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Identifikasi Anak Dengan Gangguan Pendengaran

Tunarungu adalah anak yang kehilangan seluruh atau sebagian daya


pendengarannya sehingga mengalami gangguan berkomunikasi secara verbal.
Walaupun telah diberikan pertolongan dengan alat bantu dengar, mereka masih
tetap memerlukan layanan pendidikan khusus.
Berdasarkan tingkat keberfungsian telinga dalam mendengar bunyi,
ketunarunguan dapat diklasifikasikan ke dalam empat kategori, yaitu:
1. Ketunarunguan ringan, yaitu kondisi di mana orang masih dapat
mendengar bunyi dengan intensitas 20-40 dB (decibel, disingkat dB,
ukuran untuk intensitas/tekanan pada bunyi)). Mereka sering tidak
menyadari bahwa sedang diajak bicara, mengalami sedikit kesulitan dalam
percakapan.
2. Ketunarunguan sedang, yaitu kondisi di mana orang masih dapat
mendengar bunyi dengan intensitas 40-65 dB. Mereka mengalami
kesulitan dalam percakapan tanpa memperhatikan wajah pembicara, sulit
mendengar dari kejauhan atau dalam suasana gaduh, tetapi dapat terbantu
dengan alat bantu dengar (hearing aid).
3. Ketunarunguan berat, yaitu kondisi di mana orang hanya dapat mendengar
bunyi dengan intensitas 65-95 dB. Mereka sedikit memahami percakapan
pembicara bila memperhatikan wajah pembicara dengan suara keras, tetapi
percakapan normal praktis tidak mungkin dilakukannya, tetapi dapat
terbantu dengan alat bantu dengar.
4. Ketunarunguan parah, yaitu kondisi di mana orang hanya dapat mendengar
bunyi dengan intensitas 95 dB atau lebih keras. Percakapan normal tidak
mungkin baginya, ada yang dapat terbantu dengan alat bantu dengar
tertentu, sangat bergantung pada komunikasi visual (Yulia Suharlina dan
Hidayat, 2010).
Procedures used to identify and assess hearing loss
In general, there are two basic types of procedures used to identify or
assess hearing loss in infants and young children:
Physiologic tests: Objective measures of physiologic activity within the
auditory pathway
Behavioral hearing tests: Developmentally appropriate measures of
hearing sensitivity and function
Physiologic tests do not measure how well or what a child is able to hear; they
are tests of the integrity of the various parts of the auditory system and help to
indicate where an auditory problem may be located. Because physiologic tests
do not require voluntary responses from the child, they are frequently considered
objective measures of auditory function. Physiologic tests include:
Acoustic responses recorded from sensory hair cells in the inner ear
(otoacoustic emissions)
Electrophysiologic responses (micro-volt electrical activity from the
auditory nerve and brainstem, such as the auditory brainstem response)
Middle ear function measurement (tympanometry)
Acoustic middle ear muscle reflex measurement (New York State
Department of Health, 2007).

Theory of Mind (ToM)


Peterson and Siegal were the first to investigate ToM development among
children with hearing loss by examining the understanding of false beliefs among
children aged eight to thirteen. Most of the participants in their study and in later
studies were deaf children with hearing parents who communicated using oral
language or who had begun signing only at the beginning of elementary school.
The studies showed that these children exhibit a major delay in their
understanding of false beliefs, arriving at such understanding only between age
eight and ten. Moreover, in social interactions during their years in school, they
have difficulties relating to the points of view of others.

Recently, Peterson and colleagues conducted comprehensive studies to


explore deaf children's ability to understand a variety of situations in which the
mental state of one character differed from that of another. Results reveal that
orally-communicating and late-signing children are delayed not just on standard
false-belief tasks but in understanding mental states in general. It has been
suggested that the reason for the difficulties in understanding ToM exhibited by
these children is related to their limited participation in high quality social
interactions involving mental discourse, in their family or educational setting.
Recent studies on ToM among children with unilateral cochlear implants revealed
inconsistent findings. Peterson found that implanted children ages 4-12 years
demonstrated a 3-5-year delay in acquiring ToM, whereas other studies found that
implanted children ages 3-12 years exhibited only a small delay. Furthermore,
some children in the two latter studies showed no delay at all compared to hearing
children, both with respect to ToM and with respect to their linguistic ability. The
researchers concluded that implants assist in the development of spoken language,
including mental and emotional terms, and consequently also render an impact on
development of ToM.
In contrast to deaf children with hearing parents who have difficulty
attributing mental states to people, deaf children whose parents are also deaf and
who communicate with them using sign language from infancy do not exhibit
difficulties in ToM development. The intact ToM among these children can be
attributed first and foremost to their early and normal exposure to mental states
through their natural and fertile communication in sign language, which is their
mother tongue. In addition, most of the signing children who participated in ToM
studies came from a high socioeconomic background marked by prolific mental
discourse, as in hearing families from similar backgrounds ( Margalit Z, Irit Meir,
Lucky Malky,2013).

Pelayanan Pendidikan bagi anak tunarungu


Layanan pendidikan yang spesifik bagi anak tunarungu adalah terletak pada
pengembangan persepsi bunyi dan komunikasi. Ada tiga pendekatan umum dalam
mengajarkan komunikasi anak tunarungu, yaitu:
1. Auditory training
2. Speechreading
3. Sing language and fingerspelling.
Daftar Pustaka

New York State Department of Health. 2007. Hearing Loss: Assessment and
Intervention for Young Children, New York: New York State Department
of Health
Suharlina,Y., Hidayat. (2010). Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus. Yogyakarta: Think
Ziv,M., Meir,I., & Malky,L. (2013). Enhancing Theory-of-Mind Discourse
among Deaf Parents of Children with Hearing Loss, 1(2), 249-262. doi:
10.11114/jets.v1i2.169