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D
Properties of Plane Areas

Notation: A  area
x, y  distances to centroid C
Ix, Iy  moments of inertia with respect to the x and y axes,
respectively
Ixy  product of inertia with respect to the x and y axes
IP  Ix  Iy  polar moment of inertia with respect to the origin of
the x and y axes
IBB  moment of inertia with respect to axis B-B

1 y Rectangle (Origin of axes at centroid)

b h
x A  bh x  2 y  
2
h C x
y bh3 hb3 bh
Ix   Iy   Ixy  0 IP   (h2  b2)
12 12 12
b

2 y B Rectangle (Origin of axes at corner)

bh3 hb3 b2h2 bh
Ix   Iy   Ixy   IP   (h2 + b2)
3 3 4 3
h
b3h3
O IBB   
x 6(b2  h2)
B b

3 y Triangle (Origin of axes at centroid)

c
bh bc h
A   x   y  
x 2 3 3
h
C y x bh3 bh
Ix   Iy   (b2  bc  c2)
36 36
b
bh2 bh
Ixy   (b  2c) IP   (h2  b2  bc  c2)
72 36

D1

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4 y Triangle (Origin of axes at vertex)

c
B B bh3 bh
Ix   Iy   (3b2  3bc  c2)
h
12 12
bh2 bh3
O x Ixy   (3b  2c) IBB  
b 24 4

5 y Isosceles triangle (Origin of axes at centroid)

bh b h
A   x   y  
x 2 2 3
h
C x bh3 hb3
y Ix   Iy   Ixy  0
B B 36 48
b bh bh3
IP   (4h2  3b2) IBB  
144 12
(Note: For an equilateral triangle, h  3 b/2.)
6 y Right triangle (Origin of axes at centroid)
bh b h
x A   x  3 y  3
h 2
C y x bh3 hb3 b2h2
B B Ix   Iy   Ixy   
36 36 72
b
bh bh3
IP   (h2  b2) IBB  
36 12
7 y Right triangle (Origin of axes at vertex)
B B
bh3 hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
12 12 24
h
bh bh3
IP   (h2  b2) IBB  
x
12 4
O
b

8 y Trapezoid (Origin of axes at centroid)

a
h(a  b) h(2a  b)
A   y   
2 3(a  b)
h x
C y h3(a2  4ab  b2) h3(3a  b)
I  
B x
IBB  
B 36(a  b) 12
b

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9 y Circle (Origin of axes at center)

d = 2r
pd2 pr 4 pd 4
A  pr 2   Ix  Iy    
r 4 4 64
C x
pr4 pd4 5p r 4 5p d 4
Ixy  0 IP     IBB      
B B 2 32 4 64
10 y Semicircle (Origin of axes at centroid)
pr2 4r
A   y  
r C 2 3p
y x
B B (9p 2  64)r 4 p r4 pr4
Ix   0.1098r4 Iy    Ixy  0 IBB   
72p 8 8
11 y Quarter circle (Origin of axes at center of circle)
pr2 4r
A   x  y  
x 4 3p
B B
C pr4 r4 (9p 2  64)r 4
y Ix  Iy    Ixy   IBB   0.05488r4
O x 16 8 144p
r

12 y Quarter-circular spandrel (Origin of axes at point of tangency)

B B
(10  3p)r

r p 2r
A  1   r 2 x    0.7766r y    0.2234r
x 4 3(4  p) 3(4  p)

O
C y
x 5p
16
Ix  1   r 4 0.01825r 4
1
p

Iy  IBB     r 4 0.1370r4
3 16

13 y Circular sector (Origin of axes at center of circle)

x x
a  angle in radians (a  p/2)
2r sin a
C A  ar 2 x  r sin a y   
3a
a a
y r r4 r4 ar 4
Ix   (a  sin a cos a) Iy   (a  sin a cos a) Ixy  0 IP  
O x 4 4 2

14 y Circular segment (Origin of axes at center of circle)

a  angle in radians (a  p/2)
C

y a a
r
A  r 2(a  sin a cos a)
2r

y  3 
sin3 a

a  sin a cos a
x r4
O Ix   (a  sin a cos a  2 sin3 a cos a) Ixy  0
4
r4
Iy  (3a  3 sin a cos a  2 sin3 a cos a)
12

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D4 APPENDIX D Properties of Plane Areas

y
15 a Circle with core removed (Origin of axes at center of circle)
a  angle in radians (a  p/2)

r a
b a
a  arccos 
r
b 
r 2  a2 ab
A  2r 2 a  
r2
C x
a
b
r4
6 3ab
Ix   3a  
r
2ab3
2  
r4 r4
ab
Iy   a  
2 r
2ab3
2  
r4 Ixy  0

2a

16 y Ellipse (Origin of axes at centroid)

pa b 3 p ba3
b A  pab I x   Iy  
4 4
C x
b pab
Ixy  0 IP   (b2  a2)
4
a a
Circumference p [1.5(a  b)  ab ] (a/3  b  a)
4.17b /a  4a
2
(0  b  a/3)
17 y Parabolic semisegment (Origin of axes at corner)
Vertex

x
y = f (x)
x2
y  f (x)  h 1  
b2
h
C y 2 bh 3b 2h
A   x   y  
x 3 8 5
O b
16bh3 2hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
105 15 12
18 y Parabolic spandrel (Origin of axes at vertex)
y = f (x)
hx2
x y  f (x)  
h b2
Vertex
C y bh 3b 3h
O x A  3 x  
4 y  1
0
b
bh3 hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
21 5 12
19 y Semisegment of nth degree (Origin of axes at corner)
y = f (x)
x xn
y  f (x)  h 1  
bn (n  0)
h
C
y
x
n
A  bh 
n1 b(n  1)
x   
2(n  2)
y  
hn
2n  1
O
b 2bh3n3 hb3n b2h2n2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
(n  1)(2n  1)(3n  1) 3(n  3) 4(n  1)(n  2)

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20 y Spandrel of nth degree (Origin of axes at point of tangency)

y = f (x) hx n
y  f (x)   (n  0)
bn
x h
bh b(n  1) h(n  1)
A   x   y  
C y n1 n2 2(2n  1)
O x
b bh3 hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
3(3n  1) n3 4(n  1)
y
21 Sine wave (Origin of axes at centroid)
4bh ph
A   y  
h p 8
C y x
B B
b b 8 p

Ix     bh3 0.08659bh3
9p 16
4
32
Iy    
p p3
hb3 0.2412hb3

8bh3
Ixy  0 IBB  
9p

22 y Thin circular ring (Origin of axes at center)

d = 2r
Approximate formulas for case when t is small
p d 3t
r A  2prt  pdt Ix  Iy  pr 3t  
x 8
C
pd 3t
t Ixy  0 IP  2pr 3t  
y
4
23 t Thin circular arc (Origin of axes at center of circle)
Approximate formulas for case when t is small
B B
C
b  angle in radians (Note: For a semicircular arc, b  p/2.)
b b y
r r sin b
A  2brt y  b
O x
Ix  r 3t(b  sin b cos b) Iy  r 3t(b  sin b cos b)
2b  sin2b 1  cos2b
Ixy  0
IBB  r 3t   
2 b
y
24 Thin rectangle (Origin of axes at centroid)
Approximate formulas for case when t is small

b
b A  bt
C
x tb3 tb3 tb3
Ix   sin2 b Iy   cos2 b IBB   sin2 b
t 12 12 3
B B

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25 A Regular polygon with n sides (Origin of axes at centroid)

b B
R1 R2
C  centroid (at center of polygon)
b
n  number of sides (n  3) b  length of a side
b  central angle for a side a  interior angle (or vertex angle)
C
a 360
b  
n
n2

a   180
n a  b  180

R1  radius of circumscribed circle (line CA) R2  radius of inscribed circle (line CB)
2
b b b b nb b
R1   csc  R2   cot  A   cot 
2 2 2 2 4 2
Ic  moment of inertia about any axis through C (the centroid C is a principal point and
every axis through C is a principal axis)
nb4
192 b
2 b
Ic   cot  3cot2   1
2 IP  2Ic

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.