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Answer key

Module 1
Reading 1 pp. 89

1
Students own answers

2
1 C This is mentioned in the topic sentence of the first paragraph (and the final part of the last
paragraph). The other two options are not mentioned in any topic sentence.
2 A Para 2: the topic sentence gives details, such as where the participants were from and what
they were asked to do.)
B Para. 4: this point is described in the topic sentence.
C Para. 3: the topic sentence begins Previous research ...

3a
1 mizuiro, ao 2 Panos Athanasopoulos
3 Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
4 Japanese, English

3b
Students could mention things like capital letters for languages and italics for the non-English words.

4a
(key points are underlined)
Bilinguals and monolinguals understand the world differently from each other.

4b
(Suggested answers; key points are underlined)
B Perfect fluency is needed in order to experience the effect described.
C The professors research disagrees with the results of earlier studies.
D The professors research involved asking people about a number of colours.
E Different languages tend to describe each colour in a similar way.
F The researcher feels that the results of the experiment go beyond colours.

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A correct: main point of text B incorrect: it is language use, not proficiency, which makes the
difference C incorrect: para. 3, the one about earlier research, contradicts this D incorrect: para. 2,
the one about how the research was carried out, specifies that participants were asked about one colour
E incorrect: huge variation, para. 2
F correct: confirmed by first and last paragraphs

7
Students own answers

1
Academic vocabulary 1 p. 10

1
1 adjective; it says adj 2 adverb (fluently) and noun (fluency) 3 uncountable 4 look at the symbols
in square brackets after the headword 5 in; its in square brackets 6 theyre usually in order, most
common/frequent first

2a
1 proficiency 2 perception 3 concept 4 rate 5 linguistic 6 cognition 7 norm 8 focus

2b
1 proficiency (n); (v); proficient (adj)
2 perception (n); perceive (v); perceptive (adj)
3 concept (n); conceive (v); conceptual (adj)
4 rating (n); rate (v); (adj)
5 linguistics/linguist (n); (v); linguistic (adj)
6 cognition (n); (v); cognitive (adj)
7 norm (n); normalise (v); normal (adj)
8 focus (n); focus (v); focused (adj)

2c
Students own answers

3a
bi- = two

3b
A uni-, mono- B bi- C tri- D quad- E penta- F hex- G deca- H semi- I multi-

3c
(Possible answers)
5: quin- 8: octo- 100: cent- 1,000: mill-/kilo-

4
1 bicycle with one wheel 2 square area, like a courtyard, with buildings around it usually in
universities 3 six-sided shape 4 representing or consisting of many cultures 5 once every two
years; ten-year period 6 one person speaking; flat voice with no variation in tone

5a/b
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 11

1
Students own answers

2b
The speaker is likely to jump from main (stressed) word to main word. This is because of the stress-
timed nature of English the stressed syllables have roughly the same time between them and if there
are a lot of words in between, they tend to get spoken very quickly.

2
3a
Emil Krebs was a German translator and interpreter who worked in the early twentieth century. It has
been said that he knew sixty to sixty-five languages, many of which he taught himself. Many scientists
have wondered whether his brain was wired differently from other peoples.

3b
Most of the words underlined in 3a are nouns, verbs and adjectives. They are all content words.

3c
shorter, quieter, faster, less clear

5
Students' own answers

7
(Suggested answer)
When they examined the brain of someone who understood many languages, scientists found that the
area that governed speech did not have the same form as in most monolingual speakers brains. What
scientists dont know is whether language learning changes the brain or whether some people are born
with this quality.
8
Students own answers
9
1 English 2 (the) ears 3 (the) brain 4 (only) one 5 concept 6 written

Listening 1 p. 12

1
Students own answers

2
2 is correct. Reasons: results are mentioned throughout. Theres little discussion of the importance of
the project. Who took part and where the research was done is important but these are details that
arent emphasised.

3
1 study 2 nine 3 vocabulary 4 arithmetic 5 patterns 6 significantly

45
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 13

1a
present simple: changes, see, think, use, dont need, makes, is, is, place, are, (are not found), covers,
are, belong, speak, (is published),
tend, learn
present continuous: youre (also unconsciously) learning
present perfect: has found, has shown
past simple: showed, looked, matched, perceived, found, distinguished, resembled, depended, used
The past continuous is not used.

3
1b
Simple tenses are most common; continuous tenses are least common (only one example).
The frequency with which perfect tenses are used is somewhere between simple and continuous
tenses.
2
1 A was carried out; B were given 2 A researcher did the action in A. The preposition by begins the
phrase. 3 We dont know who did the action in B.
4 The action is more important than the person who did the action in these sentences.
3
1 was often 2 caused 3 was thought 4 had
5 were given 6 was realised 7 tested 8 were
tested 9 was generally found 10 are

4a
The idea in the second sentence is different from the idea in the first sentence. The word however
signals this relationship.

4b
1 and, further 2 however 3 first 4 for instance 5 during 6 consequently 7 because 8 in
summary 9 so that 10 an important point

4c
(Suggested answers)
1 furthermore 2 on the other hand, on the contrary 3 next, then, finally 4 for example 5 when,
while, first, in the end, eventually, to begin with 6 as a consequence, as a result 7 for this reason, as
a result 8 in conclusion, to summarise, to conclude 9 to, in order to 10 most importantly

5
2 During 3 Consequently 4 However 5 but 6 An important point 7 because 8 and 9 In
summary 10 but

Writing 1 p. 14

1ab
Students own answers

2
The opinion expressed is: Learning a second language from an early age is beneficial and all children
should be encouraged to do it.

3a
1 para. 1 2 paras. 2 and 3 3 para. 4

3b
1B 2A 3C

4
Students own answers

4
5
1 topic sentence 2 the main idea of the paragraph
3 discourse marker 4 between one paragraph and the next 5 first and second body paragraphs
consist of reasons

6
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 15

1
Students own answers

2
1 pictures 2 words 3 differently 4 imaginations 5 restrict

3
Students own answers

4
The speaker prefers stories to be told from memory, as its more engaging for the audience and allows
for more imagination. For the other points, students give their own answers.

5
1 folk tails folk tales
2 often tell are often told

6
1 Story telling is a common teaching technique in many countries.
2 Folk tales are passed orally from generation to generation.
3 Books for children often contain many beautiful illustrations.
4 Generally, young children around the world enjoy listening to stories.

7
Students own answers

Language development 2 p. 16

1a
1 A past simple B present perfect 2 present perfect (B) 3 past simple (A)

1b
In sentence A, this morning has not finished yet; its still the morning. In sentence B, this morning has
finished; it is now the afternoon or evening (of the same day).

2a
1 A I spent, havent done; B Ive spent
2 A has run; B ran
3 A have provided; B provided

5
2b
Students own answers
3
1 No. The past simple is more likely to be used for procedures in previous research and those
procedures would usually be completed/ finished.
2 Yes. The present perfect is often used to show that past actions have a present relevance
3 No. Generalisations, rules, etc. are usually expressed using the present simple.

4a
wonderful, award-winning, which is based on a folk tale

4b
Adjectives and relative clauses. Three ideas were combined in one sentence (She wrote a wonderful
book. The book won an award. The book is based on a folk tale.).

4c
They help pack a lot of ideas into a single sentence.

5
1 take takes (subject verb agreement)
2 person which person who/that (Which isnt usually used for people.)
3 no comma (Commas are used in non-defining relative clauses. This is defining.)
4 person speaks person who speaks (You cant miss out the relative pronoun if its a
subject defining relative clauses only.)

6
2 Theres a good library where you can study peacefully.
3 Hungarian is a difficult language that/which has some very complex verb forms.
4 Young children often learn better through activities such as games and songs that/which
involve doing things, not just reading or listening./Young children often learn better
through activities that/which involve doing things, not just reading or listening, such as
games and songs.
5 The university careers office has some very experienced staff, who can help you to find a job.
6 The class read a book that/which contained a lot of information about the history of their city.
7 J K Rowling is an author that/who has written some very influential childrens books, which
have sold in many countries around the world.

7
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 17

1
Students own answers

2a
1 verb 2 we 3 stories 4 each other 5 told (Its unlikely that people would shout or sing stories and
you wouldn't write stories to each other.)

2b
1 discipline 2 incredibly 3 traverses 4 conveyed 5 vanishes

6
2c
1 convey 2 traverse 3 disappear 4 incredibly 5 discipline

3a
(Suggested answers)
motivating, aiding, Pre-adolescent, immediacy, mesmerised, squirming

3b
In general, for words in lists, adjectives and adverbs are least likely to be needed. In lists, the other
items often help you to know what the list is about, and the word described by the adjective/adverb is
usually more important than the adjective/adverb.

4a
1 No, it requires practice to do well. 2 They will squirm, talk to each other and look for other things to
do.

4b
No, not at all.

5a
1 take in 2 rich 3 (be) based on 4 version 5 (be) aware of

5b
1 rich 2 take in 3 version 4 aware of 5 based on

Reading 2 p. 18

1
Students own answers

2
A correct: a high failure rate B incorrect: perhaps surprisingly, this isnt mentioned here C incorrect:
first line says to help them to succeed in a subject which they have previously failed, i.e. theyve
studied it before D correct: last sentence says It describes ... insights gained by the staff who were
involved in this ... programme E incorrect: second sentence says the programme has been
successful in similar contexts, meaning this is not the first time F incorrect: pre-recorded lectures ...
main VSI learning tool

34
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 19

1
1 bar chart, graph, pie chart
2 a rise, growth, a fall, a drop
3 go up, rise, grow, go down, fall, drop

2
1 (Suggested answer) It shows the changes in percentages of pupils choosing to study some
languages in high school.

7
2 Spanish
3 Polish, French
4 Polish and Portuguese: small difference; French and German: small difference; French
and Polish: big difference

3
(Suggested answers)
French and German: decline; Polish and Portuguese: increase; Spanish: stays about the same;
Chinese: moderate increase

4
French and German: decline; Spanish: stays about the same; Polish and Portuguese: increase

5a
1 shows, in 2 of

5b
1 The bar chart illustrates the percentage change in students exam grades.
2 The percentage of students who scored over 80 percent has dropped.
3 The percentage of students who scored below 60 percent has risen.

67
Students own answers

Writing 2 pp. 2021

1
Students own answers

2a
1 no, only the essential words
2 imp = improves; e.g. = for example; prblm = problem; thnkg = thinking, u/stand = understand;
= consequence; btwn = between
3 Students own answers
4 imp several skills and u/stand ... directly are the main ideas. The others are the supporting
ideas. We can see this from the indentations.
5 The introduction and conclusion can be inferred from main ideas; if main ideas are
written down, theres no need to write them again for the introduction and conclusion.

3
(Suggested answers)
12 minutes planning; 15 minutes writing;
34 minutes checking/revising

45
Students own answers

6a

8
A

6b
single-underlining = related to information in the first sentence
double underlining = new information

6c
Putting new information at the end of the sentence creates a smoother flow.

7
2 When you practise a skill, you develop the habit of using the skill. Real life activities are made
easier because of these habits./These habits make real life activities easier.
3 Its important to use a range of techniques when studying anything, including languages.
Motivation is increased by variety./Variety increases motivation.
4 Several of my classmates in school only studied grammar and vocabulary for their
English lessons. Soon, other subjects excited them more./Soon, they were more excited by
other subjects.

810
Students own answers

Review p. 22

1
1 have studied 2 were made 3 have shown 4 requires 5 increased 6 has improved 7 be
gained 8 is seen 9 told 10 learn

2
1 proficient 2 aware 3 memorisation 4 cognitive 5 take in 6 perception 7 norm 8 rate

3
2 A pie chart is a type of chart that/which shows amounts as slices of a pie. 3 A person that/who
illustrates is (called) an illustrator. 4 A primary school is a place where children under the age of 12
study. 5 Learning three languages was the achievement (that/which) he was most proud of. 6 A
bimonthly magazine is a magazine that/which is published every two months. 7 Problem-solving is a
skill that/which is useful in many jobs. 8 Did you find the evidence (that/which) you wanted for your
research? 9 Maths is a school subject (that/ which) many people enjoy. 10 Folk tales are traditional
stories that/which are passed from parents to children over many generations.

4
1 imitation 2 orally 3 memorised 4 richly 5 increases 6 problem 7 creative 9 collaboratively

9
Module 2
Reading 1 pp. 2425

1
Students own answers

2a
The first sentence is the most general. The others are more specific.

2b
Others some cultures
For example the future can be seen in dreams
This a pleasant dream ... next day
another theory the meaning of dreams (para. 1); contrasting Freuds theory with the theories
described in the first paragraph
Freud Sigmund Freud (i.e. family names are usually used to refer back to a person, not the whole
name or the first name)
He Freud
This idea dreams reflect ... world

3a
Sentence C is about a general theory. Sentences A and B are about a specific persons research and
her findings more specific than a theory. This is then sentence 1.

3b
Sentence B. The words this hypothesis refer to sentence C. This is then sentence 2.

3c
The word she in sentence A refers to Rosalind Cartwright in sentence B.

4
(Suggested answers)
The most general sentence is B. This is then sentence 1.
The words The difference in sentence A refer to the kind of work the brain is doing during dreams or
when were awake, mentioned in sentence B.
The words lack of information coming in in sentence C refer to when we are asleep, we are cut off from
feedback from the world in sentence A.
5
A3 B1 C5 D4 E2
6a
(Suggested answer)
Sentence B is the most general and therefore comes first.

6b
In sentence A, For example refers to an example of E (the symbols in a dream).
In sentence D, the woman refers to a woman in sentence A.
In sentence C, Delaney refers to Gayle Delaney in sentence A; the woman refers to a woman in
sentence A (even though these refer to sentence A, sentence D is clearly a continuation of the story in
sentence A, so sentence D comes before C).

10
7a
1 text in 3 (and 5) 2 text in 2 3 text in 4 4 text in 2 5 text in 2

7bc
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 26

1
1 interesting 2 disagreement 3 has not yet 4 a new 5 sudden or clear 6 a formal 7 especially
8 could 9 the main

2
1 insight 2 perspective 3 theme 4 scenario 5 initiative 6 Challenges 7 notion 8 controversy
9 hypothesis

3a
1 central, major, key 2 theoretical 3 deep 4 faced 5 gained 6 poses 7 test 8 overcame

3b
2 from 3 into 6 to

4
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 27

1
Students own answers

2a
(Suggested answers)
1 Most adults // need around eight hours // of sleep // every night.
2 There is disagreement // among researchers // about why // we dream.
3 Its important // that people // with responsible jobs // get plenty of sleep.
4 Before electric lighting // adults generally
slept // about nine or ten hours // per night.
5 Even now // scientists still dont know // whether animals dream // while they sleep.

2b
(bold = stressed word; underlining = stressed syllable within the stressed word)
1 Most adults // need around eight hours // of sleep // every night.
2 There is disagreement // amongst researchers // about why we dream.
3 Its important // that people // with responsible jobs // get plenty of sleep.
4 Before electric lighting // adults generally slept // about nine or ten hours // per night.
5 Even now // scientists still dont know // whether animals dream // while they sleep.

34
(bold = stressed word; underlining = stressed syllable within the stressed word)

11
1 One theory says that dreams help the
long-term memory.
2 It isnt certain whether or not other animals dream.
3 During some stages of sleep, your eyes move rapidly behind your closed eyelids.
4 Fatigue is a factor in a significant proportion of road accidents.
5 Some of the worst accidents in history have been linked to sleep deprivation.
6 Elephants spend some of their sleeping time standing up and some of it lying down.

56
Students own answers

7
1 sleeping 2 (a) bed 3 (a/the) psychologist 4 too little 5 snore/snoring 6 (an/the) (international)
pilot

Listening 1 p. 28

1
Students own answers

2a
2

2b
1, 2 and 3

3a
A

3b
B (c) not mentioned in the lecture
C (a) focuses on details, not main idea
D (b) contradicted by the lecture. (The lecture says that on average, the increase in fat
consumption was 2.2 percent not a dramatic increase as stated in option D.)

45
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 29

1a
1 outcome generally true = A; possible outcome in the future = B
2 if clause: present simple in both sentences; main clause: present simple in A, will in B

1b
1 If people go to bed early, they find it easier to get up in the morning.
2 If I dont eat within three hours of sleeping, I sleep better.
3 If you dont get enough sleep over long periods of time, youll suffer from depression.
4 If people get plenty of sleep, theyll be less likely to suffer from depression.

12
2a
unless

2b
1 unless 2 Provided that/As long as/On condition that 3 Even if 4 Assuming 5 only if 6
whenever

3ab
Students own answers

4a
2 If people sleep better, their concentration improves.
3 If aircraft pilots dont sleep well before flying, it will be dangerous.
4 Provided that I get a good nights sleep, I can do well in the exam.
5 If you go to bed early the night before an exam, youll feel refreshed on the exam day.
6 Even if you have plenty of sleep, boredom can make you feel sleepy.

4b
2 If you allow yourself to daydream, youll become more creative.
3 If people have bad experiences, they often have nightmares.
4 If you are sleep deprived, your short-term memory will have problems.
5 If you ask different sleep researchers why we dream, youll get different answers.
6 If people fly between different time zones, theyll suffer from jet lag.
7 If the timing of night shifts isnt looked at carefully, accidents may occur.

13
Summary writing 1 p. 30

1
Students own answers

2a
Students own answers

2b
main idea = almost all people dream in colour

2c
The main idea was mentioned early and supported by other points. (It could be said to be mentioned
throughout as its mentioned at beginning and end and supported in the middle in this very short talk).

3a
A

3b
The second summary begins with a point that the speaker doesnt make strongly: that some people
claim to dream in black and white, not colour. Also, it contains information that isnt on the recording,
such as the fact that converting to black and white is very difficult.

4
Almost everyone dreams in colour.

5a
Students own answers

5b
(Suggested answer)
The best way to remember your dreams is to start thinking about them as soon as you wake up. If you
wait until later in the day to think about them, you will have forgotten them.

6
(Suggested answer)
Dreams can only come from our experiences. Therefore, blind people who could previously see will be
able to have visual dreams. However, people who have been blind from birth dont have visual dreams
because they have no visual experiences. Deaf people have similar issues.

7ab
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 31

1
Students own answers

23

14
A emphasises supporting detail; introduces information (more successful than other species not in
the recording)
B misses out an important point: exercise is good for the brain. Minor points only.
C correct
D incorrect information

4
Students own answers

5
1 Exercise isnt so important for survival in modern times.
2 We do a lot less exercise than our ancestors did.
3 The biggest health problem in many places is lack of exercise.
4 In some countries sporting activities are compulsory even for university students.

Language development 2 p. 32

1
1 actions that never happened
2 it refers to the present (even though would, sometimes thought to be a past form, is used)
3 A = general (past, present and future); B = past; C = past
4 would, had

2a
1 built, would have 2 had had, would be 3 would be, did 4 had had, would have eaten 5 ate,
would be, would suffer 6 would be, had participated 7 would have smoked, had known 8 would not
go, paid 9 were, would you join 10 had been, would not have done

2b
2 Id had, Id be 4 Id had, I wouldve eaten 5 wed suffer 6 wed, wed participated 7 wouldve
smoked, theyd known 8 wouldnt go 10 thered been, wouldnt have done
(In 1, students would could become studentsd but only in speaking; it would be very unusual to see
this in writing. The same applies to humans would in 3.)

3
Students own answers

4a
1 A noun (phrase) + infinitive; B infinitive
2 yes (e.g. I wanted to help to rescue him.)
3 yes (e.g. I designed the house to withstand earthquakes.)
4b
Verb + gerund: continue, consider, practise
Verb + infinitive: aim, continue
Verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive: allow, assist, use, require
Verb + noun + preposition + gerund: prohibit

5
1 analysing/to analyse 2 you to be 3 students from using 4 injured players to compete 5 special
equipment to strengthen 6 to assist, to reach 7 to practise using

15
6
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 33

1
Students own answers

2a
1 achieve 2 compete 3 expert 4 enhance 5 participate 6 nutrient 7 perform 8 recover 9
involve

2b
-ance: performance
-ation: participation
-ise: expertise
-ition: nutrition, competition
-ment: involvement, achievement, enhancement
-y: recovery

2c
1 participation 2 expertise 3 perform 4 recovery 5 nutrition 6 enhancement/ enhancing 7
Involvement/Participation 8 competition 9 achieve

3
1 performance 2 advantage 3 highly 4 outcome 5 technical 6 greatly 7 active 8 sport 9
encourage

4
Students own answers

Reading 2 p. 34

1
Students own answers

2
1 limb 2 artificial 3 joint 4 prosthesis 5 sensor

3
Students own answers

4
C, D, B, A

5
(Example answers)
D However shows a contrast, and this technology refers to that described in A.
B This refers to the fact that the Paralympics prohibit prostheses that move artificially.

16
A This refers to the whole idea contained in both B and D.

6
1 Those in the text move in response to sensors and are prostheses that move artificially.
Prostheses that move artificially are currently prohibited this implies that those currently allowed
do not move artificially.
2 may enhance performance
3 Students own answer

Speaking 2 p. 35

1
Students own answers

2a
Students own answers. The lecture will probably be about something to do with exercise and motivation.

2bc
(Suggested answers)
hard to mk (make) ppl (people) active
short term OK
long term no answers
hard because time, money, families, work
challenge = how mtvt (motivate) self
key people push us

3ab
The challenge is how to motivate themselves was omitted but the meaning is covered by the other
points anyway. Students may have mentioned other omitted points, depending on what they wrote in 2b.

4
however, because, though

5
Answers will vary. See the audio script for Track 20 for a suggested answer.

67
Students own answers

Summary writing 2 p. 36

1
Students own answers

2
1 Yes, theres no restriction on the number of sentences.
2 Most would expect this to be quite difficult. As the word limit is narrow, some adjustment to length
would probably be necessary.
3 quality of writing, how well your summary presents the points in the lecture

17
3
(Suggested answers)
sports science = all science for sports
involves e.g. psychology, sports coaching, sports injuries, nutrition help athletes perform at their best
performance analysis = analyse team/individual performance, e.g. golf swing, speed, muscles used
efficiently, how football goal scored

4a
(Suggested answers)
1 sports science, performance analysis
2 the examples

4b
Students own answers

5
(Suggested answers)
2 Protein helps athletes to recover because it helps to repair their muscles.
3 Professional sports require a scientific approach to training.
4 Provided that the teams performance is analysed carefully, improvement will be quick.
5 Unless the team continues to practise a range of techniques, they wont do well.
6 Sports science can do a lot to improve the performance of sports people.

6a
(Suggested answers)
2 of great importance important; people who participate in sports athletes/sportspeople;
the reason why why; professional sports teams teams
3 taking part in sport at a professional level participation in professional sport
people will get injured injuries will occur

6b
(Suggested answers)
1 many a number of; their best the best they can
2 participants in sports people who participate/take part in sports
3 their performance how (well) they performed

7
(Suggested answer)
Sports science covers a range of sub-categories but it has the overall aim of using scientific knowledge
about the human body to help athletes. One area is performance analysis, which involves looking at
how players performed using tools such as video and then helping them to make adjustments to their
performance.

Review p. 38

1
(Suggested answers)
1 If I was more interested in sport, I would watch more TV.
2 If you thought about your dreams when you woke up, you would remember them better.

18
3 If I practise harder, I might win next months competition.
4 If Id practised harder all year, I might have won last months competition.
5 If I hadnt stayed up late last night, I might feel better this morning.
6 If I had eaten more healthily as a child, I would have been better at sports as a teenager.
7 If I had eaten more nutritious food as a teenager, I might be better at sports now.
8 If I had tried harder at sports at school, I would have achieved more.
9 If people try hard, they usually succeed.
10 If people stopped doing sport, they would get unfit.

2
1 Provided that 2 whenever 3 Assuming/ Provided that 4 Unless 5 even if 6 only if 7 provided
that 8 assuming/provided that 9 Even if 10 unless

3a
1 hypothesis 2 participation 3 controversial 4 theme 5 initiative 6 enhance 7 expertise 8
gain 9 challenges 10 involved 11 allowed

3b
(Suggested answers)
research project, test the hypothesis, free access sports facilities, participation rates, key theme,
greatly enhance, gain an insight into, the issues involved, challenges it would face, free access

4
1 depravation deprivation 2 lead in lead to 3 itd be it is 4 consept concept 5 an other
another 6 prohibited to prohibited from 7 even if as long as/provided that 8 high insights
deep insights 9 suffering with suffering from 10 perspictive perspective

19
Module 3
Reading 1 pp. 4041

1
Students own answers

2a
Students own answers

2b
1 a verb (there is no other verb in the sentence)
2 began, ground (possibly), second (possibly), stopped
3 stopped (It cant be began because the previous sentence says building commenced in 1173.
The other possible verbs dont relate to construction.)

2c
1 stopped 2 second 3 construction 4 war 5 population

3
1 foundations 2 delay 3 storeys 4 counteract

4
1 weak 2 increasing 3 disturbance 4 processes 5 risk

5
Students own answers, hopefully including the strategies mentioned earlier in this section

6
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 42

1a
2 inclination 3 Assembling 4 created 5 resume, finalised 6 completed 7 ingenious, collapse,
Conventional 8 demolished, construction, commence

2
2 The finalisation date for the plans is tomorrow.
3 Unfortunately, following convention wont be successful in this situation.
4 Resumption of the project will occur once the weather has improved.
5 Creation of a model of the proposed building will take two weeks.
6 The inclination of the ramp will need to be increased slightly.
7 Assembly of the furniture will take place next week.
8 Timely completion of the building will require the team to work with greater efficiency.

3
1 foundation 2 advice, evidence, information 3 knowledge, research 4 premises

20
4ab
Students own answers

4c
B5 C8 D9 E2 F6 G4 H3 I 10 J7

4d
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 43

1
1 It isnt a palace, its a castle.
2 It is original, not re-built.
3 It isnt made of stone. Its made of wood and plaster.
4 It isnt over 1,000 years old. Its from the 17th century, i.e. about 400 years old.

2ab
(Suggested answer)
This castle // is the finest surviving example // of early-17th-century Japanese castle architecture. // It
comprises 83 buildings. // It is a masterpiece // of construction in wood, // combining function with
aesthetic appeal, // both in its elegant appearance // including white plastered walls // and in the
relationships between the building masses // and the multiple roof layers.

2c
Intonation generally goes up slightly to the first stressed syllable, and continues at more or less the
same pitch until the tonic syllable (sentence stress) usually the last syllable in the sense group is
reached, at which point it generally goes down. Other intonation patterns are possible, such as going up
on the tonic syllable, but these would indicate a meaning, which isnt usually appropriate in these Read
aloud questions, such as tentativeness.

2de
Students own answers

3ab
Many castles // were built in Japan // in the early 17th century. // Most of these // have subsequently
been demolished // or destroyed. // Of the handful that survive, // this one // is the most complete and
unaltered. // Conservation work // in the middle of the 20th century // was carried out using advanced
techniques // developed in Japan // for large wooden structures.

56
Students own answers

7
1 width 2 (a/the) tower 3 (a) square 4 wood 5 (a/the) door 6 (an) architect

Listening 1 p. 44

1ab
Students own answers

21
2
A2 B3 C1 D5 E1 F5 G2 H4

3a
The question asks for the speakers purpose.

3b
1C

3c
Question 2 asks for detailed information. Question 3 asks for the speakers style, tone or attitude.

3d
2D

3e
3B

45
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 45

1
1 Yes. The use of a past verb form shows this.
2 The local population must wonder/must be wondering whether it will ever be finished!
3 past speculation: modal + have + past participle; present/future speculation: modal + bare
infinitive

2a
1 might have built 2 could have 3 cant be/cannot be 4 must have been 5 may have used 6 cant
be/cannot be 7 may have helped 8 might be 9 must have been

2b
As modals of speculation and deduction, might/could/may are generally interchangeable, as are cant be
and couldnt be.

3
Students own answers

4a
A Not only ... but ... also
B As well as
C In spite of
D Despite the fact
1 addition: not only ... but ... also; contrast: in spite of, despite the fact that
2 changes to auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (inversion)
3 noun/noun phrase: in spite of; noun/gerund: as well as; clause: despite

22
4b
A: Furthermore ..., As well as ..., ... also ...,
Not only ... but also ...

C: ..., whereas... Although ..., Despite ...,


Despite the fact that ..., Nevertheless ...,
Though ..., ..., yet ..., Even though ...,
However, ... In spite of ..., While ...,

5
(Suggested answers)
1 There were many wars. However, the ancient Egyptians remained the dominant civilisation in their
part of the world for over 2,000 years.
2 Despite the fact that people used to say that the pyramids were built by slaves, nowadays, this idea
seems unlikely.
3 Not only did people have to get the stones to the pyramid construction site, they also had to lift
them to the top of the pyramid.
4 As well as agreeing that metal tools were used to cut stones, theories of pyramid construction also
agree that the stones were then moved to the construction site.
5 While the ancient Egyptians had no modern technology, they built pyramids to a very high degree of
precision.

Writing 1 p. 46

1
Students own answers

2
1 introduction: to introduce the topic and give the writers opinion
2 body: to explain the ideas that support the writers opinion
3 conclusion: to wrap up the essay and repeat the writers opinion
The body is much longer than the introduction or conclusion.

3
1 Students own answers
2 introduction: paraphrasing of part of the question and the statement saying this is a bad thing
(This trend has some disturbing consequences)
body: the topic sentences and main points of the body paragraphs disagree with the opinion
in the essay prompt
conclusion: both sentences reject the idea of replacing older buildings with modern ones, as
suggested in the essay prompt

4a
A1 B3 C2

4b
There is no general statement in the essay on page 194 (referred to in Writing 1, Module 1, page 14).
The preview comes after the opinion.

23
56
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 47

1
Students own answers

2a
implication/inference

2b
C (As the plans are talked about in past tense, it implies they are not current. Also, The original plan at
the beginning implies that there have been more
than one plan.)

2c
A construction method not mentioned
B various heights mentioned but are not compared to others around the world
C awards not mentioned

3
A

4
B history: past and tradition mentioned but as an influence; history of buildings not mentioned
C shapes used in the design mentioned but as reflection of the symbolism, not as main point
D materials used in construction not mentioned

5
1 Jin Mao: represents tradition/past; design influenced by traditional Chinese pagoda
Shanghai World Financial Centre: dynamism of the modern era
Shanghai Tower: the future
2 Chinas past, present and future

67
1 The tallest skyscrapers are known as super-tall skyscrapers.
2 Style is very important in the design of buildings.
3 There must have been some ingenious architects in the past.
4 Despite the engineering difficulties, buildings continue to get taller and taller.

8
Students own answers

Language development 2 p. 48

1
1 Reported can be replaced by described, informed (someone about), pointed out, stated, mentioned,
commented on, noted, observed.

24
Claimed can be replaced by informed (us), pointed out, stated, mentioned, commented, noted,
observed.

2
1 emphasised, highlighted, stressed 2 argued, explained 3 cast doubt on, questioned 4 mentioned
5 proved 6 claimed

3
(Suggested answers)
2 She described the influences on the buildings design. 3 He suggested using glass and steel for the
buildings faade. 4 She described the corridors appearance. 5 She cast doubt on/ questioned the
new engineers suggestion. 6 He pointed out a missing fire alarm./He pointed out that the room should
have a fire alarm. 7 She summarised her talk about safety in tower design/ techniques for the safe
design of towers. (Students may use She summarised her talk by saying that weve seen .... This is
perfectly acceptable but a little awkward.)

4
(Suggested answers)
1 The speaker explained that the original plan was to build three very tall buildings together to create a
distinctive skyline. 2 He observed that this had not been done anywhere else in the world. 3 He
pointed out that the Jin Mayo Tower was built in a style that represents traditional architecture. 4 The
speaker described the heights of the buildings.

5
2 He argued that the tower was strong enough, even in powerful storms.
3 She reported that the concrete supplier had been delayed.
4 He proved that the tower wouldnt be damaged in a storm.
5 She informed them/us that the client had asked them/us to build the apartment block a littler higher.

6
The second sentence refers to a time is before the first sentence. We know this because of the use of
the past perfect tense in the second sentence and the past simple in the first sentence.

7
1 earthquakes 2 design problems 3 plans nearly finished 4 fire started 5 design finalised

8
2 The government had had a number of problems, so they decided to cancel the project.
3 By the time construction had finished, the tower had (already) survived three earthquakes.
4 Three major companies had signed up to rent space in the building before construction was
finished.

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 49

1a
1 individual 2 style 3 sustainable 4 investment 5 distinctive 6 economic 7 financial 8 aspire
9 dynamism

1b
1 dynamic 2 individuality 3 sustainable, distinct 4 individual 5 aspiration, distinction 6 economy
7 investment, sustain

25
2a
1 sustainable 2 individuals 3 style, distinctive 4 financially 5 dynamic, aspired 6 financial 7
investment, economy

2b
Students own answers

3
emphasise: give emphasis to
describe: give a description (of)
argue: make an argument (for/against)
explain: give an explanation (of)
observe: make an observation (on)
question: raise a question (about)
suggest: make a suggestion (about)
summarise: give a summary (of)

4
2 The architect made a suggestion about the (design of the) front entrance.
3 The speaker made a comment/an observation on the (design of the) exterior of the building.
4 The designer gave a description of the balconies.
5 The engineer gave an explanation of how to design a bridge.
6 The lecturer gave a summary of her talk.
7 The project manager made an argument against changing/for keeping the deadline.
8 The accountant raised a question about the need for expensive equipment.

Reading 2 p. 50

1
1 The photos show a sword and a tower. (connection: Students own answers)
2 (Suggested answers) national pride, tourist attraction, TV or mobile phone transmission
3 Students own answers

2
1 broadcasting 2 engineering 3 landmark 4 nearby

3
1 selected 2 fewest 3 phase 4 traditional 5 object

45
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 51

1a
Students own answers

1b

26
The chart shows the height of some famous tall buildings. The buildings to prioritise are: the oldest,
newest, smallest, tallest often the extremes are the most important points.

2
Its not easy (or possible, really) to tell the exact height of the buildings. The language used would have
to express approximate, not exact, heights.

3a
1 Students own answer
2 He gives approximate figures, not exact ones.

3b
about, around, roughly, just over, slightly over

3c
Students own answers
4
See the audio script for Track 31 for a suggested answer.

56
Students own answers

Writing 2 pp. 5253

1
Students own answers

2
1 no 2 develop a position 3 Students own answer

34a
Students own answers

4b
Summarise the main points, including the opinion of the essay and perhaps give a recommendation.

5
1 the first sentence 2 Some people 3 while

6a
However could be replaced by many discourse markers, including nevertheless, though, yet, or
although before the first expression: Although it could be argued that ...

6bc
Students own answers

79
Students own answers

Review p. 54

27
1 were 2 a little 3 may 4 Not only 5 While 6 gave 7 curved 8 distinctive 9 investment 10
economy

2
1 as well as was it as well as being/in addition to being, etc. 2 However Further/Also/Furthermore
3 rough roughly 4 higher over 5 the original plans are the original plans were 6
approximate approximately 7 In spite this In spite of this/ Despite this 8 has been completed
was completed 9 furthermore while 10 have been be

3
(Suggested answers)
2 They need to demolish the old building before they can construct a new one.
3 The building was designed in a conventional way.
4 The tower has existed for approximately ten years.
5 Please assemble all the parts as quickly as
you can.
6 The project resumes tomorrow. We need to finalise/complete it as soon as possible.
7 Creating the plans/The creation of the plans took a very long time.
8 The team is going to have to be ingenious in order to finish the design without increasing the
budget.
9 This tower has been constructed to the highest possible safety standards. There is absolutely no
chance that it will collapse.
10 If the inclination of the ramp is too steep, people in wheelchairs wont be able to access the
building.

4
(Suggested answers)
2 The speaker gave a summary of ...
3 The architect made a suggestion about ...
4 She made an observation on ...
5 The construction engineer gave an explanation of ...
6 The politician raised a question ...
7 He made a comment on ...
8 The architect made an argument for ...
9 The estate agent gave a description of ...
10 The director of the construction company cast doubt on ...

28
Module 4
Reading 1 pp. 5657

1
Students own answers

2a
(Suggested answer)
The theme of the text is: a definition of marketing.

2b
1 C (collocation: deal with)
2 A (meaning as it relates to overall context)
3 C (grammar and word forms: noun form is missing in the phrase for the success of any
organisation)

2c
4 D (grammar and word forms: verb is missing in the phrase Large for-profit firms use marketing
...)
5 B (collocation/meaning)
6 A (collocation/meaning)

2d
Students own answers

3
1 wonder 2 be understood 3 services 4 managerial 5 create

4
13 Students own answers
4 The task here focuses more on knowledge of grammar, collocation, etc. (it involves writing
skills as well as reading).

5
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 58

1a
1 obtain 2 competitive 3 abundance 4 consumer 5 product 6 distribute 7 promote

2a
1 abundant 2 consumption 3 competitive 4 products 5 distribution, production 6 competition,
obtain, promotion 7 productive

2b
Students own answers

29
3a
all around you = everywhere around you
do a good job = do well in a task you are assigned
no wonder = not surprising
not-for-profit = an organisation that, on the surface at least, has a purpose other than money making
products = physical objects/things that a company produces; services = things a company does in
exchange for money
tip of the marketing iceberg = icebergs are said to have most of their volume under water, so what you
can see above water is only a small part; this expression suggests that what you can see of marketing is
only a small part of the whole thing

3b
All the expressions are fixed except for
tip of the (marketing) iceberg, which is semi-fixed.

3c
All the expressions are fixed except for must take (several) factors into account and more to (marketing)
than meets the eye, which are semi-fixed.

3d
(Suggested answers)
2 Companies must bear a number of issues in mind when planning their marketing.
3 We must keep our word.
4 Marketing success is usually accompanied by good strategic planning.
5 Our employees make a great deal of effort to ensure customer satisfaction.
6 When dealing with regular customers you need to make a special effort and provide them with a
higher level of service.
7 Always remember that repeating an advertisement too many times can annoy customers.
8 Marketing is more complicated than most people realise.

4
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 59

1a
(Suggested answers)
1 Generally, // consumers // dont trust advertisements.
2 People see ads // on the Internet, // on TV // and in magazines.

1c
Intonation tends to go down at the end of initial adverbs. With lists, it tends to go down at the end of
each part of the list.

2
1 In most cases, quality products dont need much advertising.
2 Usually, but not always, reviews provide an unbiased source of information.
3 Surprisingly, some people actually enjoy watching advertisements on television!
4 Advertisements are all around us, wherever we go, whatever we do.
5 Advertisements can occur in unusual places even in the sea or in the sky!
6 Generally, consumers trust friends more than commercial information such as advertisements.
7 Rather unfortunately, ads sometimes give misleading information rather than informing.
8 People get product information from advertisements, friends, family and product reviews.

30
3
1 Market research surveys may be given by telephone, the Internet or in person.
2 Advertisements have to appeal to people of different ages, socioeconomic groups and sexes.
3 Adverts might use humour, drama or catchy slogans to grab peoples attention.
4 Marketing involves many activities, including doing research, developing products and promoting
them.
5 Basically, marketing is about making people want to buy.
6 Sometimes, ads promote a brand rather than a particular product.
7 Often, the point of advertisements is to raise awareness rather than give information.
8 Most people dislike advertisements but appear to be influenced by them anyway.

45
Students own answers

6
1 (a/the) restaurant 2 (the) (US/American) dollar 3 Chief 4 coins/(small) change 5 (the)
managing director 6 importing

Listening 1 p. 60

1
Students own answers

2a
B, C, D, E

2b
B, D

3
A not mentioned
B speaker said these topics are researched in great detail by most large companies; these
topics meaning the questions raised about consumers purchasing decisions at the beginning of
the recording
C experts were not mentioned
D 95 percent of the thought, emotion and learning that drives purchasing decisions occurs in the
unconscious mind that is, without our awareness
E 95 percent refers to something else, as mentioned in D

4
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 61

1
2 Questions about how consumers make purchase decisions and what is going on in their heads are
researched in great detail.
3 The answers to the whys of consumer buying are often locked deep within the consumers head.
4 Perhaps more importantly, any opinions formed in the evaluation will influence future purchases.
5 You see the results of marketing in the abundance of products in your nearby shopping mall.

31
2a
1 in 2 in 3 on 4 By, in 5 of, by 6 of, to 7 By, on, for 8 in

2b
Students own answers

3
Students own answers

4a
Sentence A uses a prepositional phrase.
Sentence B uses a that clause.
The information they contain is similar.

4b
1 A about; B that he 2 A she; B of 3 A that;
B of 4 A by; B by 5 A that the; B by

5
1 Its my view that we need a new managing director.
2 The graph shows that the company profit is declining/has declined.
3 He felt certain that his profit would increase.
4 Its likely that he will become CEO.
5 Its expected that the CEO will resign.

6ab
Students own answers

Summary writing 1 p. 62

1
Students own answers

2
1 the quality of your writing; how well your response presents the key points in the text
2 read rather than listen; one sentence response rather than no limit to the number of
sentences; no apparent word limit (though there is actually a 575 word limit).
(similarities are: summarising in both tasks; similar marking focus given in rubric; same time
limit)

3
1 (Suggested answer) marketing activities increase prices
2 Students own answers
3 Students own answers

4a
1, 2, 4

4b

32
1 all the ticked items 2 3 The summary includes all the ideas on the topic sentences, and the main
supporting ideas.

5a
B is a better summary and would obtain higher marks. It meets all the criteria in 4a.

5b
1 D
2 C
3 A (no mention in the text of many people making these claims, marketers salaries or most
customers wanting greater choice)
4 E
5 A (pushing up prices to finance advertising, sales promotion, ... add value by informing
potential buyers of the availability are all words from the text)

6
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 63

1
Students own answers

2
A, F

3
12 Students own answers
3 B theory and experience are both mentioned but not compared with each other
C experience is mentioned but as an alternative to executive programs speaker does not say it
is necessary and the suggestion is even that it is not if you take the executive program route
D he has no opinion about the relative importance of innate talent versus training
E he says developing as a leader is not that different to development as a person
4 Students own answers

4
Students own answers

5
1 To develop leadership skills, experience is very important.
2 Becoming a great leader is impossible without enthusiasm.
3 Introverts as well as extroverts can be inspiring managers.
4 Communication skills can be taught to anyone willing to learn.

Language development 2 p. 64

1a
1 consequently: indicates consequence

33
2 before have (it goes immediately before the main verb whether or not theres an auxiliary)
Consequently, they ... (note the comma)

1bc
accordingly; as a consequence, as a result, for this reason; hence, thus (work best at beginning of
sentence); so (only at beginning of sentence; note also its much more informal and more spoken in
style); therefore (same as consequently); thereby, this leads to, this means that, with the result that

1d
so, therefore, thus

2a
(Suggested answers)
1 Companies spend a lot of money on advertising and packaging. The cost of goods, especially
brand-name goods, is, as a consequence, often higher than it would otherwise be.
2 Some managers spend a lot of time networking so that they do well later on in their careers when
contacts become useful.
3 Many companies invest heavily in market research, with the result that they gain a good
understanding of consumers who might purchase their products.
4 Some companies have in the past paid people to write positive reviews of their products on
websites, hence some of them are no longer trusted.
5 Emotion plays a large part in the purchasing decisions of many consumers, thus research in this
area is essential.
6 Consumers tend to take into account their friends comments about particular brands. Its important,
therefore, that companies maintain a good reputation.

2b
(Suggested answers)
1 Companies spend a lot of money on advertising and packaging. The cost of goods, especially
brand-name goods, is, therefore, often higher than it would otherwise be.
2 Some managers spend a lot of time networking with the result that they do well later on in their
careers when contacts become useful.
3 Many companies invest heavily in market research, so that they gain a good understanding of
consumers who might purchase their products.
4 Some companies have in the past paid people to write positive reviews of their products on
websites, thus some of them are no longer trusted.
5 Emotion plays a large part in the purchasing decisions of many consumers, hence research in this
area is essential.
6 Consumers tend to take into account their friends comments about particular brands. Hence its
important that companies maintain a good reputation.

3
Students own answers

4
1 to be: verb (learn)
2 to arouse: adjective (able)
3 to follow: noun (people)
4 to communicate: noun (ability)
5 to go: noun (money)
6 to replace: adjective (preferable)
7 to argue: adjective (fair)

34
5
2 He has the ability to inspire people.
3 It is preferable to split the department in two.
4 It is reasonable to believe that profits will fall.
5 He is likely to be promoted.
6 By the end of next year, the company expects to be 50 percent larger.
(Also possible: By the end of next year, we expect the company to be 50 percent larger.)
7 The company failed to survive because it didnt have a good business plan.
8 We hope to have a large profit by the end of the year.
9 The company desires to expand into Asia.

6
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 65

1a
1 institution, institutional 2 administration, administrative 3 corporation, corporate 4 authority 5
facility 6 site 7 subsidiary 8 regime

1b
1 facility 2 regime 3 authority 4 administrative 5 subsidiary, corporation, facility 6 institution,
authority
(Note: For 3 and 7: In US English, theres a tendency not to talk about local government as the local
authority and authorities would also be correct. For 1 and 5: site could substitute for facility. This isnt
incorrect but if your students are interested in minor distinctions, you could point out that this substitution
is not quite as satisfactory: production facility is a more common collocation than production site; in 5, a
site suggests it might be an empty space.)

1c
Students own answers

2a
1 vision 2 compelling 3 majority 4 colleagues 5 interaction 6 integrity 7 ethical

2b
1 compelling 2 vision 3 majority 4 majority 5 interaction 6 integrity, colleagues, interaction,
vision 7 ethical

2c
Students own answers

Reading 2 p. 66

1
Students own answers

2a
1 arouse 2 qualities 3 calls out 4 to follow 5 have developed

35
34
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 67

12
Students own answers

3
(Suggested answers)
1 Trust is important in business.
2 Trust helps businesses to function well together.
Absence of trust creates frightening consequences.
Trust is important for organisations reputations as it helps in recruitment/helps people be happy
working for a company and it helps people feel OK buying products from a company.
Trust is important for people inside a company to be able to work together.
For leaders to be effective, people have to be
able to trust them.

4a
Student A Student B
avoid repeating information
speak smoothly, without
many hesitations
mention key points, not
minor details
use discourse markers
(Some are open to interpretation, e.g. it could be said that neither spoke very smoothly. But Student B
was more fluent than Student A.)

4b
yes

4c
Both were good, though Student B was less hesitant than Student A.

58
Students own answers

Summary writing 2 pp. 6869

1
Students own answers

2
1 (Suggested answer): how Jeff Bezos started Amazon
2 para. 1: circumstances around his decision to start Amazon, including where the idea came from;
para. 2: the actual decision and the reaction of his boss to the idea

3
1 Students own answers
36
2 Company/Peoples/Place names are most likely to be minor points; Difficulties, feelings, ideas
and problems are more likely to be
major points.
3 (Suggested answers)
He had a good idea for an online bookstore.
His wife agreed and supported him. His boss was reluctant. He decided to do it anyway,
despite the risk, and he didnt regret it.

4
2 Setting up a business from nothing requires not only good ideas but also determination and
skill in influencing people.
3 Despite the risk in his decision to set up a new business, he had encouragement from his
wife/the encouragement of his wife.
4 People who set up companies take big risks with their own money, but they often gain
significant rewards as a result of their efforts./People who set up companies with their own
money take big risks, but they often gain
significant rewards from their efforts.

5
1 Research into entrepreneurs habits shows that entrepreneurs ... 2 It is commonly thought that people
... 3 Its unfortunate that even though a ...

6ac
(Suggested answers)
Despite the risks, the writer went ahead with his idea and is now proud of his decision.
Despite having to leave a good job and also despite the risks in his decision, the writer went ahead with his
idea for an online bookstore, with the result that he is now proud of his decision.
Despite having to leave a good job and also despite the risks in his decision but with his wifes support, the
writer went ahead with his idea for an online bookstore, with the result that he is now proud of his decision.
Despite his boss reluctance, Jeff Bezos left a good job to set up an online bookstore with the support of his
wife, and he is now glad that he took this risk.
When the writer had an idea for an online bookstore that would later become Amazon, with the support of his
wife but despite the reluctance of his boss, he decided to take the risky but rewarding decision to go ahead
with it, and this is a choice he is still proud of.

Review p. 70

1
1 compelling 2 leads 3 result 4 demonstrated 5 consequence 6 persuade 7 majority 8
ethical 9 Therefore 10 authorities

2
1 mile 2 in 3 around 4 tip 5 into 6 hand 7 mind 8 eye 9 wonder 10 by

3
1 that 2 that 3 in 4 to 5 on 6 on 7 to 8 by 9 that 10 to

4
1 dialoge dialogue 2 adminastration administration 3 overwelming overwhelming 4
facilitys facilities 5 colleages colleagues 6 abundence abundance 7 premotion
promotion 8 reep reap 9 intraction interaction 10 dilemas dilemmas

37
Module 5
Reading 1 pp. 7273

1
Students own answers

2a
1B 2C 3D 4A

2b
1D 2A 3B 4 B, C

2c
1 D: gives info about life history, qualifications, etc.
2 A: the only one with negative words
3 B: the task type is the most likely to have the purpose of helping someone choose something
4 B, C: both have a very upbeat, positive tone, which appears to be designed to make people
interested; they also both give information

3a
Extract A: expresses an overall negative opinion
While there is plenty of potential in this website, currently users should approach it with some care.
Much of the information is outdated and at times even factually inaccurate, and as such cant be relied
upon. Users should bring with them a healthy dose of scepticism or, better still, use one of the many
alternative sites that are available.

3b
Extract B: conveys excitement
BIO 407: Life in extreme places introduces students to the incredible processes through which
organisms live in extreme conditions. Course participants will study life inside rocks, in areas of extreme
high and low temperatures, in perpetual darkness and in the highly pressurised depths of the oceans.
Participants will learn how our understanding of the conditions in which life is sustainable has changed
dramatically in recent years. They will also explore the thrilling possibilities for how life forms may have
developed on other planets.
Extract C: conveys excitement
Ever wondered whats living in the depths of the Antarctic Ocean? Scientists are now a step closer to
finding out. A submarine expedition to the ocean floor just off the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula has
recently ended and the results of the initial analysis are in. Scientists have already identified a number
of new species.
Extract D: regards a person or topic with respect
Professor Noda received her doctorate in 1981. Since then, in the three decades that she has been
involved in the field, she has become an eminent authority on Antarctic life, having gained a wealth of
knowledge in this field. She has written or contributed to 12 books and nearly 100 journal articles. Her
current research interests include the diet and life cycle of penguins.

4
B

5a
The challenge of scaling the highest mountain, exploring the deepest ocean, crossing the hottest desert
or swimming in near-freezing water is irresistible to many people. Life at the Extremes is an engrossing

38
exploration of what happens to our bodies in these seemingly uninhabitable environments. Frances
Ashcroft weaves stories of extraordinary feats of endurance with historical material and the latest
scientific findings as she investigates the limits of human survival and the remarkable adaptations that
enable us to withstand extreme conditions.

5b
Students own answers

5c
a book review; to inform people about what the book is like and possibly to encourage them to buy it

6
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 74

1a
uninhabitable = cant live there
inhabitable = can live there (opposite meaning)
inhabited = some people live there (a state)
uninhabited = no one lives there (opposite to
inhabited, a state)
un- = not; -able = can (ability); -ed = often indicates a state

1bc
de- = reduce hydro- = water -able/-ible = can
re- = again in-/im- = not sub- = under
-ation = a state (forming a noun) un- = without under- = below something/less than
needed/desired/etc.

2
1 unreliable 2 inappropriate 3 unconventional 4 hydropower 5 unsustainable 6 globalise 7
renewable 8 deforestation

3
2 incompatible 3 fluctuations 4 exploitation 5 innovation(s) 6 unconvinced 7 denuclearisation
8 sustainable, unsustainable

4
3 4+ 5+ 6 7+ 8+ 9 10 + 11 + 12 13 + 14 +

5
1 failed to 2 refine their plans 3 was sceptical about 4 rather implausible 5 radical 6 gain an
insight into 7 is an authority on 8 becomes more mature/wiser 9 inspired people 10 is outdated

6
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 75

1
Students own answers

39
2
(Suggested answer)
12 Australias Antarctic stations // are run likesmall towns, // with facilities for power generation, //
sewage works, // water-making, // vehicle maintenance, // as well as general living, // medical // and
working locations. // The layouts // of the permanent stations // vary, // and each station // has scientific
laboratories, // power generators, // workshops, // a small medical facility, // stores, // communications
facilities // and living quarters // including kitchen, // mess, // recreation rooms, // library // and
expeditioner accommodation rooms.
3 The lists are:
power generation, sewage works, water- making, vehicle maintenance, as well as
general living, medical and working locations
scientific laboratories, power generators, workshops, a small medical facility, stores,
communications facilities and living quarters
kitchen, mess, recreation rooms, library and expeditioner accommodation rooms
4 A No, they play another role.
B pause long enough to swallow and take a new breath
C similar in that you have to pause, though the pause should be slightly shorter than the pause
between sentences

4
(Suggested answers)
People undertake // a range of recreational activities // during their time // in Antarctica. Each station //
has a library // as well as DVD players // and a range of movies // which are updated // each year. //
Stations have a small spa // and sauna, // a gymnasium // as well as billiards, // table tennis, // volleyball,
// board games, // darts // and some communal band // and stage equipment.

7
1 (the) Sun 2 (a) continent 3 (a) submarine 4 (near) the Equator 5 penguin 6 (the) weather
forecast

Listening 1 p. 76

1
The pressure is very high (can be deduced as theres a large weight of water above), its cold (can be
deduced as its far from sunlight) and there is no light (easy to imagine if you think about how far below
water you can see just by looking at it).

2
1 undersea oil reserves 2 the surface 3 extreme darkness

3
1 extensive research (The other options would mean that Little is known is expected, which would make
despite the wrong word.) 2 satellites (The other options are basically the same as the submarines
already mentioned and therefore dont sit well with as well as.) 3 a great diversity of life (The other
options wouldnt fit with in contrast.)

4
D

40
5
A This answer seems highly unlikely 2.5 km down. (use topic to eliminate options)
B Its pitch black and the only light is from the submersible.
C The discourse marker and in the same sentence indicates that the beep should be a similar
idea to what went before, which is all about what can be seen.
E This doesnt fit with descriptive words such as remarkable and the discourse marker and.

6a
Deep under the sea, theres still plenty of life. The ocean floor is remarkable because you wouldnt expect
things like the black smokers at the bottom of the sea: theyre hot and they seem to support life.

6b
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 77

1a
A Mississippi River, Lake Michigan
B Mount Aconcagua, Andes, Matterhorn, Alps
C Yale University, University of Durham
D Thursday Island, Torres Strait Islands

1b
1 They take the. 2 They take no article. 3 They take no article. 4 They take the. 5 They take no
article.

2
1 the/ 2 the, the, the the 3 the, the, the 4 , the, 5 the 6 the 7 the 8 , 9 , the 10
the,

3
Students own answers

4
1 inspiring 2 inspired

5
1 terrifying 2 disappointed 3 depressed 4 convincing 5 overwhelmed 6 stimulating 7
surprising 8 exciting 9 frustrated

6
2 Upon reaching the summit of the mountain, it was rather disappointing that the view was
obscured by clouds.
3 It was rather depressing for him that he didnt manage to pass the tests required to join the
expedition. I didnt think hed take it so badly!
4 I wasnt convinced by the evidence presented so I havent changed my opinion.
5 All the information was rather overwhelming for him- it was just too much for him to deal with.
6 I felt really stimulated by the lecture I cant wait for the next one!
7 I wasnt surprised by the result just as I expected, in fact.
8 Most students are excited by the idea of going on a field trip.
9 We all felt frustrated by our failure to gain funding for the exhibition.

41
7a
1 surprised 2 disappointing 3 inspired 4 fascinating

7b
Students own answers

Writing 1 p. 78

1ab
Students own answers

2
(There may be some variation in answers. Accept
anything students can justify.)
Opinions about how to deal with environmental problems such as climate change vary dramatically.
Some say that we should make radical changes to our lifestyle in order to significantly reduce our
consumption of resources, while others argue that we should only do what is immediately necessary,
avoiding too much disruption to current lifestyles. There are merits to both of these positions, and the
best path lies somewhere between the two extremes.
There are some who claim that the only way to prevent problems such as global warming is to make
extreme changes, such as shutting all coal-fired power stations. These would have very significant
effects on peoples lifestyle. However, while it is essential that steps are taken in the right direction, they
need not be as radical as this. For example, taxes on fossil fuels could be increased by a moderate
amount, with the proceeds invested in improved public transport and renewable energy in order to
ensure that there are viable alternatives.
At the other extreme are those who believe that change isnt needed. These people point out that
technology could help us to deal with the effects of climate change. What these people fail to realise
however is that allowing climate change to continue would have further consequences that would be
increasingly difficult to deal with. However, if peoples lifestyles are changed too radically, this may
cause a loss of support for reform. Its important that measures to deal with environmental problems
have broad support.
In conclusion, it remains very important that effective and decisive measures to deal with environmental
problems are taken at the earliest opportunity. However, if these are so strong that they cause severe
disruption to peoples lives, they will fail due to lack of support. Thus its important that a balance is
achieved.

The authors opinions are simply stated (e.g. para. 2: while it is essential that steps are taken in the
right direction, they need not be as radical as this). Other peoples opinions are described or are
mentioned as being other peoples (e.g. : para 2: There are some who claim ...; para 3: At the other
extreme are those who believe ...).

3
A

4
(Suggested answers)
introduction: dramatically, radical, merits, best
body para. 1: extreme, essential, radical
body para. 2: fail to, radically
conclusion: very important, effective, decisive,
important, balance
42
1 The writer is most positive about not changing our lifestyle radically to try to solve environmental
problems.
2 This is consistent with the introduction and
conclusion.

43
5a
There are merits to both of ...
... and the best path lies ....

5b
To some extent, I believe that strong measures are necessary to deal with environmental problems but
they should not be too strong.
In my opinion, strong measures are necessary to deal with environmental problems. However, they
should not be too strong.
I agree that strong measures are needed to deal with environmental problems, except where those
measures lead to problems that are greater than
those they are attempting to solve.
I generally agree that strong measures are needed to deal with environmental problems, unless those
measures lead to problems that are greater than those they are attempting to solve.

6
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 79

1
Students own answers

2
2 less more 3 inhabitable uninhabitable
4 unsure sceptical

3
2 discovered described 3 unconvinced unconcerned 4 integrity ability

4
convenient conventional hydroelectricity hydropower pretty fairly tonight today
produce generate consume use

5
conventional: similar pronunciation
hydropower: synonym (and same first syllable)
fairly: synonym
today: related but different meaning; same first syllable
generate: synonym
use: synonym

6
Students own answers

Language development 2 p. 80

1a
1 the future 2 present; because the actions (expecting, hoping, being) are in the present

44
3 expected: sth you think is quite likely to happen hoping: sth you want to happen; (be) likely: sth you
think has a good chance of happening (but not as likely as expected)

2
(Suggested answers)
2 The government must reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
3 This winter is forecast/expected to be rainy.
4 The government is likely to pass new laws to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
5 This country is unlikely to increase its reliance on fossil fuels.
6 We hope to commence a study into tiger habitats later this year.
7 The government is certain not to build any more nuclear power stations.
8 Several species are expected/forecast/ predicted to become extinct within a decade.

3
(Suggested answers)
2 It is essential/vital/urgent that the government reduces carbon dioxide emissions.
3 It is forecast/expected/predicted that the winter will be rainy.
4 It is likely that the government will pass new laws to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
5 It is unlikely that this country will increase its reliance on fossil fuels.
6 It is hoped that a study into tiger habitats will commence later this year.
7 It is certain that more nuclear power stations will not be built.
8 It is expected that several species will become extinct within a decade.

4
Students own answers

5
1 B: more spoken; A: more academic
2 A has more nouns (four nouns in A and two nouns in B). B has more verb forms (contributes/re
generating ) than A (is).
3 No, there is almost no difference in meaning.

6
2 Attempts, removal, failure 3 avoidance, cost 4 consumption, reduction 5 Absorption, slowing,
increase 6 killing, extinction

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 81

1a
1 violate 2 convert 3 conventional 4 enormous 5 potential 6 effect 7 participated 8
contribute 9 implies 10 undertake

1b
noun: effect; verbs: contribute, convert, imply, participate, undertake, violate; adjectives: conventional,
enormous, potential

2
2 participants 3 contribution 4 effective 5 implications 6 conventions 7 potential 8 undertaken
9 violations 10 affect

3
1 potential 2 active 3 normal 4 significant 5 legal 6 wider 7 violate 8 undertake 9 have
10 consider 11 make 12 adversely 13 highly

45
4
1 active 2 undertaken 3 has 4 make 5 significant 6 adverse 7 wider 8 considered

Reading 2 p. 82

1
Students own answers

2ab
1 clues: extraordinary, extremely impressive; awe
2 clues; warned repeatedly, threats; irritation, negativity
3 clues: How fascinating; interest
4 clues: Dirty, bad habits, irresponsible; negativity

3
D

4
A They are difficult to count, and notorious has a negative meaning but this is part of an
although clause: his main point is not this one but the next one. He doesnt believe that the
difficulty in counting polar bears damages his argument.
B not mentioned
C Although the text says threatens their ability to hunt for food, it doesnt say anything about the
writers attitude or feeling about hunting.

5
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 83

1
Students own answers

2a
1 The USA is shown. The red areas are likely to be affected by climate change by 2100.
2 regions that might/could/will possibly be affected by; areas that might/are predicted to
experience the effects of
3 less than or equals, up to, limited to
4 New Orleans, Miami

2b
Students own answers

3
1 New Orleans, Miami, Tampa
2 Yes, she says she wouldnt buy a house near New Orleans or Miami.

4
1

46
57
Students own answers

Writing 2 pp. 8485

12
Students own answers
3
(Suggested answers)
2 minutes for planning, 15 minutes for writing,
3 minutes for checking/editing
4
Students own answers

5b
In conclusion, it remains very important that effective and decisive measures to deal with environmental
problems are taken at the earliest opportunity. However, if these are so strong that they cause severe
disruption to peoples lives, they will fail due to lack of support. Thus its important that a balance is
achieved.

1 No, the writers opinion is expressed in the


final sentence.
2 A (summary), then B (opinion/recommendation)
3 a discourse marker of consequence

6
All in all and To finish are quite informal (more spoken in style). To sum up is also informal, although it
can be used in reasonably formal essays.
(Note: This is more about good practice than test requirements. Informal language would generally not
lose marks in the test.)

7
(Suggested answers)
2 To conclude, the need in some parts of the world to cut down trees for cooking and heating must be
balanced against the need to avoid habitat loss from deforestation. Thus, governments in those
parts of the world must implement policies which take a middle path between these two extremes.
3 In conclusion, because little is known about life at the bottom of the ocean, more research is
needed in this area. Therefore, funding for this area of research needs to be increased.
4 Due to the potential dangers of nuclear power, there is little possibility of it becoming popular.
Consequently, alternative forms of power generation need to be considered.
5 In many countries it is the lack of regulations, not the violation of regulations, that leads to
endangered species being hunted. Thus, governments of those countries should introduce
regulations to give greater protection to their wildlife.

810
Students own answers

47
Review p. 86

1a
1 implausible 2 unrealistic 3 unsurprising 4 unreliable 5 untrustworthy 6 unconventional 7
unpredictable 8 immature 9 unsustainable 10 improbable 11 incorrect 12 unexpected

1b
1 unreliable 2 denuclearisation 3 deforestation 4 globalisation 5 minimisation 6 depressurisation

2
1 potentially 2 absorption 3 habitats 4 eminent 5 undertaken 6 predicted 7 significant 8
sustainable 9 conventional 10 contributing

3
(Suggested answers)
2 An expansion of marine reserves would lead to better protection of many species of fish.
3 An increase in the number of research teams working in Antarctica means that we have a
greater understanding of the content.
4 The success of our recent expedition into the Sahara has resulted in funding for a further
expedition next year.
5 While the removal of permission to build on forested land has been welcomed by some
groups, others feel that it will have a negative effect on the local economy.

4
1 Atacama Desert the Atacama Desert
2 schedule scheduled
3 experiencing experienced
4 taken the part taken part
5 significance significant
6 will very useful will be very useful
7 amazed amazing
8 conditions on Moon conditions on the Moon

5
2 The expedition is likely to reach the South Pole next month.
3 The research team anticipates finding/expects to find several new species during the project.
4 The government anticipates/expects a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions over the next
decade.
5 Funding for the project is due to run out at the end of next month.
6 Unless the team overcome the recent problems, they probably wont achieve their goals by the
end of the project.

48
Module 6
Reading 1 pp. 8889

1
Students own answers

2a
The writers purpose is to provide an overview of the key concepts related to the area of social
psychology. In doing so, he offers basic working definitions and examples of key terms related to
the field.

2b
social psychology, group attribution, dispositional attribution, situational attribution, self-serving bias,
fundamental attribution error

2c
Social psychology is a technical term.
Group is an everyday word with a technical meaning.
Attribution is more difficult to categorise. Its an academic word but has a general sense as well as a
more specific sense in social psychology, as defined here.
Dispositional attribution, situational attribution,
self-serving bias and fundamental attribution error are all technical terms.

2d
social psychology: the branch of psychology that examines how individuals are influenced by others,
including groups, and how individuals influence groups
group: socially connected individuals
attribution: refers to the explanations given for actions and events
dispositional attribution: explanations involving personal qualities for events that reflect positively on
them
situational attribution: explanations involving external factors such as how other people feel, for more
negative events
This tendency is called self-serving bias.
fundamental attribution error: the tendency to explain other peoples behaviour through dispositional
rather than situational attribution
In general, definitions can be recognised by looking for:
dashes or brackets around the definition
a comma after the word being defined
words such as define, mean, is called, term, that is and is (though not here).
non-defining relative clauses

2e
Examples help to clarify the definitions so the reader has a clear idea of what the terms refer to and how
they are used. The examples used in this text are:
thus, a queue of people at a supermarket checkout, for example, falls outside this
definition but people who work together in the same office fall within it
For example, if someone does well in a job, they might explain it by saying that they are good
at the job, that they were lucky or that their boss liked them. Similarly, if they dont do so well,
49
their explanation might be that they werent very good, that they were unlucky or that their boss
didnt like them.

3
A incorrect (The discussion of social responsibility norms in the third paragraph
includes friends and strangers.)
B incorrect (See requires some self-sacrifice in the first paragraph.)
C correct (See end of first paragraph.)
D incorrect (Young children show this usually before their second birthday (first paragraph),
which implies that this is not always true.)
E correct (Paraphrase of topic sentence of second paragraph.)
F incorrect (While there are cultural differences, no attitude about any culture is expressed.)

4
See answer key to Exercise 3 above.

5a
The defined words are:
prosocial behaviour (The punctuation
a dash helps to identify it.)
altruism (The words The term help to identify it.)
empathy (The punctuation a dash helps to identify it.)
social responsibility norms (The words that is help to identify it.)

5b6
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 90

1
1 pro- 2 pre- 3 ex- 4 anti- 5 quasi- 6 non- 7 trans- 8 post-

2
1 pro-education 2 pre-industrial 3 post-war 4 quasi-scientific 5 trans-Pacific 6 ex-England 7
non-stick 8 anti-nuclear

3
Students own answers

4a
Spoke to sounds more one-way. Spoke with sounds more equal and interactive, as if
communication went both ways.

4b
1 with 2 with, with 3 to 4 to 5 with 6 to, to 7 to 8 to

4c
1 attributed, to 2 bonded, with 3 responded to, attitude to, committed to 4 cooperate, with

5a

50
2 show sympathy with 3 form bonds with 4 show a/the response to 5 have a (strong) commitment
to 6 demonstrate obedience to 7 have a (negative) attitude to

5b
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 91

13
Students own answers

4
Ideas could include: using any pronunciation activities in the schools self-access centre; asking the
teacher for more work on particular sounds; noticing the tricky sounds in new words and practising
them; recording self (e.g. with mobile phone) saying sentences or short texts containing the problematic
sounds, then listening, checking and trying again.

5
1 Conformity involves acting or thinking like other group members.
2 People often conform during their leisure time as well as in their work hours.
3 Conformity to the wrong group can be rather dangerous.
4 Children, for example, are often exposed to negative role models and peer pressure.
5 Even in big companies, some bad decisions have been attributed to group conformity.
6 Nowadays, boys and girls still often conform to gender stereotypes.
7 Here, in this area, you shouldnt find any huge social problems nowadays.
8 Teenagers, more than most age groups, feel strong pressure to conform.

67
Students own answers

8
1 (the) grandmother 2 happiness 3 colleague 4 13 5 (a/the) wedding (ceremony) 6a
corporation

Listening 1 p. 92

1
Students own answers

2a
Students own answers

2bc
1 impact 2 widespread 3 experts 4 myth 5 species 6 transforming 7 obsolete 8 media
9 guidance

3a
1 herding 2 loose 3 industrial 4 structure 5 wrapped

3b

51
Students own answers

4
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 93

1
1 The relative clause in sentence A contains optional information that can be removed. The
relative clause in sentence B contains information that is essential to the meaning of the
sentence. If you removed this information, it would change the meaning of the sentence
dramatically. In other words, it does more than just add meaning to the sentence; it is central to
the meaning of the sentence.
2 Commas surround the relative clause that can be removed.
3 who in sentence B (When students read the Expert grammar, they will see that that cannot
be used in non-defining relative clauses).

2
Commas should be added to sentences 2, 4 and 5.
1 D: where the study was carried out
2 ND: , which is a high school in northern England,
3 D: that have the traditional family structure
4 ND: , which are families with three or more generations in the same residence,
5 ND:, which have been taken by large companies,

3
2 Single-parent families, which are families with only one parent present, are relatively common.
3 In experiments which/that involved adults, the subjects have even expressed something that
is logically incorrect in order to conform to the majority.
4 Children in agrarian societies, who work from an early age on the family land, often have strong
family bonds.
5 People who/that conform in their social life also tend to conform in their work life.

4
A ... members who/that are in need ...
B ... adult children who/that are living ...
C The man who/that was helped ...

5a
1 The researcher mentioned in the report is very highly regarded.
2 Social psychology research, my field of interest, doesnt really get as much funding from the
government as it should.
3 The paper written by Professor Higgins will be published next month.
4 The methods used in your research are considered to be excellent.
5 The person sitting over there is apparently very famous.
6 Hes the author of the book about changes in family life.
7 The lecturer teaching your course this term was my lecturer last year.
8 Those were the findings described in the lecture that you missed.

5b
1 The researcher who/that was mentioned ...
2 Social psychology research, which is my field of interest ...

52
3 The paper which/that Professor Higgins wrote ...
4 The methods which/that were used ...
5 The person who/that is sitting over there ...
6 Hes the author of the book which/that is ...
7 The lecturer who/that is teaching ...
8 Those were the findings that/which were ...

6
1 The research that we talked about yesterday took place at Standard High.
2 Could you hand in your assignment to the lecturer who is standing over there?
3 Thats the book which was written by our lecturer.
4 The three people who are in my family are me, my brother and my mother.
5 Conformity, which is behaviour that copies the behaviour of peers, is an interesting area of
study.
6 It was the incident that was caused by the lack of maintenance that I was referring to.
7 Extended families, which are families with at least three generations who are living in the same
place, are relatively uncommon in industrialised countries.

7ab
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 95

1
Students own answers

2
1 psychologists 2 pretty 3 old 4 place
5 points 6 vulnerable

34
Students own answers

56
1 People tend to be least happy in middle age.
2 Perhaps surprisingly, retired people tend to be pretty happy.
3 Some surveys show only subtle differences in happiness between people.
4 Differences in happiness between genders are quite small, on average.

Language development 2 p. 96

1a
1 the whole sentence 2 refer students to Expert grammar (page 210) 3 rather

1b
A is more formal than C. The adverbial Somewhat paradoxically makes the utterance sound less
conversational and a little more academic.

2
(Suggested answers)

53
2 Bourke argues, somewhat unconvincingly, that facial expressions cause emotions ...
3 Life events dont, in summary, have a ...
4 Older people, rather intriguingly, tend to be ...
5 People who win the lottery are, not surprisingly, usually very happy immediately afterwards.
6 Unfortunately, after a few months, they often become less happy than before.
7 This is probably because they lose connection with friends and dont need to go through ...
8 Perhaps surprisingly, women are, in general, slightly happier than men.
9 Participants in the research project were intentionally not told ...
10 More and more frequently, people are moving ...

3
Students own answers

4a
whole sentence: Firstly, ... . Secondly, ... . Finally, ...; First of all, ... . Next, ... . Lastly, ...; In the first
place, ...
clause: the discourse markers with that
noun phrase: There are two/three/etc. ... about/ regarding ...

4b
The other is used when there is only one other point, i.e. two in total. Another is used when there are
more than two or an unknown number of points. In other words, they work like an and the, with the
indicating that we know which one.

5
(Suggested answers)
2 There are two ideas about happiness. One is that happiness depends on life events. The other is
that happiness depends on genetic predisposition.
3 There are some interesting results from happiness research. Firstly, women are, on average,
happier than men. Secondly, happiness does not depend on wealth.
4 There are two periods in life when people are, on average, at their happiest. The first is early in life,
when they are young. The second is when they are older.
5 There are two steps in the process. The first is to administer the questionnaire. The second involves
interpreting the results.
6 There are three points that need to be made. In the first place, the questionnaire should be written
carefully. Secondly, the research should be conducted carefully. The final point is that the results
should be interpreted carefully.

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 97

1a
2 isolated 3 relaxed 4 motivated 5 devoted 6 reluctant 7 inclined 8 inhibited 9 depressed
10 stressed

1b
1 persistence 2 isolation 3 relaxation 4 motivation 5 devotion 6 reluctance 7 inclination 8
inhibition 9 depression 10 stress

2a
1 depression, stress, isolated 2 inclination, motivated 3 persistence 4 devoted 5 inhibited,
reluctant 6 relaxation
2b

54
1 high levels of stress 2 have an inclination towards something 3 be motivated to do something 4
be devoted to someone/something 5 feel/be inhibited about doing something 6 appear/seem/be
reluctant to do something

2c
Students own answers

3
(Suggested answers; students would not be expected to obtain precise meanings this way)
1 a cough that doesnt go away
2 that happens one time only or rarely (or at least not as part of a pattern)
3 not enforced strictly/modified to be more lenient
4 force/pressure
5 spend the resources on one thing only
6 fall in economic activity
7 a place where patients are kept separately from other people (e.g. to stop disease spreading)
8 the act of stopping or slowing down; prevention
9 areas lower than the area around them; shallow holes

4
Students own answers

Reading 2 p. 98

1ad
Students own answers

2a
DOW is defined, just before it appears in brackets (definition is day-of-week).

2b
A incorrect (Previous research showed support for the Blue Monday effect but minimal support
in the new study.)
B incorrect (no differences were observed between Saturdays and Sundays)
C correct (Second sentence: although in relatively small studies and often with student samples,
with although indicating a contrast with the previous clause which stated support had been
found.)
D incorrect (there was little DOW difference by gender)
E incorrect (there was little DOW difference by ... presence of a partner)
F correct (DOW effects were diminished for older and retired respondents)

3ab
See answer key to Exercise 2b above.

4
1 N = the number of respondents to the survey;
three demographic variables are: age (older and retired respondents), gender and
presence of a partner
2 Students own answers

55
Speaking 2 p. 99

12
Students own answers

3a
1 genetic predisposition/genes; life events (as marked on the slide)
2 genetic predisposition would logically be permanent; life events are mentioned as having only a
temporary effect
3 genetic predisposition is mentioned as only
partly explaining happiness levels

3b
Students own answers

4
(Example answer)
If something makes you sad, the effect is probably only temporary.

5a
All boxes in the Student column should be ticked. The implication/conclusion was: This seems to
provide evidence for the genetic predisposition idea.

5b
Students own answers

6
Answers will vary. See the audio script for Track 61 for a suggested answer.

78
Students own answers

Summary writing 2 pp. 100101

1
(Suggested answers)
1 sounds (e.g. Wow!), gestures, crying, withdrawal, becoming more talkative, changes in voice pitch,
becoming aggressive
2 faster breathing, pupil in eyes becoming wider or narrower, falling blood pressure
3 while at work, while doing an exam, in emergency situations, when the emotion is negative
4 could lead a person to explode suddenly with anger or frustration, often with negative
consequences

2
what happens when you try not to show an emotion
that youre experiencing

35
Students own answers

6a

56
Heres one idea.
So thats one idea.
Thats idea number one ...
And then theres this other idea ...

6b
Heres, thats, this other idea are quite informal. While they come up a lot in speaking, theyre not
suitable for formal forms of writing.

6c
(Suggested answers)
One idea is ...
Thats the first idea.
Theres also a further idea ...

7a
(Suggested answers)
1 concepts, thoughts, notions, theories 2 opposite, opposing 3 demonstrate 4 suppress 5 fades,
wanes 6 switch off, extinguish 7 show 8 emotions 9 vanish 10 reduce, suppress 11 reducing,
decreasing, falling 12 rise (to the surface), emerge, increase/become stronger

7b
1 Some people wish they could sometimes extinguish their feelings.
2 The notion that you can make your emotions vanish completely is new to some people.
3 Happiness and sadness are opposing concepts.
4 It might be desirable at times to suppress your emotions.
5 Sometimes emotions just rise to the surface spontaneously.
6 Suppressing your emotions might actually have the opposite effect.
7 For a number of reasons, some people dont like to express their emotions.
8 Other people feel that if they dont show their emotions, their emotions will fade.

8a
(Suggested answer)
There are two contrasting theories about the effect of suppressing emotions. One is that bottling up an
emotion can make the emotion disappear. This includes physiological reactions to the emotion. In other
words, suppression of the emotion is effective. The other idea is that the suppressing how you express
emotion still has an effect elsewhere, including in physiological reactions such as increased blood
pressure. Thus, according to this idea, suppression isnt effective.

9
Students own answers

Review p. 102

1
1 in on 2 with to 3 was had 4 relative clause should not be between commas 5 commas
needed after Genetics and inheritance 6 surprisingly somewhat somewhat surprisingly 7 Lastly
The other is that 8 reluctant reluctance

2
1 The high school that was involved in the study had a very good reputation.
2 His book, which is about family life in agrarian societies, has won several awards.
3 The group of students that is waiting outside is here to ask you a few questions.

57
4 The social aspects of school life, which are highly important for high school students, have changed
significantly in recent years as a result of the growth of internet social networking sites.
5 The feeling of excitement that is experienced when an experiment works as intended is one of the
joys of research.
6 The people who were in the same room as us yesterday were very interesting.
7 It was the first course that ran on the universitys new campus.
8 Your supervisor is the first person that you should go to if you have a problem.

3
1 inclined 2 bonds 3 widespread
4 quasi-scientific 5 Intriguingly 6 reluctant
7 committed 8 attributed 9 persist
10 Ultimately

4
(Suggested answers)
A
People in developed countries have several advantages compared with their ancestors. One is that they
are more wealthy than ever before. Another is that they have better health care. They also have longer
life expectancy. Finally, they have more access to electronic gadgets, which leads to a better quality of
life. Despite this, they are less
happy than in the 1950s, overall.
B
In many post-industrial societies, children are spending less time with their parents and more time with
others than in the past. There are two reasons for this. Firstly, it is more common that both parents are
working, which means that the children are often looked after by others during the day. Secondly, it has
become fashionable to give children plenty of activities at other times, such as weekends. Despite the
reduced contact between children and their parents, research shows that the quality of family life is no
different from before.

Module 7
Reading 1 pp. 104105

1a
reptile/lizard/gecko, millipede

1b
Answers might include:
Vertebrates have backbones but invertebrates dont.
Amphibians live on land and water.
Birds have feathers.
Fish have scales and gills and live in freshwater and saltwater.
Mammals are warm-blooded and generally have hair. Most give birth to live young.
Reptiles are cold-blooded and have dry, scaly skin.
Insects have six legs and generally one or two pairs of wings.
Molluscs are probably best defined by examples: octopus, squid, etc.

1c
Vertebrates

58
amphibian: frog
birds: nightingale, owl
fish: shark
mammals: whale; reptiles: gecko
Invertebrates
insects: butterfly
molluscs: octopus
other invertebrates: lobster, millipede, spider, worm

1d
Students own answers

1e
Predators include: owl (preys on mice, etc.),
shark (preys on anything large enough that it can find), etc.

2a
Words and phrases that link back to the animal:
largest lizard on Earth, (after which) it (is named),
Komodo dragon, (encroachment on) its (habitat),
(this) reptile (is now protected), (Adult) females
(average), (while) males (are slightly longer)
Words that link back to the country: nations,
national

2b
1 more specific: The Komodo dragon (compared with lizards)
2 more general: reptiles (compared with Komodo dragon)
3 same meaning: this species (compared with Komodo dragon), nation in the nations (compared
with Indonesia)
4 adjective: national (relates to the nations, i.e. Indonesia)

3
females = female Komodo dragons
males = male Komodo dragons

4ab
1 In the second sentence, it connects this sentence to the largest lizard on Earth in the previous
sentence.
2 In the fourth sentence, Due to signals that the current protection given to the Komodo dragon is a
result of previous encroachment on its habitat by humans. In the last sentence, while connects the
two clauses and signals that they show different (contrasting) ideas.
3 In the fourth sentence, its replaces the dragons.

5ab
A 2, 3, 1 B 4, 1, 2, 3

6ab
A2 B5 C4 D1 E3

7ab
D (1) This is the only sentence that doesnt reference back to something else, so it must be first (but
see comment about next sentence).

59
A (2) This does not sound as though its an introductory sentence and first seen at the beginning
suggests its referring back to something else. It does give more general information than some of
the later sentences but the information is more specific than the first sentence (work was done on
this in Module 2, Reading 1). Also, as people generally dont know Latin names and Latin names
are explained in the text, then the Latin name is probably providing a form of lexical cohesion linking
back to an earlier mention of the animal.
E (3) Marek is introduced here. His name is given in full and other information about him is given, so
the other sentence mentioning his name must come later. (See work on names in Module 2.) The
word one refers back to an
earlier mention of the millipede.
C (4) See next.
B (5) Adult females = adult female millipedes (ellipsis), so the previous sentence would have said
something to lead the reader to expect details about the millipede. Sentence C does this by saying
insights into its strange anatomy. For one thing references back to the insights in sentence C.
78
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 106

1
small animals/invertebrates; entomology (as in psychologist psychology)

2a
P: -ologist, -(ti)cist, -er, -ic, -ist
AS: -ology, -my, -(t)ics, -istry, -y

2b
chemicals 4 genes and DNA 6 plants 3 machines 7 the environment 5 animals 10 real
objects, forces, energy, etc 9 living things in general 2 living things too small to see 8

2 biology, biologist 3 botany, botanist 4 chemistry, chemist 5 ecology, ecologist 6 genetics,


geneticist 7 mechanics, mechanic 8 microbiology, microbiologist 9 physics, physicist 10 zoology,
zoologist

2c
Students own answers

3
(Suggested answers)
1 sth biological and dangerous (e.g. a poison)
2 sth that works against (kills) microbes
3 the mechanics of biological things (e.g. how limbs work)
4 adjective from physics: things that have physical properties; things that exist in real life (rather
than ideas that exist in peoples minds)
5 friendly to ecosystems/the environment (this word is overused, especially in marketing; its often
misleadingly applied to things that turn out to be not at all friendly to ecosystems)
6 combination of biology and astronomy (e.g. research into whether life could exist/ could have
existed in places other than Earth)
7 combination of physics and astronomy: physics of how astronomical objects do what they do
8 tourism related to ecology/ecosystems; environmental tourism
9 the application of methods from engineering to biological systems or organisms to try to modify
or control them

60
10 the use of methods from physics to study biological systems or organisms
11 a garden where plants are grown for botanical research
4a
1 creature, living thing 2 bright, clever, cunning, smart 3 acquire, gain skills, obtain knowledge
4 complicated, elaborate, intricate 5 bizarre, odd, weird 6 evolve, adjust 7 likeness, resemblance

4b
(Suggested answers)
2 resemble 3 acquired 4 complex 5 bizarrely 6 adapted

4c
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 107

1
Students own answers

2
S: call, cry, screech, song
Y: baby, chick, infant

3a
A2 B3 C1

3b
A1 B3 C2

4ab
(Suggested answers)
A
Parrots are talkative birds, // with impressive, // human-like // linguistic abilities. // Also like us, // male
and female parrots // are lifelong vocal learners. // Because of these similarities, // researchers have
long wondered // whether parrot chicks // learn their first calls // or if these sounds // are innate.
B
Over a third // of all living parrot species // are considered // to be in decline // due to human activity, //
and around five percent // are listed // as critically endangered. // Habitat loss and hunting // are the main
causes. // Without considerable effort, // populations will decline even further.
C
Parrots are an unusual subject // for documentaries, // but The Wild Parrots // is a film worth watching. //
Come along // to the Student Union Film Club // at 7.30 p.m. on Saturday // to see this heartwarming
story // of a flock of parrots // and their relationship // with a local musician.

5
Students own answers

6a
yes

6bc
Students own answers

61
7
Parrots learn sounds from their parents. The last sentence implies that songbirds dont learn songs from
their parents: the ability to sing is possibly innate (a word students encountered in an earlier module).

8
1 (a) bird/bird(s) 2 black and white/white and black 3 (a) sheep 4 parrot(s) 5 (a/the) whale 6 fur

Listening 1 p. 108

1ac
Students own answers

2a
1 a den; b tentacles 2 a aquarium; b dismantling 3 a perplexing; b dismiss

2b
Students own answers

3ab
Students own answers

4a
a 2 (focuses on one point only)
b 3 (has the wrong information: reason for intelligence is given as avoiding becoming prey, not
being cunning enough to catch prey)
c 3 (puzzles and catching prey are not mentioned in the text)
d 1

56
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 109

1a
1 passive; present perfect
2 No, we cant see who did the observing. It is not important anyway.
3 Researchers have even observed octopuses in the wild gathering stones to hide the entrance to
their dens.

1b
It becomes the object.

1c
The examples in the passive sound more objective and impersonal.

2
1 In the past, people have been injured by Komodo dragons.
2 Dolphins have been seen using sponges to protect their noses while searching for food on the sea
bed.
3 Octopuses have been known to open child-proof medicine bottles.
4 Two hypotheses have been proposed that might explain this phenomenon.

62
5 Animals have been kept as pets for thousands of years.
6 The students have been reminded three times that the assignment is due next week.
7 There are three steps in the experiment; after the first step has been completed, the animals take a
rest.

3
1 It has been found that some bacteria are beneficial.
2 It has been estimated that the animals were first domesticated 15,000 years ago.
3 It has been known for a long time that the ancient Egyptians liked cats.
4 It has now been confirmed that polar bears are heading for extinction.
5 It hasnt been forgotten that the deadline is Friday.

4
1 A keeps B find C knew D knew
2 A before B same time C same time D before
3 In sentences B, C and D, the relationship implied is that the main clause is the reason for the part
before the comma. Discourse markers could be: therefore, so, etc.
4 (Suggested answers)
A The millipede was first seen by government scientists in 1928. It keeps such a low profile that
for the rest of the 20th century the species was thought to be extinct.
B Octopus and human intelligences have different origins and functions. Therefore, its likely
that octopuses find humans as perplexing as we find them.
C He was a biologist. This is why he knew about animal behaviour.
D He had studied biology. Thus, he knew about animal behaviour.
5 The one-sentence versions are shorter and more succinct.

5
(Suggested answers)
1 Being a botanist, he can answer questions about many different kinds of plants.
2 Having completed a doctorate in botany, he decided to become a university lecturer in that field.
3 Given his childhood interest in botany, it wasnt surprising that he chose that subject for his
academic career.
4 Having no natural predators in their ecosystem, Komodo dragons have been able to grow to a
considerable size.
5 Being fast, powerful and stealthy, crocodiles are very effective predators.
6 Avoiding the use of cages for its animals as much as possible, Chester Zoo provides visitors with a
clear view of many of its animals.
7 Being very sociable animals which live in extended family groups, putting African elephants in zoos
can make them feel depressed.

6
Students own answers

Writing 1 p. 110

1
Students own answers

2
1 Students own answers

63
2 The authors opinion given in the first paragraph (introduction). Other peoples opinions are
discussed in the body paragraphs.
3 Students own answers
4 Some feel ..., Other people feel ... (para. 1)
None of this is possible ... (para. 2)
While ..., still ... (para. 2)
While there is some truth in the argument
that ..., there is undoubtedly ... (para. 4)
5 Students own answers

3
only A as the question asks for disadvantages well as advantages

4a
Disadv: not free to move; cant interact; no challenge, safe, boring
Adv: protect endangered species; public: experience, learn;
Concl: not perfect but necessary; make good as possible

4b
The plan doesnt cover the introduction because if you know what will be in the body, the content of the
introduction follows on from that.

56
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 111

1a
Students own answers
The noun forms of herbivorous and carnivorous are herbivore and carnivore.

1bd
Students own answers

2
A incorrect (Allosaur teeth were curved, not straight, and there was no mention of them eating
other dinosaurs or crushing bones.)
B correct
C incorrect (No dental problems were
mentioned.)
D incorrect (The recording did not talk about dental problems such as tooth cavities.)

3
See answer key to Exercise 2 above.

4
slicing: a cutting motion
dentition: related to teeth
cavities: holes (in this case, in teeth, caused by decay)

64
56
1 Carnivorous dinosaurs, like modern-day sharks, have serrated teeth.
2 Much can be learned about dinosaurs from the fossil record.
3 Dental problems have even been discovered in dinosaur teeth.
4 It was the dinosaurs that interested people the most.

Language development 2 p. 112


1
1 sentence 1 in A and B. Its becoming clear and What interested people the most.
2 Students should underline: Its becoming clear (or just Its) in A and What in B.

2
(Suggested answers)
2 What isnt possible is finding a dinosaur alive today.
3 Its quite surprising to many people that birds evolved from dinosaurs.
4 Its probable that dinosaurs were made extinct by an asteroid from space colliding with Earth.
5 What we know is that the smallest dinosaurs were the size of a modern-day pigeon.
6 What dominated the world for 134 million years were the dinosaurs.
7 It was thought before the emergence of modern science that dinosaur bones were the bones of
dragons.
8 What we cant be certain about is the colour of dinosaurs skin./What isnt certain about the skin of
dinosaurs is the colour.

3a
A our understanding of octopuses v. our understanding of whether only humans can solve
problems
B tiger (teeth) v. horse
C this animal v. horse

3b
A the more ... the more
B Unlike
C just like

4
1 vastly 2 differ 3 stronger 4 While 5 Unlike 6 in contrast to

5
(Suggested answers)
2 Dinosaurs lived for a considerably longer period of time (135 million years) than humans, who have
been around for less than one million years.
3 The largest dolphins weigh only 10 tonnes, in comparison to the largest whales, which are
significantly heavier at 180 tonnes.
4 Some dinosaurs walked on four legs, in contrast to others who walked on two legs.
5 While dinosaurs were found on all continents, elephants are only found in Asia and Africa.
6 In contrast to octopuses, which live on average only three years, humans live for around 80 years.

65
7 The more funds that are available for dinosaur research, the more knowledge well have about
them.
8 Unlike octopuses, which live alone, humans are social creatures.

6
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 113

1a
1 decade 2 trace 3 organism 4 microbe 5 visible 6 inadequate 7 aspect 8 oxygen 9 core
10 constrain

1b
1 constraint 2 microbial 3 core

2
1 aspect 2 organisms 3 decades 4 microbial 5 inadequate 6 traces 7 core 8 visible
9 oxygen 10 constraints

3a
1 key 2 specific 3 negative 4 fundamental 5 various 6 focus 7 impose 8 recent 9 central
10 element 11 issue 12 core 13 living 14 make 15 become 16 clearly

3b
Students own answers

4a
1 e 2 c 3 h 4 a 5 i 6 g 7 b 8 j 9 d 10 f

4b
(Suggested answers)
1 Hell attempt to improve his grades next semester.
2 Im attending university to expand my knowledge of biology.
3 Microbes arent visible to humans.
4 Animals usually interact with others of the same species.
5 Animals in captivity often look bored.
6 Theres an inadequate amount of oxygen in here.

Reading 2 p. 114

1
Students own answers

2a
Atacama Desert, rainfall, lifeless, microbes, previous ideas, organisms, rain, dampness, microbes

2b
general (one of the driest places on Earth, first sentence) to specific patterns (naming it: the
Atacama Desert in Chile, second sentence)
discourse marker: However in the third sentence shows contrast the previous sentence.

66
determiner: these in the fourth sentence indicates that this mention of organisms is not the first
article: the in the last sentence also refers back to a previous sentence

3
1 D: defines a term that comes up later, is more general and doesnt refer back to anything
2 B: like the first, also mentions extremophiles but which ones it concerns is made more specific,
thus this is likely to come after D
3 E: They can only refer to the extremophiles that Cavicchioli is studying
4 A: this extreme refers back to Antarctica
5 C: their DNA refers back to unique genes in A

4
See answer key to Exercise 3 above.

5ab
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 115

1
Students own answers

2
1 the mention of life
2 (Suggested answers) sphere, spherical, layer, core, crust, surface, cut away

3
1 yes
2 Students own answers
3 fronting: Whats interesting about this layer
is ...

4
(Suggested answers)
Its interesting that this layer could support life.
An interesting point is that this layer could support life.
What stands out is that this layer could support life.
A very interesting point is that this layer could support life.

5
Answers will vary. See the audio script for Track 70 for a suggested answer.

67
Students own answers

Writing 2 pp. 116117

1
Students own answers

67
2a
Students own answers

2b
(Suggested answers)
1 2 minutes 2 15 minutes 3 3 minutes

3a
Replace the advantages paragraph with a paragraph about the for ideas and replace the
disadvantages paragraph with a paragraph about the against ideas.

3b
Students own answers

4a
1 nations, governments 2 nourishment, nutrition 3 expenditure, financial resources 4
disadvantaged people, people below the poverty line 5 research, scientific experimentation 6
challenges, issues 7 belief, viewpoint

4b
(Suggested answers)
1 states 2 diet 3 (sums of) money 4 poverty 5 studies, (scientific) investigation 6 disadvantages
7 view, feeling

4c
food, poor

5a
(Suggested answers)
2 Scientific experimentation is expensive. However, the results are worth it.
3 In many countries, a proportion of the people dont get enough food. In other nations, people have
too much to eat and as a result suffer from obesity.
4 Countries without the financial resources of developed nations often cant provide affordable
medical treatment to all their citizens. The governments of richer states should do more to deal with
this imbalance by donating funds to be used for health care.
5 Governments have to decide carefully how to allocate their resources. If they do this, these nations
will avoid the problems that come with some citizens being significantly wealthier than others.
6 Money currently allocated to scientific research could be re-allocated to other areas. For example,
these funds could be put towards medical treatment.
7 A nation needs big projects in order to give inspiration and a sense of pride to its people.
Countries which take on challenges like these can often earn the respect of the rest of the
world.
8 The real and potential benefits to society of scientific research are enormous. This is why
scientific experimentation must continue to receive funding.

5b
Students own answers

6
While there is some truth in the argument that keeping animals in captivity is unlikely to be beneficial to
individual animals, there is ...

7
(Suggested answers)

68
2 While pets do help prevent loneliness and help children to understand animals, they can cause
annoyance to others.
3 In some situations, the view that animal testing is painful and cruel has merit. However, the results
can save human life.
4 Despite the fact that science research funds could possibly be spent elsewhere, it is clear that
research can improve human life.
5 While its true that research can satisfy human curiosity, funds (do) need to be allocated carefully.

89
Students own answers

Review p. 118

1
(Suggested answers)
1 creature, living thing, reptile 2 biologist, scientist 3 baby, infant, young 4 intelligent, bright, smart
5 complex, complicated, elaborate 6 skull, bone 7 strange, bizarre, weird 8 learn, obtain
knowledge, gain skills 9 expenditure, funds, financial resources 10 viewpoint, belief, opinion 11
adapt, adjust 12 similarity, resemblance

2
1 Geneticists 2 Traces 3 core 4 resemblance 5 mammals 6 similarity 7 constraints 8
aspect, physics 9 intelligent, interact 10 creatures

3a
(Suggested answers)
1 Having a large number of sharp teeth, sharks are well adapted to tearing large chunks of meat off
their prey.
2 Being an astrobiologist, Kazuko is well qualified to give a lecture about life on other planets.
3 Being invisible to the naked eye, instruments such as microscopes are necessary to study
microbes.
4 Having an under-surface layer of water, Europa, a moon of the planet Jupiter, could
potentially support life.

3b
(Suggested answers)
1 While crocodiles have lived on Earth for around 55 million years, modern humans have been
around for only 200 thousand years or so.
2 In comparison to whales, octopuses are more intelligent.
3 Unlike humans, who live mostly on land, octopuses live mostly in the water./Octopuses differ from
humans in that they live mostly in the water.
4 In contrast to some birds, such as penguins, which cant fly, many species of birds are very good
flyers.

3c
(Suggested answers)
1 While its true that zoos can educate children, there is no doubt they keep animals in unnatural
conditions.
2 Despite the fact that humans have walked on the Moon, we still dont know a lot about the bottom of
the oceans.
3 While the argument that zoos are unnatural places for animals does have its strengths, zoos do a
very good job at making people interested in animals.

69
4 Despite the fact that scientific research is very expensive, the future benefits of scientific research
are enormous.

4
1 have found have been found 2 in captive in captivity 3 disasembling disassembling 4
been know been known 5 Giving that Given that 6 significantly much shorter significantly
shorter 7 the amazing the more amazing

Module 8
Reading 1 pp. 120121

1
Students own answers

2
1 Vincent van Gogh 2 B life 3 General ideas come first, then they follow a chronological order
through his life.

3
1 emotion (clause describes Van Goghs works; the other possibility would be focus but the meaning
doesnt fit as well as emotion)
2 but (but and and show a relationship between two clauses; only but appropriately connects opposite
ideas)
3 adulthood (retirement and adulthood collocate with early but this part of the text describes the early
part of Van Goghs life, so early adulthood is more likely; if students know apprenticed, this provides
an even stronger clue but not all will at this level)
4 devote (focus and devote can both be verbs missing word is part of an infinitive but only devote
can be used with to: devote himself to art)
5 known (known collocates strongly with well: well-known)

4
Students own answers

5a
(Suggested answers)
1 This is always a good strategy, as long as students dont spend too much time on it and know
when to move on.
2 This is probably the first thing to do.
3 Guessing is a last resort.
4 This is never a good idea. Before the final read-through and moving on to the next item,
students should guess any they cant work out quickly, from the remaining options only.

5b
Students own answers

6
1 known 2 eccentric 3 legends 4 Unlike 5 make

70
1 The blank needs an adjective (or a noun that could describe a noun which excludes plural
nouns). The words eccentric and normal are the only options that fit this description. If he had
had a normal lifestyle, he would not be well-known for it and legends about him would be
unlikely.
2 The word many needs to be followed by a plural noun. There is only one plural noun in the
options.
3 It is a contrast, so the word unlike shows this relationship. It fits grammatically because it needs
to be followed by a noun phrase, not a clause with a verb.
4 answers could be: 1 otherwise known as or 5 make a living (if these collocations are known to
students)
5 Students own answers
6 Students own answers

8ab
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 122

1
1 posed 2 Contemporary 3 practitioners 4 scenario 5 analogy 6 manipulating 7 interpreted
8 transformed 9 persistence
10 curated

2a
1 possible 2 radically 3 with 4 for 5 of

2b
1 manipulation, interpretation, transformation, curation 2 pose 3 persist 4 curator

2c
Students own answers

3
big change: more neutral meaning
transformation: more positive meaning

4a
(Suggested answers. Accept any that students can justify. Note that some depend on context and are
not a universal characteristic of the words.)
1 A positive; B positive 2 A neutral; B positive 3 A neutral/positive; B negative 4 A negative; B
positive 5 A neutral/positive; B negative 6 A positive; B negative

4bd
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 123

1ab

71
Students own answers

2a
(Suggested answers)
1 He was an abstract expressionist painter. //
2 The artist // used an apartment // as his studio.
3 The artists early work // was a good buy.
4 He has a good collection // of art.
5 This short line // on the painting // represents life.
6 Hes showing // his work // at the London Gallery of Art.7 She had a great exhibition // last year.
8 Would you like // to come // to the gallery // with me?

2bd
Students own answers

3ac
Students own answers

4
1 He studied for many years with an expert painter.
2 There are many good methods that can be used.
3 He would yearn for the chance to learn from a well-known artist.
4 The painter of these pictures is a very good man.
5 Hes shown an interest in exciting new art movements.
6 The artist is exhibiting at the national art gallery next year.
7 The painter is well-known for his abstract period.
8 He would use his brushes in new and interesting ways.

5ac
Students own answers
6
1 (an) artist/(a) painter 2 (an/a) (art) gallery 3 (a) camera 4 (a) theatre(s) 5 (an) artist 6 (an) actor

Listening 1 p. 124

1
Students own answers
2
(Suggested answers)
2 Kassarijian is a highly skilled teacher. There are at least two different styles of ikebana.
3 Other ikebana styles (probably) dont allow non-traditional elements into the arrangement.
4 Ordinary people didnt/dont use the Ikenobo
style.

3
1 A (The fact that people consider themselves beginners for longer than it takes to earn a doctoral
degree implies that a high level of skill is required.)
2 B (The fourth certificate allows the holder to take further qualifications in order to teach.)
3 A (Implied when the speaker says its a struggle to create, when it is finally finished. Theres no
mention of anything relating to B.)

72
4
B (Western peoples understanding of ikebana is different from that of Japanese people. This is
inferred when the speaker talks about how western people focus on the flower as ornament, while
Japanese people also consider the space each arrangement uses and the depth of the shadows it
creates in its setting.)

5
(Suggested answers)
A similarities differences
C less quite (implied by saying ikebana appears in public places such as windows, hotel
lobbies, etc.)
D more traditional settings a range of settings

6
The answer is definitely not just the flowers themselves. It can be inferred that the space around the
flowers is important because the speaker says give depth to the shadows created between the flower
and the wall. However, whether the answer is both or just the space around them is debatable (hence
the inclusion of this in the Discussion section).

Language development 1 p. 125

1
A Himself cant be omitted. The object of devote involves the same person as the subject; we cant
say devote him to painting, as that would sound as though van Gogh was devoting another male
person to painting.
B Himself can be omitted but including it adds emphasis. Self cant be omitted.
C Itself is included to emphasise that the subject of the sentence did the action, and can be omitted. It
is likely to be useful if contrasted with something else here, the last part of the sentence. Self cant
be omitted.

2
2 I created the flower arrangement myself, without any help.
3 The artists organised the exhibition themselves./The artists themselves organised the exhibition.
4 Students are expected to do all course work themselves./The students themselves are expected to
do all the course work.
5 The painting itself wasnt difficult; thinking of the idea was much harder.
6 The study itself was quite easy; finding the money, though, was difficult.
7 Please check your work yourself and ask me if you have any questions.
8 Students participating in the exhibition are expected to look after framing themselves; the
university gallery is not responsible for this.

3
Students own answers

4a
1 earning 2 completing

4b
for earning can be replaced with to earn

73
2 Becoming skilled at the technical side of art requires patience.
3 Finishing the painting was hard work.
4 Posing well for the camera is harder than it looks.
5 Selling paintings to make a living was unusual in 16th-century China.
6 Manipulating glass without breaking it takes a lot of skill, though some amazing pieces of art
have been created in this way.

6
1 to study 2 selling 3 to choose 4 representing 5 becoming 6 to recreate 7 having 8 to
exhibit 9 creating, lecturing 10 extending, keeping

Summary writing 1 p. 126

1
Students own answers

2
(Suggested answers)
South America, largest and wealthiest empire, gold ... substantial quantity, little of this remains as it was
melted down by the invaders, ceramics, architecture and textiles ... have survived in greater numbers, it
is architecture that the Incas are best known for now

3
1 a very significant amount 2 only small quantities are left 3 vivid representations 4 high levels of
precision

4a
(Suggested answer)
Although the Inca empire was one of the richest and most important in the world, very little of its best
known art objects, which were made of gold, remain because they were destroyed by invaders; instead,
only ceramics, textiles and architecture, with some remarkable features, are left to help us understand
Inca art.

4b
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 127

1
Students own answers

2
C

3
A This is not mentioned and cant be inferred.
B Contradicted in the recording. We can infer that effortlessness is what she is looking (If she could
see, visually, what was going on in the actors mind ... then the acting was bad, she felt) but theres
no statement or inference that acting can be too perfect or effortless.
C Correct. The answer can be inferred from the words If she could see, visually, what was going on in
the actors mind ... then the acting was bad, she felt. But when she ... could believe that the actor
was actually a real person ... then she enjoyed the performance immensely.
D The amount of preparation is not mentioned in

74
the recording.

75
45
A incorrect (Herbert Berghof invited her to teach at his acting school. This implies that he had
confidence in her teaching ability.)
B incorrect (The description of her teaching techniques and the fact that the recording says she
developed her own teaching techniques suggests she did not follow standard teaching practices.)
C correct (Implied by the fact that she was asked to teach acting, that Herbert Berghof told her she
knew very well how to act and that her career is described as illustrious.)
D incorrect (Implied by Rather than giving them lots and lots of information that might overwhelm
them, she preferred to deal with each actors individual problems.)

6
Students own answers

7
1 Many actors undergo an intensive period of training.
2 Becoming a good actor requires persistence and motivation.
3 Practitioners in the field of acting must work very hard.
4 Training covers a range of scenarios that an actor might encounter.

8
Students own answers

Language development 2 p. 128

1
F; (covers more than just camera operation skills; the others mention only camera operation skills)

2a
(Suggested answers)
the persistence of the acting students at practising their voice skills; their persistence at practising their
voice skills; their persistence at voice skill practice; their persistence at practising their skills, including
their voice skills

2b
(Suggested answer)
The acting students persistence at practising their voice It would need to be followed by a verb. e.g The
acting students persistence at practising their voice skills gave them confidence delivering their lines on
stage.

2c
(Example answers)
2 Their main problem was finding enough money./ Finding enough money was their main problem.
3 His teaching ability was excellent.
4 They were well-trained and experienced actors.
5 The experience of the director was essential to the success of the production.
6 The dancers persistent practice helped her get the role she wanted.
7 Good quality training transformed the acting students voice.
8 The worst possible scenario is to cancel the show.
9 The elderly actors interpretation of his role was the best Ive ever seen.
10 His contemporary style of ink painting made the artist famous.

2d
Students own answers

76
3
an exhibition of student work/a student exhibition

4a
(Suggested answers)
2 an artist who is famous around the world
3 a film-maker who was born in England
4 a problem that happened during editing
5 a film directed by Steven Spielberg
6 the movie that we saw last night
7 the sequels of films

4b
(Suggested answers)
2 His most desired achievement was an Oscar win.
3 Production problems are unlikely because of/due to thorough planning.
4 Audience participation is something that other performers should consider.
5 The film-making course will be held in the city centre campus.
6 The Russian-born movie star made a family move to New Zealand.

5
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 129

1a
Hes very good at acting. Hes a highly skilled actor. Hes very competent. He performs very well. He has
strong acting skills. As an actor, hes highly skilled.

1b
1 exceptionally, extremely, very 2 competent, proficient, talented 3 excellent, exceptional, strong 4
ability, competence, expertise, proficiency, talent 5 demonstrates, has

2
Students own answers

3a
1 shoot 2 equipment 3 footage 4 rehearsal 5 pre-production 6 phase 7 inspiration 8
fundamental 9 ignore 10 shift

3b
1 Shooting 2 fundamental 3 inspiration 4 pre-production 5 equipment 6 ignored 7 shifted 8
rehearsals 9 phase 10 footage

4
Students own answers

Reading 2 p. 130

1ab
Students own answers
77
2
In film-making, directors roles can vary ...

3
1 tremendously (Reading the whole text makes it clear that the variation in the role isnt slight.)
2 creative (While technical works for camera, lighting and sound, it doesnt work for actors.)
3 crews (Crews can be directed but not equipment.)
4 editing (Post in post-production gives the clue that this is after doing something else. Editing occurs
after filming but filming doesnt appear to happen after anything else.)
5 theoretically (The second clause of this sentence makes it clear that directors do get involved with
distribution, etc., so the idea that they dont is just theoretical.)
6 surprisingly (This is surprising, rather than logical, as directors are supposed to be primarily
responsible for the creative aspects of the film and producers are supposed to deal with funding,
marketing and distribution.)

45
1 also (The fact that the producer oversees the project implies that he/she will be involved in
marketing and distribution; hence out of the two choices that fit the blank, also fits better than
never.)
2 production (Could be production, marketing, funding or responsible but as its associated with
directing, production is the most likely.)
3 Increasingly (Could be Surprisingly or Increasingly. However, its not very surprising that they have
to have directing skills if the producer is sometimes also the director, so Increasingly is more
appropriate here.)
4 funding (Could be production, marketing or funding but if theyre producers, they wont be arranging
production, they will be doing it themselves. The mention of budget in the next sentence points to
funding as the answer.)

6ab
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 131

12
Students own answers

3a
The introductory phrase used is: According to the speaker, ...

3b
Students own answers

4a
According to the [type of speaker], ... + main clause
The talk/lecture described/explained/argued ... + that clause (or about + noun phrase)
The talk/lecture was about ... + noun phrase
In the talk/lecture, the speaker described/explained/ argued/said ... + that clause

4b
Students own answers

6
Answers will vary. See the audio script for Track 81 for a suggested answer.
78
79
Students own answers

Summary writing 2 pp. 132133

1
Students own answers

2a
The text is about film sequels and the lack of academic literature dealing with them as sequels.

2b
1 No. These are academic references and do not add crucial information to the writers argument,
hence they can be ignored for the purposes of writing a summary.
2 They havent been ignored.
3 Sequels in general. Several examples of sequels mentioned in the literature are given, but the
text says that sequels have been overlooked.
4 Yes. The word voluminous indicates this.
5 the sequel
6 They agree about the topic of sequels (academics have been in step with popular criticism of
the sequel).
7 a disease that can affect film companies, leading to a large number of film sequels being made

34
Students own answers

5
1 common 2 little attention 3 connection, discussions 4 sign 5 academic literature, same point,
popular press

6a
The word sequels is repeated. This makes the cohesion awkward. To improve the sentence, replace
some sequels with some of them.

6b
2 these films 3 this analysis sees 4 for this disease/illness 5 the sequel

78
(Suggested answer)
Despite sequels being a common phenomenon, their status as sequels has received little attention in the
academic literature, though in the 1990s they were mentioned in discussions about change in Hollywood;
this point was also made by critics in the popular press though at a somewhat earlier time.

Review p. 134

1
1 demonstrated, competence 2 medium 3 prominent, generation 4 abstract 5 characters 6
fundamental 7 ignore, equipment 8 phase 9 inspiration 10 persistence

2a
(Suggested answers)

79
1 The process of 2 Visiting 3 interest in/ fascination with/contempt for/lack of interest in, etc. 4 of
ikebana 5 Serious problems 6 A high level of skill

2b
Students own answers

3
1 yourself 2 acting 3 to take 4 to star 5 Creating 6 have 7 preparing 8 to experiment 9
meeting 10 developing

4
1 origins with origins in 2 fundamentally fundamental 2 themselves their 3 use using
4 gaining (to) gain 5 a number well-known Hollywood actors a number of well-known Hollywood
actors 6 act acting

Module 9
Reading 1 pp. 136137

1
Students own answers

2a
A 1 this B 2 however 3 such as C 4 One, 5 Another D 6 machines, 7 software

2b
Students own answers

3a
The text is about artificial intelligence and how its used/its applications.

3b
1 (noun) It relates to something in (or the whole of) the previous sentence.
2 (discourse marker) It is probably an example.
3 (verb) It relates to something that is generally true, therefore the present simple is required.
4 (noun) It is related to (i.e. its a similar idea to) developments.
5 (adverb, probably of frequency) The sentence is about the abilities of cars driven by a computer,
so lose concentration is something that a driverless car is unlikely to do.

3c
1 effort 2 including 3 take 4 applications 5 never

4
1 time 2 overlooked 3 dramatically 4 amongst 5 has grown

56
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 138

1a

80
1 initial 2 pursue 3 interact 4 emerge 5 military 6 dimensions 7 conventional 8 physics 9
potential 10 impact

1b
(Suggested answers)
1 interaction 2 emergence 3 pursuit 4 emerging 5 physical 6 potential 7 initial, conventional

2
1 Initial, pursue 2 Physics 3 interaction 4 potential 5 conventional 6 impact 7 dimensions 8
emerging, military

3a
(Suggested answers)
pursue power, social interaction, great potential/ risks/impact, potential risks/impact, conventional
technology/power, environmental risks/impact,
significant potential/risks/impact, emerging technology

3bc
Students own answers

4a
nano-: 0.000000001 micro-: 0.000001
centi-: 0.01 milli: 0.001

4b
equal part of, i.e. a hundredth = one of a hundred equal parts of something;
1 divided by the number, i.e. a hundredth = 1/100

4c
thousandth

5a
1 centimetre 2 milligram 3 microsecond 4 nanolitre

5b
Students own answers

Speaking 1 p. 139

1
Legs can be lifted over obstacles.

2a
1 might rain 2 more rice 3 a nice sculpture

2b
Students own answers

3a
1 /ks/, /sv/ 2 /s/, /nn/ 3 /l/, /ssjus/

81
4a
This illustrates three different kinds of elision, in order:
12 Schwa disappears in some syllables of some multi-syllable words (e.g. interesting, tonight,
temperature, camera).
34 Between /t/ or /d/ and a following consonant, the /t/ or /d/ sometimes disappears. Sometimes,
commonly in Received Pronunciation, juncture occurs instead.
5 simplified consonant clusters, especially at the ends of words, often with /t/ elided (e.g. next, acts)
6 /v/ is often elided before consonants.

5
(Underlining indicates juncture and bolding indicates elision.)
The development of mobile, self-propelled robots that can navigate independently across very uneven
ground, as well as carrying out non-repetitive tasks, is known as field robotics. The universitys School of
Field Robotics is focused on the continuing advancement of this technology both in the laboratory and in
the field to meet the challenges of our next few decades.

6ac
See answer key to Exercise 5 above.

7
Students own answers

8
1 (an) airport 2 wings 3 (the) keyboard 4 electricity/ electric (power) 5 transport 6 metal(s)

Listening 1 p. 140

12
Students own answers

3a
1 certain 2 certain 3 uncertain, though somewhat towards the middle of the scale would also be fine,
given the vagueness of the word may
4 somewhere in the middle

4
uncertain: could, might
likely: a good chance that, hopefully, I think, supposed to, theoretically
closer to the certain end of the scale: a strong likelihood that, (hopefully could also be placed
here), little doubt that, quite likely that
certain: sure, will definitely

5a
A correct B correct (still being studied) C incorrect (implies a greater degree of certainty than is
expressed in the recording) D correct

5b
The words will be exciting to watch at the end of the recording help decide the answer to D.

82
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 141

1
Sentence 1A is hypothetical. In a future time, or the speakers imagination, nanorobots can enter the
body (the technology doesnt currently exist).
Sentence 1B is a real situation. It means that nanorobots can enter the body now (the technology
currently exists).
Sentence 2A is expressed as a hypothetical idea. Sentence 2B is a certainty. Even though the time
referred to is in the future, the speaker is quite sure that the situation described will happen.

2a
1 would (Hypothetical; we have technology, so lives without technology is a hypothetical
situation.)
2 will/would/could (It could be either, depending on how the speaker views the possibility of
nanorobots entering bodies.)
3 will/would/could (See 2 above.)
4 will (Real; the extension is real.)
5 would (Hypothetical; we dont all have enough money to be able to afford the space rockets,
etc. necessary to go into space.)
6 wouldnt (Hypothetical; its clear from the second sentence that we have the Internet, so not
having it must be hypothetical.)
7 would/could (Hypothetical, as indicated by possibly. Note: Even though will is present in the first
sentence, will is not appropriate in the second. This is because will is affected by possibly at the
beginning, thus making its meaning more hypothetical.)

2b
1 could (no words replaced)
2 could (if hypothetical meaning is chosen)
3 could (no words replaced)
4 none of the options can be used here
5 would be able to can change to could
6 wouldnt be able to can change to couldnt
7 could (no words replaced)

3
Students own answers

4
1 of robots (at the end of the sentence)
2 In sentence C, that replaces the strength in sentence B. Sentence C is therefore less repetitive.

5
1 in the laboratory 2 robots, interactive 3 produced an interactive robot

6
1 building nanorobots 2 the robots 3 people who are experts in a number of disciplines

7
2 My paper on artificial intelligence was published at the same time as Professor Smiths.
3 Professor Smith published a paper on artificial intelligence at the same time as I did/as mine/
as I published one.
4 Professor Smith has published a paper on robotics. However, I havent/I havent published one.

83
5 The challenges that we overcame this year were harder to deal with than the ones from last
year/last years.
6 The intelligence of computers is different from that of humans.
7 Our new robot can travel over very rough terrain. This is better than the old one, which couldnt.
8 Artificial intelligence could progress much faster than (it does) now but doing so requires more
funds than are currently available.
9 The goals of the Artificial Intelligence Research Group are aligned with those of the department
of which it is a part.
10 Is he in the library or the laboratory?

Writing 1 p. 142

1
Students own answers

2a
It doesnt appear to ask for an opinion and it is asking for personal information. Its less academic than
most.

2b
Pattern 3 is a good response. While pattern 2 might also be possible, it may make it harder to relate the
description to the opinion, which is essential for dealing adequately with the prompt. Also, if a student
attempts pattern 2 and does not complete the conclusion due to lack of time, the most important part of
the essay will be missing (although the conclusion could be written before finishing the body not such
a bad idea). Pattern 1 is probably the easiest but misses an important part of the prompt: it doesnt
mention technology.

2c
pattern 3

3
involve the use of technology
If technology were removed, our lifestyles would be radically different.
technology significantly affects our lives
my friend

4
Sentence 1 is not good because it doesnt stand alone. A reader of the essay would need to go back
and read the question to understand the essay.
Sentences 24 are fine. Reference to the question is made lexically and the sentences are perfectly
understandable without reading the question.

5a
Sentence 4 (... would be if I didnt have ...)

5b
Sentence 2 (If technology were removed, ...)
Hypothetical language is used to discuss situations that are different from the authors opinion, which is
a powerful way to show why they would be wrong, problematic, etc.

84
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 143

1
Students own answers

2a
B and E

2b
A correct: her overall attitude and tone of voice
B incorrect (use of will in if youve got money, then youll be able to go into space, Space tourism
companies will be taking ...)
C incorrect (no information)
D correct (And the technologies that are developed for space tourism, the rockets ... eventually
someones going to use them for other purposes.)
E incorrect (I think ... the hope is that, as paying customers ... its going to drive down the cost of
space flight ...)

34
Students own answers

5
1 Many people are interested in travelling into space.
2 Im optimistic about the future of space flight.
3 I think space travel will become affordable within the next century.
4 It takes enormous amounts of energy to send anything into space.

6a
1 sentence 2
2 sentences 1, 2 and 4
3 sentence 3 (clue: tentative intonation on think)

6b
Students own answers

Language development 2 p. 144

1
1 The assistant performed the action. The engineer requested that the assistant do this.
2 by her assistant; If it were omitted, we wouldnt know who performed the action.
3 The assistant performed the action and the engineer prompted the action.
4 BD have roughly the same meaning. A is different because there is less emphasis on the
engineer instigating the action.

2
2 Ill get someone to look at it.
3 Ill have the maintenance guy check it.
4 Ill get it replaced.
5 Ill have the technician explain it.

85
6 Ill have another one made.

3a
1 The head of department allowed the project to go ahead.
2 Lack of funds may force testing to stop.
3 New rocket fuel chemistry makes it cheaper to launch satellites.
4 Problems on the first test caused delays to occur.
5 The professor let us hand in our essays a day late.
6 A shortage of spare parts caused repairs to be halted.

3b
Students own answers

4
1 a question word
2 The verb needs to go at the end of the clause.
3 part of the main clause (a subordinate clause embedded as complement of the main clause)

5
1 I dont know where the professor is.
2 We would like to know when the next lecture is.
3 I didnt understand what the lecturer explained.
4 Ill tell you in the next lecture why space tourism wont be popular./In the next lecture, Ill tell you
why tourism wont be popular.
5 Technology influences how we find information.
6 How soon airships will be used regularly depends on research funding.
7 The mystery is who the first passenger will be.
8 How artificial intelligence changes our lives in the future will be exciting to watch.
9 There is a lot of research into how space travel affects the human body.
10 People dont realise how much technology affects their lives.

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 145

1a
1 vehicle 2 mechanism 3 capability 4 rational 5 assemble 6 sphere 7 empirical 8 equation

1b
Students own answers

2
1 mechanism 2 assemble 3 vehicle 4 sphere 5 equation

3
1 countable: B; uncountable: A
2 countable use: talking about all relevant technology in general, as if its one thing; uncountable use
= talking about a set of specific technologies, as if theyre each separate

4a
1 a number of technologies 2 technology 3 people 4 peoples 5 a number of languages are 6
language 7 contents, have 8 content

86
4b
(Suggested answers)
technology (U), people (U, but really the plural of person), languages (C)
Content is different. It is usually countable if referring to physical objects (e.g. the contents of a box) but
uncountable if referring to digital information (e.g. website content).

4c
people (C) = specific race or ethnicity of people
language (U) = how something is worded; the choice of words, grammar, etc. in a specific context
content (U) = content of TV, video, radio, graphic design, websites, etc.

5ab
Students own answers

Reading 2 p. 146

1a
Students own answers

1b
(Suggested answers)
useful: surveillance capabilities, long endurance, ability to stay over a single place, renewable energy
sources
not so useful: speed, ability to carry heavy payloads

2
1 investigations 2 concluded 3 provided that 4 has progressed 5 These

34
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 147

1
Students own answers

2a
1 three
2 more detailed design or preparation for manufacture
3 Logically, optimisation will continue after testing/analysis until the design is found to be
satisfactory, at which point it will progress to detailed design rather than going back for more
testing.

2b
Yes. To miss out one of the boxes would mean missing out important information and would reduce the
mark.

3
1 yes 2 yes 3 yes 4 yes 5 yes, mostly 6 yes, mostly (except for introductory statement and
conclusion/implication) 7 yes

87
4a
It allows you to vary your vocabulary for good style.
It may be necessary, depending on the grammar.
It demonstrates that you have control over the different word forms and their associated grammar.

4b
analyse, design, manufacture, optimise, prepare, test

5
Answers will vary. See the audio script for Track 93 for a suggested answer.

6
Students own answers

Writing 2 pp. 148 49

1
Students own answers

2
There is nothing to say that the response has to be in impersonal style. While impersonal style is
appropriate for essays, this is not a requirement of PTEA or most other international language
proficiency tests. It is a requirement of this particular question, however, to give personal experiences,
either your own or a friends. This type of question is relatively rare in the test but does appear
sometimes, so students do need to be prepared.

3
1 The introduction refers directly to the prompt (This question). Some parts of the question (e.g.
someone you know) are not mentioned.
2 No. It looks as if it will miss out the positive effects of technology and how this affects someone the
writer knows.
3 Probably not, due to the problems in 1 and 2 above. It doesnt help the development or structure of
an essay to comment on how interesting the topic is (first sentence).

45
Students own answers

6
1 Not in this case. This is generally stated strongly, as befits the central point of a piece of writing,
unless it is actually a generalisation that can be easily attacked, in which case hedging would be
used to strengthen it.
2 Yes. See explanation above.
3 In this case, no. It is more likely that the actions of one person can conform to a non-hedged
statement. However, the more people there are, the more likely there will be an exception to the
rule.
4 Yes.

7a
1 Unlikely to be true. Technology isnt required for sleeping, for instance. Hedging required.
2 Unlikely to be true. For example, many elderly people dont use mobile phones but still meet
friends. Hedging required.
3 Walking, for example, for most people is unlikely to have been affected by technology. Hedging
required.

88
4 Already hedged (most).

7b
Students own answers

8a
(Suggested answers)
1 Space travel is likely to become ...
2 There is a strong likelihood that technological developments such as space tourism ...
3 An uncle of mine spends around an hour most evenings ...
4 ... When a new device comes out, I usually buy it immediately.
5 ... Nowadays I tend to do all of those things online in a fraction of the time.
6 ... because people can find information about you easily and pretend to be you.

8b11
Students own answers

Review p. 150

1
1 Initially 2 Empirical 3 impact 4 conventional 5 emerging 6 dimensions 7 mechanisms 8
potential 9 capability 10 physics

2
1 This robot can run faster than a human.
2 Nowadays cars need to have a driver but in the future they will be able to drive themselves
automatically.
3 Airships provide a more comfortable ride than aeroplanes.
4 Our new research project is looking at military aircraft, whereas the previous one looked at
ordinary passenger aircraft.
5 Designing aircraft powered by renewable energy is more challenging than designing cars.
6 This term Im taking three courses at the university, whereas last term I only did two.
7 This research centre has been very successful at designing satellites and it wants to get even
better at designing them.
8 So far no robots have been built that can run faster than humans but soon a company will do
it/achieve it.

3a
1 likelihood 2 roughly 3 Most 4 Hardly any 5 generally

3b
(Suggested answers)
1 In the future people will probably be able to travel between the UK and Australia in just a few hours.
2 Younger people usually learn to use technology faster than older people.
3 Machines can often work faster and more accurately than humans.
4 It is possible that robots with artificial intelligence will rule the world in the future.
5 People can find the idea of travelling into space too frightening.

4
1 caused the device explode caused the device to explode 2 metre litre 3 Ones problems
Such problems 4 for approving to approve 5 how works this device how this device works 6
take will take 7 those that 8 how the project will be expensive how expensive the project will
be 9 will would 10 truck vehicle

89
Module 10
Reading 1 pp. 152153

1ac
Students own answers

2a
1 They are on the same topic: (a common strategy for) persuading young children to eat healthy food.
2 A is less formal, more jaunty (some students may even correctly suggest that its more journalistic).
B is more academic, with long subject/objects.

2b
1 A iii; B iii
2 A i; B ii (Note that i is often the result of the application of ii; hence, ii is the main reason.)

3
1B 2A 3C

4
B (The quotation marks are a sign that the writer is distancing himself from the terms used because he
feels they are inappropriate.)

5a
Students own answers
5b
Choice A is the only other option that could possibly be a reason for using quotation marks.
Quotation marks are not (correctly) used for emphasis (as implied by C). They do not necessarily create
a more academic impression (choice D) because this impression depends upon the nature of the
material in quotation marks.

6
Students own answers

Academic vocabulary 1 p. 154

1a
1 reject 2 reinforce 3 so-called 4 supplement 5 levy 6 ongoing 7 reluctant 8 inclination 9
draw 10 portion

1b
1 supplementary 2 reluctance 3 inclination, supplementation 4 reinforcement 5 rejection 6 go
on 7 apportion 8 levy

1c
Opposites:
acceptance rejection
disinclination inclination/drawn (towards)
disinclined inclined/drawn (towards)

90
Synonyms:
additional supplementary
charge levy
continue go on
divide up apportion
strengthen reinforce

2
1 So-called, levy 2 reluctance/disinclination, portions 3 inclined 4 ongoing, supplementary 5
reinforcement 6 drawn, inclined 7 reject, reluctant 8 draw

3a
1 inclined/disinclined/reluctant 2 reluctance/ inclination/disinclination 3 reinforcement 4
drawn/inclined 5 draw 6 levy 7 ongoing 8 portions

3b
Students own answers

4a
mal- = bad or badly over- = too much
under- = too little

4b
1 meat that is not cooked enough
2 a restaurant that does not have enough workers
3 be charged too much by a shop
4 bad (i.e. improper or inappropriate) practice/ exercise of a profession (e.g. a doctor who causes
harm to his patients by treating them inappropriately or ineffectively)
5 think you are not capable of doing things that you actually can
6 the practice of eating too much
7 the state of being badly nourished
8 a child who is more active than he/she should be
9 a person who drives but is not old enough to do so legally
10 research that does not have enough funding

Speaking 1 p. 155

1
Students own answers

2a
1 /j/ 2 /w/ 3 /r/

2bc
Students own answers

2d
1 We need more ingredients. /r/
2 He needs to eat more nutritious food. /w/
3 In the end, its what people like to eat thats important. /j/, /w/
4 Supplementary energy sources are needed after exertion. /j/, /r/

91
3
/r/ after banana, sugar; /w/ after potato, tofu;
/j/ after coffee, tea

45
1 Theres a lot of sugar in many fast foods. (/r/)
2 Some people suggest a levy on junk food to discourage its consumption. (/j/)
3 There are ongoing problems with over-consumption of junk food. (/r/)
4 All too often, people over-eat without realising it. (/w/, /r/)
5 The media are to blame for excessive promotion of unhealthy food. (/r/, /r/)
6 By agreement with the government, the fast food company restricted its advertising. (/j/)
7 Academics need to go outside the university gates and communicate with ordinary people! (/w/)
8 People who carry on eating junk food may suffer negative health consequences. (/j/)

67
Students own answers

8
1 milk 2 (a) fork(s) 3 (a/the) kitchen 4 (a) vegetable(s) 5 water 6 teeth

Listening 1 p. 156

1ac
Students own answers

2a
C can probably be ruled out at this stage. This is because the option is about food safety and thus does
not relate to the topic. The other options could possibly relate to the topic of persuading children to eat
healthily.

2b
B

2c
A disagrees with the main point of the extract.
D There is no evidence for this. In fact, the lecture argues that the foods available in the home are
more likely to be chosen by children.

3a
D seems the least likely. The lecture isnt discussing whether or not to have meals together; its
discussing the effect of adults food preferences on children, so the other three options are closer to the
topic.

3b
C is the best ending.
A would have the opposite effect to that described.
B is incorrect because the topic of the last sentence of the recording is the parents, not the children.

4
D

92
(Suggested answers)
1 The talk is about why children tend to prefer energy-dense foods such as sugars. The final
sentence will give a reason for this. Option D is the only one that links the final sentence to the idea
of energy-rich foods such as sugars.
2 E has little to do with the topic of the talk, as indicated at the beginning (So how do children learn to
enjoy the food they eat?). Hence, it could probably be counted as unlikely early in the listening
process.
3 A: The lecture isnt discussing health benefits; its about why kids like energy-rich foods and makes
no judgement about health benefits.
B: Doctors does not relate to anything said in the lecture.
C: as with B, the naturalness of mothers milk is not discussed in the lecture.

6
Students own answers

Language development 1 p. 157

1
1 The relative clause defines or modifies which parents and other adults the speaker is talking about
(i.e. those who have a powerful influence on childrens food preferences). Students may also say
other adults.
2 Parents and other adults, who children have close contact with, have a powerful influence on
childrens food preferences.

2a
1 The students to whom the university cafeteria serves meals appreciate healthy food.
2 There are several places on campus to which students can go for healthy, nutritious food.
3 This equipment, for which the university paid a lot of money, should be used carefully.
4 The book about which he kept talking was actually not very interesting.
5 The article through which youll read in preparation for the next class shows some radical new
research.
6 The parents with whom the researchers spoke reported that they had taken their children to a fast
food restaurant an average of three times
in the previous week.

2b
(Suggested answers)
2 The place to which were going tomorrow has no facilities for food service.
The place which were going to tomorrow has no facilities for food service.
3 The room in which tomorrows lecture is taking place is a bit tricky to find.
The room which tomorrows lecture is taking place in is a bit tricky to find.
4 There are many restaurants at which our hospitality management instructor wants us to eat.
There are many restaurants which our hospitality management instructor wants us to eat at.
5 Its hard to find information about the area on which our lecturer wants us to write a report.
Its hard to find information about the area which our lecturer wants us to write a report on.
6 The people with whom we spoke during the research project all said they wanted to eat healthy
food.
The people who(m) we spoke with during the research project all said they wanted to eat healthy
food.
7 I didnt like the people with whom I studied last term.
I didnt like the people who I studied with last term.

93
2c
(Suggested answers)
1 The person with whom Ive talked most about the PTE Academic is the friend whom Im taking
the test with.
2 The room in which Ive studied most is my bedroom ...
3 The computer with which I do my homework is ...

3
No, its not normally used in statements in this tense. Its used here to show or emphasise contrast. If
spoken, it would be pronounced more strongly and clearly than the other words it would be stressed.

4a
2 ... do happily eat anything. 3 ... do manage, though. 4 ... does stand out. 5 ... did produce some
drinks that were more healthy. 6 ... did look at this relationship. 7 ... do (give this matter plenty of
attention) 8 ... do take responsibility for this. 9 ... did, however, look at this issue.

4b
Students own answers

Summary writing 1 p. 158

1
Students own answers

2a
Good to do: use abbreviations and acronyms, use symbols, focus on main ideas
Not good to do: write every detail (no time for this), write sentences (no time for this), write neatly (no
time to pay attention to this as long as you can read your own handwriting, of course!)
3a
Students own answers

3b
1 It causes hyperactivity/loss of concentration.
2 Uncommon. They were hard to find.
3 Significant.
4 Not very clear, due to the number of factors that could be influencing the results.

3c
Students own answers

4a
(Suggested answer)
Giving children sugary food is often thought to cause hyperactivity. However, there have been few
studies that investigate the link between food and childrens behaviour. One study did show that children
who ate more junk food performed significantly less well on maths and reading tests. However, the
results are inconclusive because factors other than food may have contributed to the result.

4b7
Students own answers

Listening 2 p. 159
94
1
1 Students own answers
2 A nutritionist researches nutrition, which is the scientific study of food, especially the food necessary
for good health.

2a
1 includes involves 2 approval satisfaction
3 faculties facilities 4 areas aspects
5 diverse different 6 primary main

2b
Similar stress pattern: 1 (includes, involves)
Similar initial sound: 3 (faculties, facilities),
Similar meaning: 2 (approval, satisfaction); 6 (primary, main)
A combination: 1 (similar stress pattern, initial syllable and meaning); 5 (similar initial sound and
meaning)

34
intriguing interesting: same number of syllables, similar meaning, though different stress pattern
chemicals chemistry: same number of syllables, different forms of same word, same stress pattern
responds reacts: same number of syllables, same initial sound, similar final sound (slightly different
consonant cluster), similar meaning
outcomes effects: same number of syllables, quite different pronunciation, similar meaning
connections associations: different number of syllables, same final syllable, similar meaning
part aspect: different number of syllables, same final sound (though different consonant cluster),
similar meaning in this context

5
Students own answers

Language development 2 p. 160

1
1 any 2 no matter which

2
(Suggested answers)
2 Whatever/No matter what sport students are interested in, the university has facilities (for it).
3 Students can visit the student support office whenever/no matter when they have a problem.
4 Whatever/No matter what aspect of science youre considering, it can be applied to nutrition.
5 Wherever/No matter where you live in the town, there are good transport links to the university.
6 Whoever/No matter who you chose to work with for your group project, you must try hard to work well
together as a team.
7 However/No matter how you complete the project, you should plan it carefully from the beginning.
8 However/No matter how old people are, they can enrol at this university.

3a
1 subject: Experts 2 verb: have suggested

3b

95
Experts have suggested [that the government would enjoy significant long-term benefits] [if it took steps
to address the rise in obesity] [that junk food is causing].
(Note: The last subordinate clause is a clause within a clause.)

3c
that ... benefits: a that clause which serves as the object of the main clause and as such, adds
information that completes the idea in the main clause
if ... obesity: a conditional if clause which adds more information to the that clause, explaining
under what conditions the government would enjoy long-term benefits
that junk ... causing: a defining relative clause that adds crucial information to obesity

4
1 which is near the centre of the country: a non-defining relative clause which adds extra information
about the location of the university;
that the university is easy to reach: a that clause which is the object of the main clause which
completes the idea in the main clause;
no matter where youre travelling from: a concession clause that comments on the whole sentence
2 The staff and students [who work and study at the university] are part of a world-class organisation
[that they are proud to belong to].
who work and study at the university: a defining relative clause that adds crucial information about
the staff and students (as such, it can be considered part of the subject, hence the underlining);
that they are proud to belong to: a defining relative clause that adds more information about the
organisation
3 Maccleton College was founded with the purpose of providing a quality education to all people, [no
matter how much money they have].
no matter how much money they have: a clause of concession that adds information about the
kind of people who can be provided with a quality education
4 The universitys science faculty, [which is the largest in the southern hemisphere], provides
undergraduate and postgraduate degrees to students from all over the world.
which is the largest in the southern hemisphere: a non-defining relative clause which adds extra
information about the subject (i.e. the universitys science faculty)
5 [Because accommodation in the city is limited], people [who are thinking about applying to this
university] are advised to consider [where they would live] [well before term starts].
Because accommodation in the city is limited: a clause of reason that provides a reason for the
statement in the main clause;
who are thinking about applying to this university: a defining relative clause that provides crucial
information about people (and as such, can be considered part of the subject, hence the
underlining);
where they would live: a noun clause that adds information about what people are advised to
consider;
well before term starts: a time clause that indicates when people should consider where they want
to live
6 Considerable work has been done by the university in recent years to improve efforts to look after
the welfare of its students, including increased provision for those [who are from financially insecure
backgrounds].
who are from financially insecure backgrounds: a defining relative clause that adds crucial
information to the pronoun those (which, in turn, relates back to the students whose welfare the
university has been trying to
improve)
7 [No matter who you are or where you are from,] the university guarantees [that you will be treated
fairly and equitably [by all staff with whom you come into contact.]

96
No matter who you are or where you are from: a clause of concession which adds information
about the type of people who will be treated fairly and equitably
by all staff with whom you come into contact: a noun clause which provides the agent for the verb
treated.
5
2 The reason (that) I decided to go there was that the course seemed much more interesting than
those at other universities.
3 (In order) to assist its students deal with problems they may encounter, the university offers
services that cover a wide range of areas (that) a student may need.
4 I read the universitys brochure, which claimed that the university is/was the biggest in the area that
has/had a faculty of medicine.
5 There are many sources of information that potential students can consult during the process of
deciding which university to attend.
6 Students should check the policies and procedures that apply to each department regarding how
assignments should be submitted.
7 If you choose to study hospitality management, you will have to undertake a varied and diverse
course, which involves a range of disciplines that gained highly positive feedback from former
students.

Academic vocabulary 2 p. 161

1
1 1 A UK; B US 2 A US; B UK 3 A US; B UK
2 1A course: a period of time spent studying at a university; options: subjects that students can
choose to study as part of their course; core requirements: the subjects that students have to
study as part of their course
1B major: someone studying a particular subject as their main subject at university; course: a
series of lessons on a particular subject; required courses: courses that students must take in
order to graduate; electives: courses that students can choose to take, although they do not
have to in order to graduate
2A assistant professor: the lowest rank of teacher at a university; faculty: all the teachers in a
university; Physics 101: a particular course (and an example of how courses are often
numbered at US universities); lecture course: a series of lectures (formal talks given to groups
of students) in a particular subject; semester: one of two periods that the university year is
divided into; graduate seminar: a university class for a small group of students, usually for
more advanced students and on a specialised subject
2B senior lecturer: a teacher at a university in a senior position; term: one of three periods that
the university year is divided into; Fundamentals of Physics: a particular course (and an
example of how courses may be named at a UK university); course: a series of classes or
lectures on a particular subject; department: a section of a university; faculty: a group of
departments which go together to make up one broad subject area; tutorial group: a group of
students who are taught or supervised by one particular teacher
3A advisor: a university teacher who advises an individual student about the university
requirements and may direct him/her to other help facilities that are available at the university;
full professor: a university teacher in a senior position; tutorial: a class with a teacher and small
group of students or a one-to-one session which can be booked with a tutorial service to give
individual help to a student
3B tutorial: a class with either just one student or a small number of students plus a teacher;
tutor: a teacher at a university
3 (Suggested answer)

97
similarities: there are a number of terms which are used in both countries, although
sometimes with a slightly different meaning (e.g. faculty, professor)
differences: job titles (e.g. professor in US English refers to any teacher at a university,
whereas in UK it is a title given to university teachers of the highest rank) terms for types of
course (e.g. courses you can choose to do are usually referred to as options in UK and
electives in US)

2
(Suggested answers)
Vocabulary: There are many differences, often in particular areas of vocabulary, such as words for
types of food or clothing or words to do with transport. Sometimes the same word can have different
meanings in UK and US English e.g. mean (UK English = not wanting to spend money; US English =
not kind). UK English is becoming more influenced by US vocabulary and meaning in many cases.
Australian English largely uses UK vocabulary and meaning but there are exceptions.
Spelling: Again, there are a number of differences. A number of words ending in -our in UK English end
-or in US English (e.g. colour/color, behaviour/ behavior). Some words ending -re in UK English end -er
in US English (e.g. centre/center). The ize suffix at the end of many verbs can also be spelt -ise in UK
English. There are also other differences with individual words.
Grammar: There are a number of small differences. Use of the past simple and present perfect is
sometimes different (e.g. UK: Ive already done it. US: I already did it.). Some irregular verbs are
different (e.g. UK: get-got-got; US get-got-gotten).
Pronunciation: There are a number of pronunciation differences, which are difficult to summarise,
especially because there are of course regional differences in both countries. US English lacks the short
vowel sound used in UK English in words like got, dog etc. In US English -r is pronounced in all
positions whereas in standard southern UK English, it is only pronounced before a vowel. There are
sometimes stress differences e.g. (UK:garage/ US garage).

3a
1 institution 2 mediation 3 unparalleled 4 facilities 5 administration 6 protocol

3b
1 administrative 2 mediate 3 mediator, administrator
(For item 3, students may also think of adding facilitator. This isnt included here because it is derived
from facilitate rather than facility.)

4
1 mediator 2 protocols 3 institution 4 administrative 5 facilities 6 unparalleled 7 mediation

Reading 2 p. 162

1
Students own answers

2
1 C, D 2 A, B, E 3 B, E 4 D 5 B, E

3
A (This is the only option that is supported by a verifiable, external piece of information. No indication is
given of how you can verify the other options, and theyre described quite subjectively anyway.)

98
4
A See answer key to Exercise 3 above.
B A claim is made but not supported (another university might have more than 20,000 students).
C Words do not verify that students will actually study and work alongside leaders and
practitioners (if the location alone gave this access, then other universities in the city would be
no different in this respect).
D The range of subjects is simply described as rich a subjective term with no means given to verify
it.

5a
The best answer is 1 (for potential applicants to see if the university is right for them), as long as they
read it critically.

5b
(Suggested answers)
2 old newspapers and other historical documents
3 internal sources/documents (ideally, not those designed to market the university)
4 university website section for current students (they would need more specific information than
here, e.g. what the subjects actually are)

6
Students own answers

Speaking 2 p. 163

14
Students own answers

5
Answers will vary. See the audio script for Track 107 for a suggested answer.

6
Students own answers

7
The talk is aimed at people who are not sure whether university is for them.

Summary writing 2 pp. 164165

12
Students own answers

3
(Suggested answer)
The talk is about student services that help people make the transition into student life.

46
Students own answers

7a

99
1 in order to 2 As 3 for

7b
4 N/NP, G 5 N/NP, G 6C 7G 8 BI 9C 10 N/NP, G 11 N/NP, G 12 N/NP, G 13 C 14 I

8
(Suggested answers)
1 ... in order to help students who get into financial difficulties.
2 ... so that you keep your mind and body working.
3 ... because they might need to use them.
4 Because of the need to keep teeth healthy, ...
5 One of the goals of the Student Services section is to ...
6 To avoid confusion later, ...

910
(Suggested answer)
In order to help its students, the university has a large number of student services, including medical,
counselling and sports facilities. The recreation centre caters for a wide range of physical activities.
Some activities can be carried out with an instructor to learn new skills and others can be done alone. It
is recommended that students take advantage of the facilities as staying fit can help with their studies.

Review p. 166

1
1 faculty 2 reluctant/disinclined 3 inclination 4 protocols 5 overweight 6 malnourished 7
ongoing 8 unparalleled 9 levy 10 reluctant/ disinclined

2
1 ... universities to which Ive applied.
2 The people with whom Ive spoken about ...
3 The place to which were going for ...
4 None of the people to whom Ive sent invitations for the ...
5 The equipment for which the university paid so much money has broken ...
6 The people with whom I studied in high
school ...
7 The university faculty in which the greatest number of students are enrolled ...
8 The lecture theatre in which we had literature lectures last term ...
9 The team our university played against last ...
10 The research participants the team worked with were ...

3ab
Students own answers

4
1 kampus campus 2 whatever what 3 order ensure order to ensure 4 did do 5
stronger strengthen 6 In view this In view of this 7 results which results of which 8 where
ever wherever

100