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∗

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1014; † Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, London SW7

2AZ, United Kingdom; and ‡ Centre for Integrated Systems Biology at Imperial College, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdomb;

Edited by José N. Onuchic, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, and approved August 27, 2008 (received for review May 14, 2008)

Many types of cells are able to accurately sense shallow gradients Here, we derive the fundamental limits of gradient sensing

of chemicals across their diameters, allowing the cells to move by using two models for cells: a perfectly absorbing sphere and

toward or away from chemical sources. This chemotactic ability a perfectly monitoring sphere. Within the theory, gradients are

relies on the remarkable capacity of cells to infer gradients from estimated by comparing the discrete positions of particles, either

particles randomly arriving at cell-surface receptors by diffusion. absorbed on the surface of the sphere or measured inside the

Whereas the physical limits of concentration sensing by cells have spherical volume, with the expected continuous distribution origi-

been explored, there is no theory for the physical limits of gradient nating from a particular gradient. We find that a perfectly absorb-

sensing. Here, we derive such a theory, using as models a perfectly ing sphere is superior to a perfectly monitoring sphere for sensing

absorbing sphere and a perfectly monitoring sphere, which, respec- both concentrations and gradients (Table 1), because previously

tively, infer gradients from the absorbed surface particle density observed particles are never remeasured. Quantitatively, our the-

or the positions of freely diffusing particles inside a spherical vol- ory (Fig. 1, solid curves) compares favorably with recent mea-

ume. We find that the perfectly absorbing sphere is superior to the surements of Dicty cells migrating to a cAMP-filled pipette (6),

perfectly monitoring sphere, both for concentration and gradient suggesting that the chemotactic ability of Dicty approaches the

sensing, because previously observed particles are never remea- fundamental limits set by diffusion.

sured. The superiority of the absorbing sphere helps explain the

presence at the surfaces of cells of signal-degrading enzymes, such Limits of Concentration Sensing

as PDE for cAMP in Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) and BAR1 In this section, we consider the limits of concentration sensing set

for mating factor α in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). by particle diffusion. Consider as a measurement device a spher-

Quantitatively, our theory compares favorably with recent mea- ical cell of radius a that can measure the local concentration of

surements of Dicty moving up a cAMP gradient, suggesting these a certain dissolved chemical. Such an idealized device may make

cells operate near the physical limits of gradient detection. measurements by using two different strategies: (i) The device

can either act as a perfectly absorbing sphere and record the num-

chemotaxis | receptors | noise ber of absorbed particles on its surface or (ii) act as a perfectly

monitoring sphere and count the number of particles inside its vol-

extremely high sensitivity. This is done either directly, by mea-

suring spatial gradients across the cell diameter, or indirectly, by

ume. In either case, from the number of particles, an estimate

of the chemical concentration can be obtained. However, these

estimates have an intrinsic uncertainty due to the randomness of

temporally sensing gradients while moving. In temporal sensing, a particle diffusion.

cell modifies its swimming behavior according to whether a chem-

ical concentration is rising or falling in time (1). This mode of Perfectly Absorbing Sphere. For the perfectly absorbing sphere the

sensing is typical of small, fast moving bacteria such as Escherichia uncertainty in measuring a background chemical concentration

coli, which can respond to changes in concentration as low as 3.2 c is straightforward to derive. At steady state, the average parti-

nM attractant aspartate (2). In contrast, direct spatial sensing is cle current impinging on the sphere is J = 4πDac, where D is

prevalent among larger, single-celled eukaryotic organisms such the chemical diffusion constant. The average number of particles

as the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) and the yeast absorbed in time T is N = 4πDacT. Because the particles are inde-

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3, 4). Dicty cells are able to sense a pendent, N is Poisson distributed, i.e., (δN)2 = N. Therefore,

concentration difference of only 1–5% across the cell (5), cor- the perfectly absorbing sphere has a concentration-measurement

responding to a difference in receptor occupancy between front uncertainty of

and back of only five receptors (6). Spatial sensing is also per- (δc)2 (δN)2 1

formed with high accuracy by cells of the immune system including = = . [1]

neutrophils and lymphocytes (7), as well as by growing synap- c2 N2 4πDacT

tic cells and tumor cells. While there has been great progress in

understanding the limits of concentration sensing and signaling Perfectly Monitoring Sphere. The perfectly monitoring sphere was

in bacteria such as E. coli (8–13), very little is know about the introduced by Berg and Purcell (8) as a parameter-free model

theoretical limits of direct gradient sensing by eukaryotic cells. for a cell that “perfectly” binds and releases all ligands that con-

In a recent set of experiments, van Haastert and Postma (6) tact its surface. To quantify the time a diffusing particle spends

measured the Chemotactic Index of Dicty cells in a cAMP gradi- in the cell’s vicinity and is therefore capable of being measured,

ent (Fig. 1, symbols). Chemotactic Index is defined as the distance Berg and Purcell treated the cell as a permeable sphere that infers

moved in the direction of the cAMP gradient divided by the the particle concentration by counting the number of particles N

total distance moved. To obtain the data in Fig. 1, van Haastert

and Postma used a pipette containing different concentrations of

cAMP. Diffusion of cAMP out of the pipette established a steady- Author contributions: R.G.E. and N.S.W. designed research, performed research, con-

state cAMP gradient, with magnitude a function of distance from tributed new analytic tools, analyzed data, and wrote the paper.

the pipette. Chemotaxis was observed for cells as far as 700 µm The authors declare no conflict of interest.

BIOPHYSICS

from a pipette filled with 10−4 M cAMP, corresponding to a mean This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.

concentration of 7 nM and a gradient of only 0.01 nM/µm. This § To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: wingreen@princeton.edu.

remarkable chemotactic ability raises the question – how closely This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/

does gradient sensing by Dicty cells compare with the fundamental 0804688105/DCSupplemental.

limits on gradient sensing set by diffusion? © 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA

www.pnas.org / cgi / doi / 10.1073 / pnas.0804688105 PNAS October 14 , 2008 vol. 105 no. 41 15749–15754

However, notice that the concentration-measurement uncer-

tainty of the perfectly absorbing sphere is actually smaller than

that of a perfectly monitoring sphere of the same size, because the

perfectly absorbing sphere removes particles from the environ-

ment, and hence does not measure the same particle more than

once.

Now consider the perfectly absorbing sphere and the perfectly moni-

toring sphere as devices for measuring the local gradient of a certain

dissolved chemical. In both cases, measurements of discrete par-

ticles can be compared with the expected continuous distribution

of particles originating from a particular gradient (Fig. 2A), and

hence, the gradient can be estimated. Here, we present, in brief, a

theoretical derivation of the intrinsic uncertainty of gradient sens-

ing [for details see supporting information (SI) Appendix (PDF)].

We find that the intrinsic uncertainty is independent of the actual

Fig. 1. Comparison between the Chemotactic Index determined by experi-

gradient present, and is always much smaller (by a factor of 7/60

ment (symbols and dashed lines) and our theory (solid curves). Chemotactic 12%) for the perfectly absorbing sphere.

Index is defined as the distance moved by a cell in the direction of a gradi-

ent divided by the total distance moved. Experimental data were obtained Perfectly Absorbing Sphere. The average particle current density j =

by van Haastert and Postma (6) from Dictyostelium discoideum cells migrat- −D∇c impinging on the surface of a perfectly absorbing sphere

ing toward pipettes containing four different cAMP concentrations, 0.1 µM of radius a at steady state follows from the diffusion equation,

(squares), 1 µM (triangles), 10 µM (diamonds), 100 µM (circles). The theoret-

∇ 2 c = 0, and is given in polar coordinates by

ical curves were obtained for a perfectly absorbing sphere by using a single

fitting parameter Da3 T = 1.2 · 105 µm5 , corresponding to, e.g., a cAMP diffu-

sion constant of D = 300 µm2 /s, a cell radius of a = 5 µm, and an averaging Dc0

time T = 3.2 s, using the gradient profiles from ref. 6 and the Chemotac- j(θ, φ) = + 3Dcr · e(θ, φ), [4]

tic Index from Eq. 21. Experimentally, the Chemotactic Index only reaches

a

approximately 0.9 at zero distance, so we rescale our theory curves by 0.9.

2

(Inset) Chemotactic Index as a function of (cz0 ) /c0 in units of nM/(µm)2 , where c0 is a constant background concentration, cr is the back-

0

where cz and c0 are the gradient and concentration, respectively. ground gradient, and e(θ, φ) = (cos φ sin θ, sin φ sin θ, cos θ ) is a

unit vector normal to the surface of the sphere (see Fig. 2A). To

best estimate the chemical gradient from an observed discrete den-

sity of particles absorbed at the surface of the sphere during time

inside its volume, and improves accuracy by averaging over sev-

T (Fig. 2B), fit the observed density σTobs = N r −ri ), where N

i=1 δ(

eral statistically independent measurements. A simple estimate is the total number of absorbed particles, to the expected density

for the resulting uncertainty in concentration can be obtained as j(θ, φ)T from Eq. 4. Because the estimates of the components of

follows: the number N is Poisson distributed and the cell counts the gradient in the x, y, and z directions are independent, without

appoximately N = a3 c particles in its volume at any time. During loss of generality, we consider only the gradient estimate in the

a time T, the cell can make Nmeas = T/(a2 /D) independent mea- z direction, i.e., cz = ∂c/∂z, and later generalize to an arbitrary

surements, where a2 /D is the typical turnover time for particles gradient. From the best fit, the estimate for the gradient in the

inside the sphere, leading to z direction after absorption of particles for a time T is given by

(δc)2 (δN)2 1 1 N

= = ≈ . [2] σTobs cos θ dA

c2 N2 Nmeas N DacT i=1 cos θi

cz = 2

= , [5]

4πDa T 4πDa2 T

Berg and Purcell (8) derived the exact concentration-

measurement uncertainty for a perfectly monitoring sphere (“per- where θi is the polar angle of the ith absorbed particle. We are inter-

fect instrument”) from the time correlations of particles inside the ested in the uncertainty (accuracy) of the gradient measurement,

sphere, and obtained which is given by the variance

(δc)2 3 2

= , [3] (δcz )2 = c2z − cz

c2 5πDacT

2

N N N N

i=1 cos θi +

2

which is identical to the estimate in Eq. 2 up to a numerical i=1 i =j cos θi cos θj i=1 cos θi

prefactor. = −

(4π Da2 T)2 (4π Da2 T)2

(δc)2 1 3 12

Concentration: (8) = 2.4

c02 4πDac0 T 5π Dac0 T 5

(δcr )2 1 15 60

Gradient: ≈ 8.6

(c0 /a)2 4πDac0 T 7π Dac0 T 7

N

i=1 cos2 θi Ncos2 θ c0

= = = . [6]

(4πDa2 T)2 2

(4πDa T) 2 12π Da3 T

The derivation of Eq. 6 made use of the independence of the parti-

N

cles to factorize the expectation value as N

i=1 i=j cos θi cos θj =

N(N − 1)cos θ2 = N2 cos θ 2 , because the number of

absorbed particles N is Poisson distributed. We also used N =

4πDac0 T, as well as cos2 θ = 1/3. (The relation cos2 θi =

cos2 θ for absorbed particles holds even in the presence of a

true gradient in the z direction because the gradient-weighted

contribution cos3 θ is zero.)

In three dimensions, the total uncertainty of the gradient,

normalized by c0 /a, is given by

(δcr )2 3(δcz )2 1

= = , [7]

(c0 /a)2 (c0 /a)2 4πDac0 T

with the factor of 3 arising because each component of the gradi-

ent contributes independently to the total uncertainty. This result

for the uncertainty in gradient sensing is independent of the mag-

nitude of the actual gradient present, including the case when

no actual gradient is present. Curiously, the result is numerically

identical to the concentration-measurement uncertainty (Eq. 1).

analysis of the perfectly monitoring sphere (“perfect instrument”)

to include gradient sensing. Specifically, we assume that the moni-

toring sphere measures not only the number, but also the positions

of all particles in its volume (Fig. 2C). The best estimate of the

gradient is obtained by fitting a concentration gradient with a

c = c0 + cr · r to the observed time-averaged number density

T

1

dtρobs (t) = T1 dt N r − ri (t)), obtained by measuring the

i=1 δ(

exact positions of all the particles inside the volume of the sphere

for a time T. As above we focus on one component of the gradi-

ent, namely the gradient in the z direction cz , and obtain as a best

estimate

1

dt dV z ρobs (t)

cz = T , [8]

dV z2

where the integral dV is over the volume of the sphere. We are

interested in the variance of this estimated gradient

(δcz )2 = c2z − cz 2 [9]

2

15

= m2z,T − mz,T 2 ,

4πa5

where we have used dVz2 = 4πa5 /15 and have defined

1

mz,T = dt dV z ρobs (t), [10]

T Fig. 2. Idealized models for gradient sensing by a cell. The gradient points

along the z axis, which is shown horizontally. (A) Continuum model for a

namely, mz,T is the time-averaged total z coordinate of particles perfectly absorbing sphere. The mean particle current density j(θ) imping-

inside the sphere. The expectation values in Eq. 9 are therefore ing on the sphere has axial symmetry; θ measures the angle with respect to

given by the z axis. At steady state, the particle concentration c is zero immediately

2
outside the perfectly absorbing sphere, as shown schematically by the red

2 1 curve superposed on the dotted background gradient. (B) Discrete particle

mz,T = 2 dt dV z ρobs (t) [11] model for the perfectly absorbing sphere. From the number and positions

T

of particles absorbed during time T , the background particle concentration

T T

1 and gradient can be estimated. (C) Perfectly monitoring sphere. Particles dif-

= 2 dt dt mz (t)mz (t ), fuse in and out of the sphere without resistance. By monitoring, for a time

T 0 0

T , the number and positions of particles inside the sphere, the background

1 concentration and gradient can be estimated.

mz,T = dt dV z ρobs (t)

T

BIOPHYSICS

1 T

= dtmz (t), consider the sphere embedded inside a much larger volume con-

T 0

taining a total of M particles. Then, mz (t) = M i=1 zi (t), where zi

where the quantity mz (t) is the total of the z coordinates of all is the z coordinate of particle i if this particle is inside the sphere

the particles inside the sphere at time t. To calculate mz (t), we and is zero otherwise. On average there will be N = 43 π a3 c0

Endres and Wingreen PNAS October 14 , 2008 vol. 105 no. 41 15751

particles inside the sphere at any time t. The auto correlation func- Now, consider the contribution from an additional gradient with

tion mz (t)mz (t ) of particles inside the sphere at time t and time zero mean over the volume of the sphere. We need to perform the

t can consequently be calculated as integrals over a non uniform distribution in Eq. 17. Because a gra-

M M
dient along the z axis

π contributes a factor cos θ, which leads to the

vanishing integral 0 sin θ cos3 θdθ = 0, we conclude that only the

mz (t)mz (t ) = zi (t)zj (t ) constant background contributes to the uncertainty in the gradient

i=1 j=1 measurement. Therefore, Eq. 19 for τz remains true even when an

4 actual gradient is present.

= π a3 c0 u(t − t ) + mz (t)2 , [12] The result for τz in Eq. 19 can be used in Eq. 14 to obtain the

3

normalized uncertainty of gradient measurement by the perfectly

where we have defined u(t − t ) = z(t)z(t ) for a single particle. monitoring sphere

Substituting Eqs. 11 and 12 into Eq. 9 results in

(δcr )2 3(δcz )2 15

T T = = , [20]

75c0 (c0 /a) 2 (c0 /a)2 7πDac0 T

(δcz )2 = dt dt u0 (t − t ). [13]

4πa7 T 2 0 0

where all three components of the gradient contribute indepen-

∞

By defining a correlation time τz = (1/a2 ) 0 dτ u(τ ) for the dently. Hence, the perfectly monitoring sphere is not only inferior

coordinate z(t), the double time integral in Eq. 13 can be sim- to the perfectly absorbing sphere for concentration sensing by a

plified, provided the time T is much larger than τz . By using factor of 12/5 in variance (cf. Eqs. 1 and 3), but is also inferior by

time-reversal symmetry u(τ ) = u(−τ ) for equilibrium diffusion an even larger factor of 60/7 for gradient sensing (cf. Eq. 7).

(assuming small gradients), the variance simplifies to Comparison with Experiment

75c0 τz Van Haastert and Postma (6) recently measured the Chemotac-

(δcz )2 = . [14] tic Index of Dicty cells in a cAMP gradient (6) (Fig. 1, symbols).

2π a5 T

They used a pipette containing different concentrations of cAMP

The remaining task is to calculate τz , the probability that a par- to establish a distance-dependent steady-state cAMP gradients.

ticle with coordinate z inside the sphere at time t = 0 is still (or The Chemotactic Index was defined as the distance moved by the

again) inside the sphere at a later time τ . We first consider the case cell in the direction of the cAMP gradient divided by the total dis-

in which the background chemical concentration is uniform, and tance moved. How does the observed chemotactic ability of Dicty

later consider the presence of an actual gradient. Based on the compare with the fundamental limits on gradient sensing set by

solution of the diffusion equation in three dimensions, if a unit diffusion? To facilitate comparison with the results of van Haastert

amount of chemical is released at point r , the concentration at and Postma (6), we have calculated the optimal Chemotactic Index

point r at a later time τ is given by for a cell acting as a perfectly absorbing sphere.

To obtain the optimal Chemotactic Index CI, we assume that

−r |2

exp − |r4Dτ after averaging for a time T, a cell moves at a constant velocity

f (|r − r |, τ ) = 3

. [15] in the direction of the estimated gradient. If we take the actual

(4πDτ ) 2 gradient to point in the z direction, then the chemotactic index for

one run i is simply cos θi , where θi is the angle between the true

By using the result for the time integral from ref. 8, gradient and the estimated gradient. If the velocity and run time

∞ are the same for each run, leading to a constant run length l, then

1

dτ f (|r − r |, τ ) = , [16] the average Chemotactic Index is given by

0 4πD|r − r | N

i lz l Ni cos θi

the correlation time τz can be expressed as a volume inte- CI = N = = cos θi . [21]

i l

Nl

gral over the sphere (the initial coordinate r is uniform in

the sphere because we assume a uniform background chemical To evaluate cos θi for a perfectly absorbing sphere, we use our

concentration) result (Eq. 7) for the variance of the estimated gradient in each

∞ direction, e.g., (δcx,y,z )2 = c0 /(12πDa3 T). Assuming a Gaussian

1

τz = 4 dτ dV z dV z f (|r − r |, τ ) distribution with these variances, as well as an actual gradient with

3

π a5 0 mean value c0z in the z direction, the two-dimensional distribution

of estimated gradients cr = (cx , cz ) is given by

3 z

= dV z dV 2

2

16π Da 5 |r − r | 1

Pc0 (cx , cz ) =

2 2 0

e−cx 2σx − cz −cz 2σz2

, [22]

3 z 2πσx σz

= dV zψ(r, θ ), [17]

16π 2 Da5

where σx,z = (δcx,z )2 . From this distribution, we can obtain the

where r = |r |. The function optimal Chemotactic Index

z r cos θ

ψ(r, θ) = dV = dV [18] CI = cos θ = cz c2x + c2z

|r − r | |r − r |

is analogous to the potential of a charge density in electrostatics, πy −y

= e [I0 (y) + I1 (y)], [23]

specifically the charge density ρ(z ) = z = ρ(r , θ ) = r cos θ 2

for r ≤ a and ρ(r ) = 0 for r > a. To solve the final inte-

gral in Eq. 17, we perform a multipole expansion of ψ(r, θ) in where y = (c0z )2 /(4σz2 ) and I0(1) is the first (second)-order modi-

terms of Legendre polynomials Pl (cos θ ), exploiting the rotational fied Bessel function of the first kind. Fig. 1 shows a comparison of

symmetry of ψ(r, θ ) about the z axis (14), leading to the optimal CI (solid curves) with the data of ref. 6. Importantly,

the comparison relies on only a single global fitting parameter

2a2 representing gradient-sensing ability, namely, the product Da3 T,

τz = . [19] where D is the diffusion constant, a is the cell diameter, and T is

105D

the averaging time. Based on the estimates D = 300µm2 /s and phosphodiesterase (PDE), which degrade external cAMP (19–

a = 5µm (6), the averaging time is predicted to be about T = 3.2 21). One form is membrane-bound (mPDE) and effectively turns

s. (The perfect-monitor model yields an identical curve, but with Dicty into an absorber, whereas the other form is soluble (ePDE).

a longer inferred averaging time T = 27.5 s.) The theory for the The membrane-bound form mPDE only accumulates during cell

optimal Chemotactic Index matches the experiment rather well. aggregration, supporting the idea that degradation of cAMP at

Eq. 23 further predicts that the Chemotactic Index depends on the membrane helps accurate gradient sensing and navigation.

the gradient c0z and the concentration c0 only through the com- Indeed, cells lacking mPDE display cell-autonomous chemotaxis

bination (c0z )2 /c0 (Fig. 1 Inset). Intuitively, (c0z )2 /c0 measures defects even in mixed aggregates with isogenic wild-type cells (21).

the signal-to-noise ratio—the signal is proportional to the true Interestingly, there is good evidence that Dicty cells do carry out

gradient

√ |c0z |, whereas the noise from particle diffusion scales as G protein-coupled receptor-mediated endocytosis of folic acid,

c0 . More generally, the optimal Chemotactic Index depends on another major Dicty chemoattractant (22). (ii) In budding yeast,

all variables only through the combination (c0z )2 Da3 T/c0 . More- the receptor Ste2 binds α-factor pheromone, initiating a mating

over, the theory predicts the full distribution of run angles (see response including directed growth (“shmooing”) toward a poten-

SI Appendix, Fig. S1 Inset), which can be obtained by integrating tial mating partner. Ligand-bound Ste2 undergoes internalization

Eq. 22 in the radial direction for each angle θ . by endocytosis (23). Furthermore, the protease Bar1 degrades

α-pheromone externally (24, 25), and may be largely membrane

associated (26). (iii) There are many examples of ligand–receptor

Discussion internalization in developmental biology. For example, primordial

Many types of cells are known to measure spatial chemical gra- germ cells in zebrafish migrate toward the chemokine SDF-1a that

dients directly with high accuracy. In particular, D. discoideum activates the receptor CXCR4b. Ligand-induced CXCR4b inter-

(Dicty) is well known to measure extremely shallow cAMP gradi- nalization is required for precise arrival of germ cells at their target

ents important for fruiting body formation (3, 5, 6) and S. cerevisiae destination (27). These examples suggest a correlation between

(budding yeast) detects shallow gradients of α mating pheromone ligand internalization/degradation and the accuracy of cell polar-

(15). Accurate spatial sensing is also performed by cells of the ization and movement. In presenting these admittedly speculative

immune system including neutrophils and lymphocytes (7). The examples, our hope is to raise interest, across fields, in how the

question arises: What are the fundamental limits of gradient sens- constraints of gradient sensing accuracy may have shaped cellular

ing set by chemical diffusion? Here, we derived such limits by using sensing systems.

as model cells a perfectly absorbing sphere and a perfectly mon- Although the absorption of ligands can improve gradient sens-

itoring sphere (8). Within the theory, gradients are estimated by ing, there is an inherent problem for an absorbing cell to measure a

comparing the discrete distribution of observed locations of par- gradient while moving. An absorbing cell moving in a uniform con-

ticles, either absorbed on the surface of the sphere (Fig. 2B) or centration creates an apparent gradient because of an increased

measured inside the sphere (Fig. 2C), with the expected continu- flux of incoming particles at its front and a decreased flux of parti-

ous distribution originating from a gradient (Fig. 2A). We find that cles at its back (8). By using the model of a spherical cell, the ratio

a perfectly absorbing sphere is superior to a perfectly monitoring of fluxes between front and back hemispheres is given by

sphere for concentration and gradient sensing by respective factors

3av0

of 12/5 (= 2.4) and 60/7 (≈ 8.6) (Table 1), because the perfectly R=1+ , [24]

absorbing sphere prevents rebinding of already measured parti- D

cles. Indeed, the results presented here for the perfectly absorbing where v0 is the cell velocity, a is the cell radius, and D is the particle

sphere represent the true fundamental limits of both concentra- diffusion constant. On the other hand, the flux ratio of a sta-

tion and gradient sensing by cells. Our theory for the limits of tionary spherical cell in a gradient |∇c| with uniform background

gradient sensing compares favorably with recent measurements by concentration background c0 is given by

van Haastert and Postma (6) of Dicty cells migrating to a cAMP-

filled pipette (Fig. 1), suggesting that Dicty chemotaxis approaches

3a|∇c|

the fundamental limits set by cAMP diffusion. R=1+ . [25]

c0

The marked superiority of the perfect absorber for concentra-

tion and gradient sensing leads us to conjecture that cells may Hence, a moving cell sees an apparent gradient

have developed mechanisms to absorb ligands so as to prevent v0 c0

their rebinding. Such absorption could be implemented by ligand =

|∇c| . [26]

or ligand–receptor internalization or by degradation of bound lig- D

ands. Even degradation of ligands without measurement could As an example, chemotaxis of Dicty to cAMP is observed at a mean

be advantageous. For example, a perfect absorber that measures concentration of 7 nM in a gradient of only 0.01 nM/µm (6). A

only a fraction f of incident particles has the same uncertain- Dicty cell moving with a typical speed of 0.2 µm/s at the same mean

ties given in Table 1 but with an effective measurement time concentration but without a gradient creates an apparent gradi-

Teff = fT. Such an absorbing cell that measures only 12% of ent of about half the real gradient. There are several ways out of

absorbed particles can still measure gradients as accurately as this dilemma. (i) Cells could separate measurement from move-

a perfectly monitoring sphere. Similarly, an absorbing sphere ment at low gradients, e.g., by stopping, measuring the gradient,

of radius a with two small measurement patches at its poles of and then moving. Dicty would only need to stop for approximately

radius s (s a), i.e., with a measuring surface-area fraction a2 /D ≈ 0.1 s based on cell radius of a = 5 µm and diffusion con-

s2 /(2a2 ), effectively reduces the averaging time for pole-to-pole stant D = 300 µm2 /s. (ii) Cells could sense gradients transverse

gradients to 3s2 T/(2a2 ) (SI Appendix). Consequently, a measur- to their direction of motion. This is particularly advantageous for

ing surface fraction as small as 4% yields the same uncertainty as fast–moving cells (e.g., bacteria) for which the apparent gradi-

the monitoring sphere. ent can become >100 times steeper than the actual gradient (8).

In fact, there are numerous examples in biology of ligand– (Indeed, the oxygen-sensing marine bacterium Thiovulum majus

BIOPHYSICS

receptor internalization (16) and ligand degradation on cell sur- directly senses gradients transverse to its direction of motion (29).)

faces, which we speculate might be related to gradient sensing. Interestingly, Dicty cells moving on agar in the absence of a gra-

(i) Although many G protein-coupled receptors are internalized dient appear to combine these two strategies. Qualitatively, the

by endocytosis (17), the cAMP receptor cAR1 in Dicty is not tips of elongated moving cells slow down and flatten, often pro-

(18). However, Dicty produces two forms of cyclic nucleotide ducing two or more distinct pseudopods. Cells then elongate and

Endres and Wingreen PNAS October 14 , 2008 vol. 105 no. 41 15753

move (approximately one cell length) in the direction of one of A number of mechanistic models for gradient sensing and chemo-

the pseudopods before the process is repeated (Liang Li and Ted taxis have addressed the important questions of cell polariza-

Cox, personal communication). By this strategy, Dicty may avoid tion, signal amplification, and adaptation (30–36), cell move-

locking onto a false, movement-generated gradient. (iii) In prin- ment of individual cells (37, 38), cell aggregation with cAMP

ciple, cells could compensate for the apparent motion-generated degradation by PDE (39), as well as sensing of fluctuating con-

gradient, either by internal signal processing or by external chem- centrations (10, 40, 41). Our results on the fundamental limits

ical secretion. In fact, Dicty cells do secrete cAMP, primarily from of gradient sensing complement these models, and may ulti-

their trailing edge during movement (4), but this cAMP secretion mately help lead to a comprehensive description of eukaryotic

serves dominantly to facilitate cell aggregation, including cells fol- chemotaxis (42).

lowing cells during streaming. Given the complex role of cAMP Finally, we remark that the experiments by van Haastert and

in Dicty aggregation, studies of Dicty chemotaxis using gradients Postma used stationary spatial gradients (6). Cells in such gra-

of folate, which is absorbed (22) but apparently not secreted by dients might profit from remembering their direction of motion

Dicty, may ultimately prove simpler to interpret. (43), and evidence for such internal memory was recently obtained

Our models of the absorbing and the monitoring spheres neglect (28, 44, 45). It therefore might prove interesting to measure the

all biochemical reactions, such as particle–receptor binding and chemotactic index for randomly changing gradients, to find out

downstream signaling, which could significantly increase measure- whether cells indeed use their memory to improve chemotaxis.

ment uncertainty beyond the fundamental limits described here.

To study the effects of particle–receptor binding, we extended a ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Naama Barkai, John Bonner, Rob Cooper,

formalism for the uncertainty of concentration sensing, recently Ted Cox, Liang Li, Trudi Schupbach, Stanislas Shvartsman, and Monika Skoge

developed by Bialek and Setayeshgar (10), to gradient sensing. We for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by the Human Frontier

Science Program. R.G.E. was supported by Biotechnological and Biological

found that the measurement uncertainty allowing ligand rebind- Sciences Research Council Grant BB/G000131/1 and the Centre for Integrated

ing is larger than the measurement uncertainty without rebind- Systems Biology at Imperial College. N.S.W. was supported by National Science

ing, confirming the superiority of the absorber over the monitor. Foundation Grant PHY-065017.

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