil, the higher the infiltration rater thc lowcr the surlace runolT and
the lower the river discharge. [1]
Basin B will h:1ve the highest river discharge [1] as it has thc shortest duration of rainfall,
there is no vegetation alrd the soil is least porous.

Basin C rvill have the lowest dver discharge [1] as it has a long duration of rainfall, there is

vegetation and the soil is very porous.

With the help of a diagram, explain the formation of a delta. t4l

When a river etrters a lake or sea, its speed decreases.


Hence, the sedimeots that it carries are depositcd at
the river mouth. [1] The main river branches out into
many distributaries [1], as the sedimcnfs deposited at
the river mouth block the flow of thc main river. I1l
Over time. rs sedimelrts accumulatc at the river
mouth, a delta is form€d. J1l

Figure 2 below shows part o{ the south coast of UK.

M3+r ro showpartorLc southco.stofthe UK

E hard rock

ll -a.cr
'.:: s€niment

i) Label coastal feaiures Y and Z. l2l

Y - Headland and Z- Bay

ii) Explain the formation ofY and Z. I3l

Somc coasts arc made up of rocks with different resistance to erosion. lll The less resistant
areas of rocks are crodcd away quickly and this results in the land curving inlvards, forming
bays. [1] The areas made up of more re.istanl rocLs will protrude out from the
These areas are known as headlands. coastline-
lll
e Evaluate the effeciiveness of rjver channelization
strategies. t8l
. Level t: 0-3 marks. poor answer quality
. Explanation is limited
. Evaluation is too simple
' flarnpler are ! ery general o. indccurale
. Level2: 4-6 marks.
. Some knowledge showr but lacking depth
. Some points explained but with miising steps
. Examples may be relevant but lack det;ils

. Level3:7-8 marks. Good answcr.


. Good Knowledge shown
. Mo.r expecred point\ e\plalned rar leacr I poinrs are giren)
. Boib .ides olargument considered
. PJa. e^pecrfic eramples are gi\ en.

River Charnelization Strategies:


River Re-alignment
River Re-sectioning
Banl< Protection
Planting ofVegetation