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Sinyal diskrit standar

Beberapa sinyal standar yang akan dibahas dalam buku ini adalah unit step, unit impulse,
unit ramp dan complex exponential.
Sinyal unit step adalah sinyal yang bernilai tetap, yaitu satu untuk semua nilai waktu yang
positif dan nol. Secara matematis, sinyal ini ditulis sebagai:
1, untuk n 0
u(n) = {
0, untuk n < 0
Berikut, gambar yang menunjukkan sinyal unit step

Gambar 1.6 Sinyal unit step untuk sistem diskrit

Kita menggunakan sinyal ini untuk menunjukkan sinyal DC (bisa tegangan maupun arus).
Selain itu, kita bisa menggunakannya untuk menunjukkan bahwa sebuah sinyal dimulai dari n = 0.
Untuk menunjukkan hal ini, sinyal tersebut harus dikalikan dengan sinyal unit step. Sebagai contoh,
sinyal y(n) akan dimulai dari n = 0, maka ditulis y(n) = u(n).sin(3n). Hal ini bararti sinyal y(n) dimulai
saat n = 0. Untuk n<0, y(n) tidak ada.
The unit step function is level in all places except for a discontinuity at t = 0. For this reason,
the derivative of the unit step function is 0 at all points t, except where t = 0. Where t = 0, the
derivative of the unit step function is infinite. The derivative of a unit step function is called an impulse
function.
In electronic engineering and control theory, step response is the time behaviour of the
outputs of a general system when its inputs change from zero to one in a very short time. The
concept can be extended to the abstract mathematical notion of a dynamical system using an
evolution parameter (Wikipedia).
Sinyal unit impulse adalah sebuah sinyal yang bernilai satu pada saat n = 0 dan untuk n
selain nol nilainya nol. Sinyal ini ditulis sebagai (n) dan ini dipakai sebagai notasi yang
menunjukkan sinyal tersebut. Secara matematis, sinyal ini ditulis sebagai:
1, untuk n=0
(n)= {
0, untuk n0
Berikut, gambar yang menunjukkan sinyal unit impulse

Gambar 1.7 Sinyal unit impulse untuk sistem diskrit

Sinyal unit step dan unit impulse ternyata berhubungan satu sama lain. Hal ini dapat ditunjukkan
dengan persamaan berikut:

() = ( )
=0
() = () ( 1)
An impulse function is a special function that is often used by engineers to model certain
events. An impulse function is not realizable, in that by definition the output of an impulse function
is infinity at certain values. An impulse function is also known as a "delta function", although there
are different types of delta functions that each have slightly different properties. Specifically, this
unit-impulse function is known as the Dirac delta function. The term "Impulse Function" is
unambiguous, because there is only one definition of the term "Impulse".
One of the more useful functions in the study of linear systems is the "unit impulse function."
An ideal impulse function is a function that is zero everywhere but at the origin, where it is infinitely
high. However, the area of the impulse is finite. The unit impulse function has zero width, infinite
height and an integral (area) of one. We plot it as an arrow with the height of the arrow showing the
area of the impulse.
In signal processing, the impulse response, or impulse response function (IRF), of a dynamic
system is its output when presented with a brief input signal, called an impulse. More generally, an
impulse response is the reaction of any dynamic system in response to some external change. In
both cases, the impulse response describes the reaction of the system as a function of time (or
possibly as a function of some other independent variable that parameterizes the dynamic behavior
of the system) (Wikipedia).
Sinyal ramp adalah sinyal yang bernilai sama dengan waktunya, sinyal ramp dinyatakan
sebagai:
Ramp(n)=n, untuk n>=0

Gambar 1.8 Siyal Ramp untuk sistem diskrit

In other words, the integral of a unit step is a "ramp" function. This function is 0 for all values that
are less than zero, and becomes a straight line at zero with a slope of +1.

The ramp function is a unary real function, whose graph is shaped like a ramp. It can be
expressed by numerous definitions, for example "0 for negative inputs, output equals input for non-
negative inputs". The term "ramp" can also be used for other functions obtained by scaling and
shifting, and the function in this article is the unit ramp function (slope 1, starting at 0). This function
has numerous applications in mathematics and engineering, and goes by various names, depending
on the context. The ramp function has numerous applications in engineering, e.g., in the theory of
DSP. In electrical engineering, half-wave rectification converting alternating current to direct
current by passing positive voltages and blocking negative voltages corresponds to the ramp
function. In artificial neural networks, when the ramp function is used as an activation function, it is
known as a rectifier, by analogy with the electrical rectifier (Wikipedia).