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36033_15_appD_pD1-D6.

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D
Properties of Plane Areas

Notation: A  area
x, y  distances to centroid C
Ix, Iy  moments of inertia with respect to the x and y axes,
respectively
Ixy  product of inertia with respect to the x and y axes
IP  Ix  Iy  polar moment of inertia with respect to the origin of
the x and y axes
IBB  moment of inertia with respect to axis B-B

1 y Rectangle (Origin of axes at centroid)


b h
x A  bh x  2 y  
2
h C x
y bh3 hb3 bh
Ix   Iy   Ixy  0 IP   (h2  b2)
12 12 12
b

2 y B Rectangle (Origin of axes at corner)


bh3 hb3 b2h2 bh
Ix   Iy   Ixy   IP   (h2 + b2)
3 3 4 3
h
b3h3
O IBB   
x 6(b2  h2)
B b

3 y Triangle (Origin of axes at centroid)


c
bh bc h
A   x   y  
x 2 3 3
h
C y x bh3 bh
Ix   Iy   (b2  bc  c2)
36 36
b
bh2 bh
Ixy   (b  2c) IP   (h2  b2  bc  c2)
72 36

D1

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
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D2 APPENDIX D Properties of Plane Areas

4 y Triangle (Origin of axes at vertex)


c
B B bh3 bh
Ix   Iy   (3b2  3bc  c2)
h
12 12
bh2 bh3
O x Ixy   (3b  2c) IBB  
b 24 4

5 y Isosceles triangle (Origin of axes at centroid)


bh b h
A   x   y  
x 2 2 3
h
C x bh3 hb3
y Ix   Iy   Ixy  0
B B 36 48
b bh bh3
IP   (4h2  3b2) IBB  
144 12
(Note: For an equilateral triangle, h  3 b/2.)
6 y Right triangle (Origin of axes at centroid)
bh b h
x A   x  3 y  3
h 2
C y x bh3 hb3 b2h2
B B Ix   Iy   Ixy   
36 36 72
b
bh bh3
IP   (h2  b2) IBB  
36 12
7 y Right triangle (Origin of axes at vertex)
B B
bh3 hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
12 12 24
h
bh bh3
IP   (h2  b2) IBB  
x
12 4
O
b

8 y Trapezoid (Origin of axes at centroid)


a
h(a  b) h(2a  b)
A   y   
2 3(a  b)
h x
C y h3(a2  4ab  b2) h3(3a  b)
I  
B x
IBB  
B 36(a  b) 12
b

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
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APPENDIX D Properties of Plane Areas D3

9 y Circle (Origin of axes at center)


d = 2r
pd2 pr 4 pd 4
A  pr 2   Ix  Iy    
r 4 4 64
C x
pr4 pd4 5p r 4 5p d 4
Ixy  0 IP     IBB      
B B 2 32 4 64
10 y Semicircle (Origin of axes at centroid)
pr2 4r
A   y  
r C 2 3p
y x
B B (9p 2  64)r 4 p r4 pr4
Ix   0.1098r4 Iy    Ixy  0 IBB   
72p 8 8
11 y Quarter circle (Origin of axes at center of circle)
pr2 4r
A   x  y  
x 4 3p
B B
C pr4 r4 (9p 2  64)r 4
y Ix  Iy    Ixy   IBB   0.05488r4
O x 16 8 144p
r

12 y Quarter-circular spandrel (Origin of axes at point of tangency)


B B
(10  3p)r

r p 2r
A  1   r 2 x    0.7766r y    0.2234r
x 4 3(4  p) 3(4  p)

O
C y
x 5p
16
Ix  1   r 4 0.01825r 4
1
p

Iy  IBB     r 4 0.1370r4
3 16

13 y Circular sector (Origin of axes at center of circle)


x x
a  angle in radians (a  p/2)
2r sin a
C A  ar 2 x  r sin a y   
3a
a a
y r r4 r4 ar 4
Ix   (a  sin a cos a) Iy   (a  sin a cos a) Ixy  0 IP  
O x 4 4 2

14 y Circular segment (Origin of axes at center of circle)


a  angle in radians (a  p/2)
C

y a a
r
A  r 2(a  sin a cos a)
2r

y  3 
sin3 a

a  sin a cos a
x r4
O Ix   (a  sin a cos a  2 sin3 a cos a) Ixy  0
4
r4
Iy  (3a  3 sin a cos a  2 sin3 a cos a)
12

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
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D4 APPENDIX D Properties of Plane Areas

y
15 a Circle with core removed (Origin of axes at center of circle)
a  angle in radians (a  p/2)

r a
b a
a  arccos 
r
b 
r 2  a2 ab
A  2r 2 a  
r2
C x
a
b
r4
6 3ab
Ix   3a  
r
2ab3
2  
r4 r4
ab
Iy   a  
2 r
2ab3
2  
r4 Ixy  0

2a

16 y Ellipse (Origin of axes at centroid)


pa b 3 p ba3
b A  pab I x   Iy  
4 4
C x
b pab
Ixy  0 IP   (b2  a2)
4
a a
Circumference p [1.5(a  b)  ab ] (a/3  b  a)
4.17b /a  4a
2
(0  b  a/3)
17 y Parabolic semisegment (Origin of axes at corner)
Vertex

x
y = f (x)
x2
y  f (x)  h 1  
b2
h
C y 2 bh 3b 2h
A   x   y  
x 3 8 5
O b
16bh3 2hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
105 15 12
18 y Parabolic spandrel (Origin of axes at vertex)
y = f (x)
hx2
x y  f (x)  
h b2
Vertex
C y bh 3b 3h
O x A  3 x  
4 y  1
0
b
bh3 hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
21 5 12
19 y Semisegment of nth degree (Origin of axes at corner)
y = f (x)
x xn
y  f (x)  h 1  
bn (n  0)
h
C
y
x
n
A  bh 
n1 b(n  1)
x   
2(n  2)
y  
hn
2n  1
O
b 2bh3n3 hb3n b2h2n2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
(n  1)(2n  1)(3n  1) 3(n  3) 4(n  1)(n  2)

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
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APPENDIX D Properties of Plane Areas D5

20 y Spandrel of nth degree (Origin of axes at point of tangency)


y = f (x) hx n
y  f (x)   (n  0)
bn
x h
bh b(n  1) h(n  1)
A   x   y  
C y n1 n2 2(2n  1)
O x
b bh3 hb3 b2h2
Ix   Iy   Ixy  
3(3n  1) n3 4(n  1)
y
21 Sine wave (Origin of axes at centroid)
4bh ph
A   y  
h p 8
C y x
B B
b b 8 p

Ix     bh3 0.08659bh3
9p 16
4
32
Iy    
p p3
hb3 0.2412hb3

8bh3
Ixy  0 IBB  
9p

22 y Thin circular ring (Origin of axes at center)


d = 2r
Approximate formulas for case when t is small
p d 3t
r A  2prt  pdt Ix  Iy  pr 3t  
x 8
C
pd 3t
t Ixy  0 IP  2pr 3t  
y
4
23 t Thin circular arc (Origin of axes at center of circle)
Approximate formulas for case when t is small
B B
C
b  angle in radians (Note: For a semicircular arc, b  p/2.)
b b y
r r sin b
A  2brt y  b
O x
Ix  r 3t(b  sin b cos b) Iy  r 3t(b  sin b cos b)
2b  sin2b 1  cos2b
Ixy  0
IBB  r 3t   
2 b
y
24 Thin rectangle (Origin of axes at centroid)
Approximate formulas for case when t is small

b
b A  bt
C
x tb3 tb3 tb3
Ix   sin2 b Iy   cos2 b IBB   sin2 b
t 12 12 3
B B

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
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D6 APPENDIX D Properties of Plane Areas

25 A Regular polygon with n sides (Origin of axes at centroid)


b B
R1 R2
C  centroid (at center of polygon)
b
n  number of sides (n  3) b  length of a side
b  central angle for a side a  interior angle (or vertex angle)
C
a 360
b  
n
n2

a   180
n a  b  180

R1  radius of circumscribed circle (line CA) R2  radius of inscribed circle (line CB)
2
b b b b nb b
R1   csc  R2   cot  A   cot 
2 2 2 2 4 2
Ic  moment of inertia about any axis through C (the centroid C is a principal point and
every axis through C is a principal axis)
nb4
192 b
2 b
Ic   cot  3cot2   1
2 IP  2Ic

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.