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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

C181 Study Guide


How to Use this Study Guide
This document is a guided study plan to help you refine your studying as you progress toward
the objective assessment. This guide is not a substitute for a thorough reading of the material; it is
just to help you identify areas to critically think about so you can be successful in this course.
Tips for using this guide:

Answer the questions as you read through the learning resource. Remember, the section and sub-
section headings in the chapters are a useful way to identify the main points in the chapter.
If you feel that you still need additional help, contact the course mentor.
Prior to taking the assessment, review the guide to help you study.
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Chapter 1: Freedom, Order, or Equality


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Section 1.2- The Purposes of Government


Complete the following table:
The first column on each line lists a specific purpose. In the second column, and on the same
line as the purpose, write in its definition.

Purpose Definition
Maintaining Order

Providing Public
Goods

Promoting
Equality

Answer the following questions:


1. Define liberalism according to John Locke:

2. What is the purpose of government according to John Lockes philosophy of liberalism?

Section 1.3- A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Government


Answer the following question:
1. What three values are considered to be foundational to American government?

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Section 1.4- The Concepts of Freedom, Order and Equality
Answer the following questions:
1. What is the difference between political equality and social equality?

2. How does the U.S. Constitution guarantee political equality?

3. Contrast equality of opportunity and equality of outcome.

Match the policy with equality type:


The first column on each line lists a specific purpose. In the second column, choose one of the
following types of equality listed below and write it in on the line next to the purpose it best fits.
(Hint, you only use each type of equality listed once.)

Types of Equality: Political equality, equality of outcome, equality of opportunity

Policy Type of Equality

Equal pay for men and women

Public schools

One person, one vote

Section 1.5- Two Dilemmas of Government


Answer the following questions:
1. The original dilemma is freedom vs.:

2. Circle, highlight, or check the policy that best reflects the original dilemma:
Mandatory testing for HIV/AIDS
Paying men and women the same wages

3. The modern dilemma is Freedom vs.:

4. Circle, highlight, or check the policy that best reflects the modern dilemma:
Banning controversial YouTube videos
Mandating that buses and trains are accessible to people with disabilities

Section 1.6- Ideology and Scope of Government


Answer the following questions:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
1. Define political ideology:

2. How does Totalitarianism differ from Anarchism?

Mentor Note: The economic theories differ based on how much government involvement each
theory argues that there should be in the economy. We have capitalism here in the United
States, which supports free enterprise (privately-owned businesses) with some government
regulation, like making sure our food is safe for consumption. Laissez-faire is like an extreme
form of capitalism, where there is free enterprise but no government intervention at all.
Communism is on the other side of the spectrum, where all aspects of the economy are run by
the state.

Answer the following questions:


1. Explain the differences between capitalism and socialism.
2. What kind of economic system would libertarians support and why?

Section 1.7- American Political Ideologies and the Purpose of Government


Complete the following ideology value table:
In the first column of this table, on each row is listed a different ideology.
In the second column and on the same row as each ideology, determine how each would
prioritize freedom or order in the original dilemma, choosing from and writing in either freedom
or order. In the third column, determine how each ideology would prioritize and write in either
freedom or equality in the modern dilemma.

Freedom or Order in the Original Freedom or Equality in the


Ideology
Dilemma? Modern Dilemma?
Libertarian

Conservative

Communitarian

Liberal

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Match the ideology with position on issues:


Match the policy with the type of equality it seeks to achieve in the chart below. The first column
lists the position on the issue. Fill in the appropriate matching ideology in the second column.
(Note: there is only 1 policy per equality type your choices for possible answers are:
libertarianism, conservative or liberal.)

Position on Issue Ideology


Support harsher punishment for drug crimes

Support increased spending on public housing

Oppose government except for protection of life/property

Support higher income taxes (progressive tax)

Support more regulation of big business

Support lower taxes

Support leagalization of drugs

Supplemental Resource: Government video


For a closer look at the purposes of government and how this affects peoples lives watch
Government. This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this
video can be accessed here: Government Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete the Government Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
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Chapter 2: Majoritarian or Pluralist Democracy

Mentor Note: There are different views of what actually makes up a democracy. For some,
democracy is defined by the procedures and methods of decision-making being used; for
others, democracy is defined by the actual policies that result. We focus on two types of
democracy that emphasize procedures, such as citizen decision-making and elections. We then
discuss two models that explain how democracy may actually work in the real world.

Section 2.1- The Theory of Democratic Government


Answer the following question:
1. Democracy can be indirect (representative) or direct (participatory). Explain the differences
between these two forms of democracy.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Section 2.2- Institutional Models of Democracy

Mentor Note: There are two models, or blueprints, of democracy: the majoritarian model
(majoritarianism) and the pluralist model (pluralism). To explain, imagine going to the doctor with
a cough, a fever, and a sore throat. The doctor questions you about your symptoms to diagnose
what is making you sick. Majoritarianism and pluralism are like different sets of questions we
can ask to diagnose a government as democratic or not.
Compare models the democracy in the chart below:
Fill out the following table to compare two models of democracy by considering their stances on
a variety of statements. The first column states a belief or assumption. The second column is for
the majoritarian model and the third column is for the pluralist model. For each statement, if you
think the statement represents the model write or type yes, if you do not believe the statement
represents the model write or type no.

Majoritarian
Belief or Assumption Pluralist Model
Model
Assumes people are interested in politics

Assumes people are knowledgeable about politics

Assumes people have consistent opinions about politics

Emphasizes the importance of public opinion

Believes elections are important

Believes decentralized, group participation is important

Believes government should be responsive to the


general public

Believes government should be responsive to interest


groups

Answer the following questions:


1. If a majority of members of Congress voted in favor of increasing individuals subsidies for
health insurance and the majority of the public supported this idea, would this example
support the majoritarian or pluralist model of democracy? Why?

2. If the interest groups representing major hospitals and insurance companies opposed
increasing individuals subsidies for health insurance, but the public supported it, what
action(s) of Congress would support the pluralist model of democracy?

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3. Explain how Elite Theory differs from the Majoritarian and Pluralist models.

Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer:


A system of government where voters elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf,
and where those representatives respond to public opinion, would best be characterized by the
terms:
An indirect democracy and majoritarianism
A direct democracy and majoritarianism
An indirect democracy and pluralism
A direct democracy and pluralism

Supplemental Resource: Using Responsiveness to Understand Majoritarian, Pluralist, and Elite


Theories video
For a closer look at Majoritarian, Pluralist, and Elite Theories watch Using Responsiveness to
Understand Majoritarian, Pluralist, and Elite Theories. This video was created by one of the
course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here: Using Responsiveness to
Understand Majoritarian, Pluralist, and Elite Theories Transcript. For additional practice, you can
also complete the Using Responsiveness to Understand Majoritarian, Pluralist, and Elite
Theories Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
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Chapter 3: The Constitution


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Before the Declaration of Independence, many governments were established by


heredity and thought to be chosen by God, giving them absolute power. John Lockes idea of
the social contract theory refuted this idea, and instead argued that the PEOPLE had inalienable
rights that could not be taken away and more power to choose their leaders. Moreover, John
Locke took issue with Thomas Hobbes notion of the social contract. Whereas Hobbes stressed
that the ruler should never be challenged and the power flowed from the ruler to the citizens,
Locke argued that the power flowed upward from the citizens and that the people ultimately held
the power. Hobbes also believed that, upon entering into the social contract, the people gave
over their power permanently to the government. On the other hand, Locke felt that the people
retained the power. This supports the Lockean ideal of popular sovereignty.

Section 3.1- The Revolutionary Roots of the Constitution


Answer the following questions:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
1. What is social contract theory?

2. What connections do you see between social contract theory and the ideas and language of
the Declaration of Independence, in an excerpt from it below?

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,
Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness...To secure these rights, Governments are instituted
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed Whenever
any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People
to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government...

Section 3.2- From Revolution to Confederation

Mentor Note: In Chapter 1, you learned about national sovereignty, which is the ability of
nations to govern themselves. In this Chapter, popular sovereignty means that the people
should have the power to rule.

Answer the following questions:


1. What is a republic?

2. How is this term, republic, related to the idea of popular sovereignty that is reflected in the
social contract theory and the Declaration of Independence?

3. Under a confederation, who has more power- the state or the national governments?

4. What powers did the states have under the Articles of Confederation?

5. What were some of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

6. Explain how Shays Rebellion serves as an example of the weakness of the Articles of
Confederation.

Each of the chapters in the Learning Resource includes a summary section at


the end. Consider using these chapter summaries as roadmaps for the chapters (i.e., a way to
think about and organize chapter information). You can also use chapter summaries as a way to

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
engage in active review. Here is an example at the end of Chapter 3.2 From Revolution to
Confederation:

Alternate description

Section 3.3- From Confederation to Constitution


Answer the following questions:
1. Identify the central ideas associated with the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan.

2. What were the key differences between the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan?

3. How were those differences resolved in the Great Compromise?

Circle, note, or check the correct answer:


Which of the following features of the Virginia Plan did not become part of the Constitution?
Separation of powers
Bicameralism
The Executive Branch would be selected by the legislature
None of the features of the Virginia Plan became part of the Constitution

Section 3.4- The Final Product


Answer the following questions:
1. What are the four elements that form the foundation of the American political tradition in the
Preamble of U.S. Constitution?

2. Identify and explain the four basic principles of the U.S. Constitution.

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3. Which one of these basic principles most closely aligns with the Social Contract Theorys
idea that the people should have the power to set up their government?

Look carefully at the Figure 3.2. See how each branch has their main
constitutional power in a green box for their column. The main powers are what that branch
does most of the time without the other branches stopping them. Then see how each branch
also has other extra powers in the white boxes for their column. The white boxes show Checks
& Balances which are extra powers over the other two branches. These extra powers are how
each branch can stop, confirm, investigate or even change the other two branches actions. For
more information on how these branches interact review the following link: Power, Checks and
Balances in the Three Branches of Government.

Use Figure 3.2 below (also with an alternate description) to answer these questions:
1. Explain how checks and balances work.

2. Is there any evidence to support the claim we have separate institutions sharing powers -
i.e., three branches of government that share some of the same powers? Explain your
answer.

Alternate description

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Explain the following terms:
1. Supremacy clause:

2. Enumerated powers:

3. Necessary and proper clause:

4. How do implied powers come from the necessary and proper clause?

Complete the following table:


Identify the main ideas of the Articles of the Constitution in the chart below. The first column lists
the article. Provide a brief description of the main ideas of each article in the second column.

Articles of the Constitution Main Ideas of the Article


Article I: The Legislative Branch

Article II: The Executive Branch

Article III: The Judicial Branch

Article IV: The States

Article V: The States


Article VI: The States
Article VII: The States
Section 3.5- Selling the Constitution

Answer the following questions:

1. Who were the Federalists, and what did they want?

2. Who were the Anti-Federalists, and what did they want?

3. What are the central ideas of Federalist Paper #10?

4. What are the central ideas of Federalist Paper #51?

Section 3.6- An Evaluation of the Constitution


Answer the following questions:
1. Explain how the U.S. Constitution was ratified.

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2. What was the chief obstacle to the adoption of the Constitution by the states?

3. How long did it take for the Bill of Rights to be ratified after the U.S. Constitution was
passed?

4. Explain the two stages of the formal amendment process:

Proposal Stage:

Ratification Stage:

Supplemental Resource: The Constitution of the United States video


For or a closer look at the United States Constitution watch The Constitution of the United
States. This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can
be accessed here: The Constitution of the United States Transcript. For additional practice, you
can also complete The Constitution of the United States Knowledge Check to assess your
learning.

Supplemental Resource: Core Constitutional Principles video


For a closer look at the key principles found in the United States Constitution watch Core
Constitutional Principles. This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript
for this video can be accessed here: Core Constitutional Principles Transcript. For additional
practice, you can also complete the Core Constitutional Principles Knowledge Check to assess
your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you
still need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
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Chapter 4: Federalism
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Mentor Note: In Chapter 3, you learned about two constitutional clauses that address the
power of the national government, the Necessary and Proper Clause (Article 1) and the
Supremacy Clause (Article 6). Article 4 includes two clauses that address the states. The Full
Faith and Credit Clause says that the judicial acts and criminal warrants of each state are
honored in all other states, while the Privileges and Immunities Clause forbids discrimination
against citizens of one state by another state.

Section 4.1- Theories and Metaphors

Answer the following questions:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

1. Define federalism:

2. Define dual federalism (1787 to 1930s):

3. Circle, highlight, or check the primary importance under dual federalism:


national rights
states rights

4. Which amendment says that the powers not delegated to the United States nor prohibited to
the states, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people? In other words, which
amendment protects other powers for the states?

5. According to Figure 4.1 Metaphors for Federalism, what cake metaphor is used to describe
dual federalism?

6. Define Cooperative Federalism (1930s to mid-1960s):

7. According to Figure 4.1 Metaphors for Federalism, what cake metaphor is used to describe
cooperative federalism?

8. Circle, highlight, or check which description best describes how the Elastic Clause was
interpreted under cooperative federalism:
broadly, thus expanding the powers of the national government
narrowly, thus limiting the powers of the national government

Section 4.2- Federalisms Dynamics

Answer the following questions:

1. Circle, highlight, or check the time that represents when the greatest changes to national
power usually happen:
times of peace and stability
times of crisis and change

2. In the case McCulloch v. Maryland, what was the Court asked to decide in regards to a
national bank? How did the Court interpret the Necessary and Proper Clause in deciding the
outcome of this case?

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

Mentor Note: The way the Supreme Court has interpreted the Commerce Clause has led to
significant increases in the power of the national government. For instance, in the 1824 case
Gibbons v. Ogden, the Courts defined commerce very broadly and upheld the powers of
Congress, which gave the national government great authority to regulate businesses.

Section 4.3- Ideology, Policymaking, and American Federalism

Mentor Note: In the section National Intervention in State Functions, you learn a few ways the
national government encroaches on state powers. A good example of this was during the shift in
American federalism from cooperative federalism to coercive federalism during the late 1970s.
Coercive federalism involves a powerful, centralized government where the federal government
can pressure the states to change their policies. In many cases the federal government will
withhold federal funding through the use of mandates, regulations, orders, or conditions.

Answer the following questions:

1. Define the Commerce Clause:

2. Define interstate commerce:

3. Define the following terms and explain how each is used to force the policy choices of state
and local governments, as seen under coercive federalism (defined in the section below):

grants-in-aid:

mandates:

preemption:

4. Circle, highlight, or check the statement that best describes how the relationship between
the national and states government has changed over time:
Power can move from states to the federal government, and federal government to
the states, depending on factors like national crises, judicial decisions, and negotiations
over money/resources.
Congress has been less likely to use the Necessary and Proper Clause to
expand its power relative to the states, and strictly adheres to its enumerated powers.
American federalism has been very rigid, and is unlikely to be changed by internal or
external sources.
We are seeing recent trends that show the national and state governments are
refusing to share or overlap powers, as was seen under dual federalism.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Section 4.4- Federalism and Electoral Politics

Mentor Note: Candidates for public office often gain experience at the state level (state
legislature, governor) before running for a position in the national government (U.S. House or
Senate, for example).

Supplemental Resource: Conflicts in Federalism video


For a closer look at how Federalism functions in the United States, watch Conflicts in
Federalism. This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video
can be accessed here: Conflicts in Federalism Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete the Conflicts in Federalism Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need assistance, please contact the course mentor.

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Chapter 5: Public Opinion and Political Socialization


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Section 5.1- Public Opinion and the Models of Democracy

Answer the following questions:

Majoritarianism and Pluralism disagree on the role of public opinion.

1. Which model says that the government should do what the majority of the public wants?

2. Which model argues that the public does not demonstrate clear, consistent opinions, and
that the government should instead listen to interest groups?

Section 5.2- The Distribution of Public Opinion

Mentor Note: This section discusses how we measure public opinion, primarily through
the use of polling. When examining the results of polling to see what the public thinks about
certain issues, the government must pay attention to the shape of public opinion distribution
graphs to see how much agreement and conflict there is over an issue, and how much opinions
have changed over time.

Section 5.3- Political Socialization

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Answer the following questions:

1. Define political socialization:

2. Explain the key principles that characterize early learning, including:

Primacy Principle:

Structuring Principle:

Mentor Note: An agent of political socialization is a source of influence that we


encounter from childhood through young adulthood that aids in our political development.

3. List the three key agents of political socialization.

4. What is one of the most politically important things that children learn from their parents?

5. Based on what you learned about the primacy and structuring principles above, which is the
most important agent of socialization?

Section 5.4- Social Groups and Political Values

Mentor Note: People with similar social backgrounds tend to share political values, and we can
ask questions to determine how people prioritize values like equality, freedom, and order. For
example, we can ask Should the government see to it that every person has a job and a good
standard of living? to measure whether people believe the government should promote quality,
or if people should be free to succeed or fail on their own.

Circle, highlight, or check the answer that best represents the relationship in the
following statements:

1. People with _____________ education support government action to guarantee jobs.


less
more

2. People with _____________ education oppose government action to guarantee jobs.


less
more

3. Therefore, people with less education tend to favor _______________.


equality

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
freedom

4. And, people with more education tend to favor _______________.


equality
freedom

5. All minority groups are ___________ than whites to support government action to improve
economic opportunity.
less likely
more likely

6. Therefore, most members of minority groups tend to favor _______________.


equality over freedom, and freedom over order
freedom over equality, and order over freedom

7. Women are ___________ than men to favor government action to promote equality.
less likely
more likely

Answer the following questions:

1. List some examples of programs that women are likely to support.

2. List some examples of programs that women are unlikely to support.

3. Explain the gender gap.

Section 5.5- From Values to Ideology

Mentor Note: Ideology and ones opinions on political issues are closely related, but not
everyone fits neatly into categories such as liberal or conservative.

Section 5.6- Forming Political Opinions

Mentor Note: While surveys of political knowledge have shown that most people know basic
facts about politics and government, the public is less knowledgeable about issues that can
affect public policy (i.e., understanding crime rates or how much of the budget goes to foreign
aid). If people are unsure about a policy, they can determine whether a policy will benefit them
personally, or take cues from parties, government leaders, or interest groups to help them make
political judgments.

Answer the following question:

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1. Define the self-interest principle:

2. What does the self-interest principle imply about public opinion and political socialization?

Supplemental Resource: Public Opinion Video


For a closer look at the nature and importance of public opinion watch Public Opinion. This
video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed
here: Public Opinion Transcript. For additional practice, you can also complete the Public
Opinion Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

Supplemental Resource: Socioeconomic Status, Demographics, and Patterns of Public Opinion


Video
For a closer look at the factors that influence public opinion watch Socioeconomic Status,
Demographics, and Patterns of Public Opinion. This video was created by one of the course
mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here: Socioeconomic Status,
Demographics, and Patterns of Public Opinion Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete the Socioeconomic Status, Demographics, and Patterns of Public Opinion Knowledge
Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need assistance, please contact the course mentor.

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Chapter 6: The Media


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Mentor Note: Communication between the people and elected representatives is vital in a
democracy. The mass media transmits information to a diverse audience through print
(newspapers, magazines), broadcast (radio, television), and online forums (blogs, news sites,
etc.). The media is sometimes called the Fourth Branch of Government because of how they
hold government officials accountable and help us make informed political decisions.

Section 6.1- The Development of the Mass Media in the United States
Answer the following question:

1. Besides the internet, circle, highlight, or check which of these sources has the biggest news
audience of all media?

radio
newspapers
television
magazines

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Section 6.2- Private Ownership of the Media

Mentor Note: The mass media in the U.S. are privately owned businesses who seek to make a
profit. As sources compete for readers/viewers, it can affect the way news is reported and how
much substantive information is reaching the people.

Answer the following questions:

1. Explain some of the consequences of private media ownership in the U.S.

2. What is the main criterion for a storys newsworthiness?

3. Define market-driven journalism.

4. How do TV networks emphasis on infotainment limit the amount of political information


reaching the people?

Section 6.3- Government Regulation of the Media


Answer the following question:

1. What is the independent government agency that regulates the media industry?

Section 6.4- Functions of the Mass Media


Answer the following questions:

1. What are the functions the media serves for the political system?

2. Why are the media known as gatekeepers?

3. Does horse-race journalism enhance the publics knowledge of political issues? Why or why
not?

4. What does the television hypothesis reveal about the reason behind citizens low levels of
political knowledge?

Section 6.5- Evaluating the Media in Government


Answer the following questions:

1. What are the political biases of reporters and media owners/editors?

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2. When journalists practice watchdog journalism, how are they making themselves adversaries
(or opponents) of the government?

3. How has the media advanced equality over order in the U.S.?

4. If the media serves an important function in our democracy by providing information on


public affairs, why may the media focus more on infotainment/soft news and horse-race
journalism (that is less informative)? Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer.
The First Amendment provides for freedom of the press, giving the media latitude to
operate without strict government regulations.
Competition between print, broadcast, and online media has made it harder to retain
audiences and increase revenue.
Many Americans still rely on TV to get their news, so the media tries to use visual,
eye-catching, easy-to-understand mediums.
All of the above

Supplemental Resource: The Media video


For a closer look at how the media influences politics watch The Media. This video was
created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here: The
Media Transcript. For additional practice, you can also complete The Media Knowledge Check
to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need assistance, please contact the course mentor.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 7: Participation and Voting


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Section 7.1 Democracy and Political Participation

Mentor Note: When it comes to political participation, most Americans usually think of the act of
voting in elections. It is important to note, however, that there is more to participation than
simply voting. In general, there are two basic forms of political participation: conventional and
unconventional.

Answer the following questions:

1. Explain the difference between conventional and unconventional participation.

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2. Which of these two forms of participation would be considered less risky for participants to
engage in?

Section 7.2 Unconventional Participation

Mentor Note: The civil rights movement used direct actionassembling crowds to confront
business and local governmentto insist on equal treatment for black Americans. This kind of
political activity eventually resulted in the United States Congress passing civil rights laws to
prevent discrimination. Obviously, direct action has not been confined to just the civil rights
movement. Citizens in general may engage in direct action for any political cause. Though
unconventional participation can be very effective, most Americans disapprove of this kind of
participation because it interferes with daily living.

Answer the following questions:

1. Why is direct action an example of unconventional political participation?

2. Provide some additional examples of unconventional political participation.

Section 7.3 Conventional Participation

Mentor Note: Participation can be further subdivided within the category of conventional
participation. Political behavior can also be characterized as either supportive behavior (i.e.,
actions that express allegiance to government and country) like saying the Pledge of Allegiance
or waving the flag, or influential behavior (i.e., behavior that seeks to modify or reverse
government policy to serve political interests), like voting.

Answer the following question:

1. Besides the ones listed above, provide some examples of conventional participation.

Section 7.4 Participation Through Voting

Mentor Note: While we have universal suffrage now, this was not always the case in the United
States. Rather, this has evolved over time. At first, suffrage was confined only to white male
property owners. It was later extended to black males (regardless of property ownership) and
then later to women. Historically, the extension of suffrage was brought about and maintained
by constitutional amendments, Supreme Court decisions, or congressional acts.

Answer the following questions:

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1. What is meant by the term suffrage?

2. Which amendment expanded suffrage by giving black Americans the right to vote?

3. Which amendment gave women the right to vote?

4. Which Amendment lowered the voting age to 18?' and 'Why?

5. Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer. The terms suffrage and franchise both refer to
the right to vote.
True
False

Section 7.5 Explaining Political Participation

Mentor Note: The standard socioeconomic model is based on research on the relationship
between the socioeconomic status of a citizen and the likelihood of participating in certain
kinds of political behavior. Political researchers have found a relationship between
socioeconomic statusa combination of a persons income, education, and occupationand
the persons political participation. Though all three of the variables are related, education
seems to be the single most influential factor here.

Answer the following questions:

1. According to the standard socioeconomic model, are people of higher socioeconomic status
more or less likely to participate? Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer.
More likely
Less likely

2. Which of the following factors has the strongest effect on conventional participation? Circle,
highlight, or check the correct answer.
education
income
religious affiliation

3. According to the standard socioeconomic model, are younger people more or less likely to
participate in unconventional forms of participation such as protests, demonstrations, or
boycotts? Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer.
More likely
Less likely

4. Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer. There is no meaningful relationship between
socioeconomic status and political participation.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
True
False

5. Define voter turnout:

Supplemental Resource: Who Votes and Why Does It Matter? video


For a closer look at the factors that influence public opinion watch Who Votes and Why Does it
Matter? This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can
be accessed here: Who Votes and Why Does it Matter? Transcript. For additional practice, you
can also complete the Who Votes and Why Does it Matter? Knowledge Check to assess your
learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need assistance, please contact the course mentor.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 8: Political Parties

Section 8.1 Political Parties and Their Functions

Mentor Note: Political parties help link citizens to government. Though parties were not
included in the constitution, they developed later and became an informal institution for helping
citizens participate in our political system.

Answer the following question:

1. Define political party:

Match the function to the description


The first column on each line lists a description of the term. In the second column, choose one
of the following functions of political parties listed below and write it in on the line next to the
description it best fits. (Hint: you will only use each type of function once.)

Functions of politcal parties:

o Nominating candidates

o Structuring the vote choice

o Proposing alternative government programs

o Coordinating the actions of government officials

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

Description Function
The idea of reducing the number of candidates on the
ballot to those who have a realistic chance of winning.
The idea of party officeholders cooperating and
collaborating within and across political institutions to
bring about favorable outcomes for the party.
The idea of recruiting individuals to run for public office.

The idea of putting forth and advocating government


policies to be pursued.

Mentor Note: Notice that the first one of these functions is the characteristic that most
distinguishes political parties from interest groups, which you will learn more about in Chapter
10. Interest groups are another informal institution that link citizens to government. Where
political parties seek to place people in public office, interest groups only seek to influence those
who occupy public office. In short, political parties seek to place their members in public office
while interest groups do not.

Section 8.2 A History of U.S. Party Politics & Section 8.3 The American Two-Party System

Answer the following questions:

1. What happened in the First Party system that caused the passage of the 12th amendment?

2. In what era did the Democratic Party emerge?

3. Why were national conventions held in the Second Party system?

4. What issue caused the formation of the Republican Party?

5. Describe the difference between an electoral realignment and a critical elections.

6. Which critical election established the Democratic and Republican Parties in our two-party
system? After this election, how long did the Republicans majority status last?

7. When was the second critical election?

8. Historically, our political system has been dominated by two political parties. What are two
explanations for why we have this two-party system?

9. Describe the idea of party identification.

10. What role does party identification play in fostering our two-party system?

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
11. How is this idea related to the second major function of political parties?

12. Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer. On the whole, party stances on issues and
public policy tend to reflect the organizations ideological orientation.
True
False

Section 8.4 Party Ideology and Organization

Mentor Note: Everyone is unique. It is not the case that everyone will see everything the
same way or react to things the same way. However, some commonalities have been
discovered among people with similar social backgrounds. Here some general tendencies about
the relationship between background factors and a person's political outlook have been
uncovered by political research over the years. These findings have to do with six social
background factors in particular: education, income, and region, race/ethnicity, religion, and
gender. Considering each of these factors alone, political researchers have found a significant
relationship between such factors and certain political values. Based on the textbook (see
Chapter 5), complete the statements below pertaining to each social background factor.

Circle, highlight, or check next to the correct answer

1. Wealth, like education, is linked to class. Are people with higher income levels more or less
likely to support freedom over equality?
More likely
Less likely

2. Based on a person's income by itself, would you say that the person of high income would
be more likely to support the Democratic Party or the Republican Party than a person of low
income? You can refer to Figure 8.5 Party Identification by Social Groups.
Democratic Party
Republican Party

Mentor Note: Whereas in the past differences in ethnicity were associated with some
systematic differences in people's political orientations, this is no longer the case today.
Knowing a person's ethnicity helps very little to predict their political values and party
identification. However, differences across races continue to be found.

Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer (see Figure 8.5):

1. Are African Americans more likely to be liberal or conservative?


Liberal
Conservative

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
2. As a result, are African Americans more likely to support the Democratic or Republican
Party?
Democratic Party
Republican Party

3. Are the political attitudes and party preferences of Hispanics more similar to blacks or
whites?
Blacks
Whites

4. Which of the following groups is more likely to be Democrat?


Protestant
Non-religious

5. When all other factors are held constant, are women more likely than men to support the
Democratic or Republican Party?
Democratic Party
Republican Party

6. What ideology does the Republican Party most closely support?


Liberal
Conservative

7. What ideology does the Democratic Party most closely support?


Liberal
Conservative

Section 8.5 The Model of Responsible Party Government

Answer the following questions:

1. The responsible party model advocates meaningful differences between political parties that
results in tangible results. What are the 4 tenets of responsible party government?

2. Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer. Political parties are not interested in placing
members of their party in political office.
True
False

Supplemental Resource: The Evolution of Parties video


For a closer look at the factors that influence public opinion watch The Evolution of Parties.
This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be
accessed here: The Evolution of Parties Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete The Evolution of Parties Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 9: Nominations, Elections, and Campaigns

Mentor Note: In seeking their partys nomination, political candidates conduct an election
campaign. If successful at winning the nomination, they continue their campaign in the general
election.

Section 9.1 The Evolution of Campaigning


Answer the following question:

1. Define election campaign:

Sections 9.2 Nominations & 9.3 Elections

Answer the following questions:


Representative democracy rests on the assumption of elections as a formal means of citizen
participation. This is a key component of republicanism. In general, winning elective office
consists of two steps: (1) first winning the primary election, and (2) winning the general election.

1. What is a primary election?

2. What is a general election?

Mentor Note: The nations first state-level preliminary races for president are held in the states
of Iowa and New Hampshire. The Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primaries are
considered to be so-called bellwether elections during the primary election season in that
winning these states are considered crucial to winning the partys nomination. Conversely, if a
candidate does not do well in these elections, they are considered to have little chance of
ultimately winning the nomination. Due to focus on these two states historically because they
hold their preliminary races so early in primary season, other states have responded by moving
their primaries to earlier in the season as well. This has caused an increased tendency of front-
loading in an effort to make the respective state more influential in the nomination process. This
has also resulted in what is known as Super Tuesday, wherein 16 states hold their primaries
and 4 states hold their caucuses all on the same day.

Answer the following questions:

1. What is a plurality?

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Mentor Note: The president is elected indirectly through the electoral college. The electoral
college consists of 538 electors, corresponding to the number of total number of members in the
United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate (plus the District of
Columbia). This can be broken down by state, resulting in the number of electors in the electoral
college per state. This is determined by the number of members a state has in the U.S. House
and U.S. Senate.

2. How are electoral votes apportioned among the states?

3. How many electoral votes are required to win the presidency?

4. Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer. The vote for president is based solely on the
number of Americans voting for a particular candidate separate and apart from how many
electoral votes the candidate receives.
True
False

Mentor Note: When a candidate wins the plurality of the vote in a state, the candidate receives
all of the states electoral votes. This means that when voters cast their ballots in favor of a
presidential candidate, those votes are later formally cast by the electors. The number of
electoral votes that a candidate needs to win the presidency is 270 (i.e., 270 electoral votes).

Section 9.4 Campaigns

Mentor Note: The party national convention is the national meeting of delegates selected in
primaries and caucuses. These meetings usually take place the summer before the general
election. It is here where the formal process of nominating the partys presidential candidate
takes place. This usually reflects the support of the leading candidate after primaries and
caucuses/conventions have been held. During their national conventions, each party assembles
a party platform (see Chapter 8), which is a series of statements of general policy expected to
be pursued in the general election. Each of these policy statements is called a plank.

Answer the following question:

1. What is the main purpose of an election campaign?

Supplemental Resource: Presidential and Congressional Campaigns video


For a closer look at campaigning watch Presidential and Congressional Campaigns. This video
was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here:
Presidential and Congressional Campaigns Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete the Presidential and Congressional Campaigns Knowledge Check to assess your
learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still

Page 27 of 46
Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 10: Interest Groups


Section 10.1 Interest Groups and the American Political Tradition
Answer the following questions:

1. Define interest group:

2. Interest groups serve various functions; explain the following five functions below, include an
example for each:
Representation:
Participation:
Education:
Agenda Building:
Program Monitoring:

3. Circle, highlight, or check the answer that does not represent a function of interest groups.
Voicing the concerns of voters to government officials.
Encouraging citizens to contact their government officials.
Providing updates to citizens about congressional action on a specific topic.
All of the above are functions of interest groups.

4. List some examples of interest groups that are active in American politics.

Section 10.2 How Interest Groups Form

Mentor Note: Interest groups exist because an individual, or entrepreneur, cared about an
issue and decided to invest the resources necessary to organize a group. As any student who
has worked in a group knows, groups can pose unique challenges, like how you convince
people to do their part (instead of just profiting from your hard work without doing anything, i.e.,
free-riding). To address this problem, interest group entrepreneurs give individuals additional
reasons, or incentives, for joining the interest group.

Answer the following questions:

1. Who is likely to join an interest group?

Section 10.3 Interest Group Resources


Answer the following questions:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
1. Identify and describe the resources that interest groups have at their disposal to pursue their
goals.

2. What are the benefits of joining an interest group?

2. What is a political action committee (PAC) and what primary function do they serve?

3. Circle, highlight, or check the answer that best describes the relationship between an
interest group and political action committee.
Political action committees help interest groups overcome the free-rider problem that
plagues attempts to organize an interest group.
Political action committees help interest groups with their function of program
monitoring.
Political action committees help interest groups recruit experienced interest group
entrepreneurs.
Political action committees help interest groups pool financial contributions and
donate them to candidates that are aligned with the groups interests.

Section 10.4 Lobbying Tactics


Answer the following question:

1. Identify and discuss the four strategies and tactics used by interest groups to influence the
policymaking process.

Section 10.5 Is the System Biased?


Answer the following questions:

1. Describe the advantages of interest groups for democratic governance.

2. Describe the disadvantages of interest groups for democratic governance.

Supplemental Resource: What Are Interest Groups? video


For a closer look at the interest groups watch What Are Interest Groups? This video was
created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here: What
Are Interest Groups? Transcript. For additional practice, you can also complete the What Are
Interest Groups? Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
__________________________________________________________________________________

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

Chapter 11: Congress


Section 11.1 The Origin and Powers of Congress
Fill in the correct answers:

1. Congressional power is described in Article ____, Section ___ of the Constitution.

Answer the following questions:

1. We discuss congressional power in terms of the enumerated and the implied powers of
Congress. Considering the origin of the implied powers in the necessary and proper clause,
what expands the powers of Congress more: the enumerated or implied powers of
Congress? Why?
2. Bicameralism is a term that describes a legislative body, like Congress, that is composed of
two chambers or groups. What are the two chambers of Congress? Why did the authors of
the Constitution set up Congress to be bicameral?

Complete the following table by comparing the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S.
Senate.

The first column of this table lists a characteristics. Fill out these characteristics for both U.S.
House of Representatives and U.S. Senate. The House of Representatives is in the second
column and the Senate is in the third.

House of Representatives Senate

Number of members in chamber:

Members in this chamber are elected


to represent what:

Number of members per state:

Length of members term:

Checks and balances the other


chamber does not have:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

Is debate about a bill strictly


controlled? Yes or no

Can members debate at length about


whatever bill they choose? Yes or no

Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer

1. Which of these statements best characterizes a difference between the House and the
Senate?
The House has permissive rules for debate, whereas the Senate does not.
The Senate has shorter terms, whereas only one-third of House members are re-
elected every two years.
The House votes to impeach a federal official. The Senate votes on guilt and
sentencing.
The Senate has no checks and balances on the president that the House does not
have.

Section 11.2 Electing Congress


Define the following terms:

1. Redistricting:

2. Reapportionment:

3. Gerrymandering:

Section 11.4 The Lawmaking Process and the Importance of Committees

Use Figure 11.4 in your text to fill in the following steps of the Legislative Process for
the House of Representatives

Step One
Step Two
Step Three
Step Four
Step Five
Step Six
Step Seven
Step Eight

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
While the legislative process for the House and Senate is basically the same, what step do we
see in the House that is not in the Senate?

Supplemental Resource: How Does Congress Work? video


For a closer look at the inner workings of Congress watch How Does Congress Work? This
video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed
here: How Does Congress Work? Transcript. For additional practice, you can also complete the
How Does Congress Work? Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

Supplemental Resource: The Legislative Process video


For a closer look at the legislative process watch The Legislative Process. This video was
created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here: The
Legislative Process Transcript. For additional practice, you can also complete The Legislative
Process Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 12: The Presidency


Section 12.1 The Constitutional Basis of Presidential Power
Answer the following question:

1. Identify and describe the formal powers explicitly granted to the president in Article II of the
U.S. Constitution.

Section 12.2 The Expansion of Presidential Power

Mentor Note: The constitution lists several powers of the president, but presidents have
expanded their powers through other means by use of inherent powerspowers claimed by the
president that are not explicitly mentioned in the constitution. For example, Executive Privilege
is the presidents prerogative to withhold classified or sensitive information that, to divulge,
would threaten national security. Not all attempts by presidents to expand their powers have
been upheld by the courts, though. For example, Executive Privilege can be overruled by a
court decision, forcing the president to release the requested information.

Answer the following questions:

1. Which three formal powers involve the president in the policymaking or legislative process
(legislative powers)?

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
2. Define an executive order:

3. Describe when and how a president might use an executive order to expand his presidential
power. Give a historical example.

4. What other presidential powers are not listed in the U.S. Constitution?

Section 12.3 The Executive Branch Establishment


Answer the following questions:

1. Compare and contrast the cabinet and the Executive Office of the President, paying
attention to how they get their job and what role they play in the executive branch.

2. What does the U.S. Constitution say about the bureaucracy in Article II?

3. Identify and describe the formal powers of the vice president.

Section 12.4 Presidential Leadership

Mentor Note: The Power to Persuade is a term used to illuminate the fact that not all of
the presidents power comes directly from the Constitution. In some instances, a president is
able to accomplish his goals because he can persuade othersparticularly Congress and the
publicto agree with them. For much of our nations history, the president would work quietly
with Congress to pass his legislative agenda. Since the 1930s, however, presidents have shown
more leadership by proposing the budget and working openly with Congress to achieve their
policy goals.

Answer the following questions:

1. How is the presidents power to persuade affected by his popularity?

2. Discuss the consequences that divided government has for the ability of the president
and Congress to get things accomplished (i.e., gridlock)?

Section 12.5 The President as National Leader


Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer

1. Which of the following does not describe a key power or role of the president?
The power to take care that the laws are faithfully executed.
The legislative power to veto laws.
The role of political party leader.
The role of chief counsel to the Supreme Court.

Supplemental Resource: Executive Orders video

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
For a closer look at the nature of executive orders watch Executive Orders. This video was
created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here:
Executive Orders Transcript. For additional practice, you can also complete the Executive
Orders Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

Supplemental Resource: Presidents, Congress, and War video


For a closer look at how the President and Congress make war decisions watch Going to War:
Who Decides?This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this
video can be accessed here: Going to War: Who Decides? Transcript. For additional practice,
you can also complete the Going to War: Who Decides? Knowledge Check to assess your
learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 13: The Bureaucracy

Section 13.1 Organization Matters

Answer the following questions:

1. Define bureaucracy?

2. What are some of the causes of the expansion of government bureaucracies?

Section 13.2 Bureaus and Bureaucrats

Answer the following questions:

1. What are the basic types of government organizations? (i.e., different parts of the executive
branch). Provide an example of each type.

2. Which of the following provides the best description of the organization and operation of the
executive branch? Circle, highlight, or check the correct answer.
The executive branch has a top-down administrative structure in which the president
exercises a great deal of control over similarly structured administrative agencies.
The executive branch is made up of diverse organizations with varying degrees of
independence from and control by the president.
Presidents operate with a high degree of control over personnel and policy decisions
across a wide range of administrative agencies within the executive branch.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
All bureaucrats within administrative agencies are insulated from party politics and,
thus, presidents are really not able to exert much influence over policy goals and policy
making.

Match the term with the description


The first column on each line is empty and is where you will match a term to the description in
the second column. Choose one of the following terms listed below and write or type it in the
box next to the definition it best fits. (Hint: you will only use each term once.)

Terms: government corporations; civil service; independent agency; departments

Term Description

Government agencies that perform services


that might be provided by the private sector
but involve insufficient financial incentive or
are better provided when they are somehow
linked to government.

Executive agencies that are not part of a


Cabinet Department. They stand alone and
are controlled by varying degrees by the
president.

The system by which most appointments to


the federal bureaucracy are made, to ensure
that government jobs are filled on the basis
of merit and that employees are not fired for
political reasons.

The biggest units of the executive branch,


covering a broad area of government
responsibility. The heads of the
departments, or secretaries, form the
president's cabinet.

Agencies that control or direct some aspect


of the economy.

Section 13.3 Administrative Policymaking: The Formal Processes

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Answer the following questions:

1. What is the rule making process?

2. How is the rule making process tied to how administrative agencies make policy?

3. Define administrative discretion and explain why Congress allows it.

Section 13.4 Administrative Policymaking: Informal Processes

Mentor Note: We often talk about bureaucracy as if it only exists as part of government.
Bureaucracy, however, is something we confront everyday as we encounter complex
organizations in our lives. In this section, the authors highlight the importance of culture for
understanding how a government agency works. Consider the culture of different private
bureaucracies (e.g., Apple or Wells Fargo) as a way of thinking about bureaucracy in general.
What norms or unwritten rules seem to be at work? How do those norms or unwritten rules
influence decision making?

Section 13.5 Problems in Implementing Policy

Answer the following question:

1. What are some of the obstacles to effective implementation of policies?

Section 13.6 Reforming the Bureaucracy: More Control or Less?

Answer the following question:

1. Describe these different bureaucratic reforms:


Deregulation:
Competition/outsourcing/privatization:
Performance standards:

Supplemental Resource: The Federal Government Bureaucracy video


For a closer look at the federal bureaucracy watch The Federal Government Bureaucracy This
video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed
here: The Federal Government Bureaucracy Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete The Federal Government Bureaucracy Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

Supplemental Resource: Bureaucracy in Democracy video


For a closer look at how bureaucracy functions within a democracy watch Bureaucracy in
Democracy. This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video
can be accessed here: Bureaucracy in Democracy Transcript. For additional practice, you can
also complete the Bureaucracy in Democracy Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 14: The Courts

Mentor Note: The federal courts are structured differently than the legislative and executive
branches. Federal judges are not elected and have, essentially, lifetime appointments. Federal
judges are, therefore, insulated from the direct political pressures of elections. The courts also
have reactive powers. In other words, courts do not exercise their powers until parties bring
their disputes to the courts in the form of litigation. In addition, if the parties to the dispute settle,
then the courts do not exercise their powers at all. Finally, the courts are constrained by the
facts of specific cases and bound by the law. This means that they make decisions on a case-
by-case basis and are expected to justify decisions on the basis of the law.

Section 14.1 National Judicial Supremacy


Fill in the blanks:
______________________ of the United States, shall be vested in one

_______________. The federal court system was created by ____________________

based on authority granted to it in Article ____________ of the Constitution.

Answer the following questions:

1. What is judicial review? Where does it come from?

2. Briefly describe the place of judicial review within the constitutional structure of checks and
balances.

3. How is judicial review potentially limited or constrained by the other branches?

Section 14.2 The Organization of Courts

Answer the following questions:

1. How does the organization of courts in the US reflect the principle of federalism?

2. Explain the importance of precedent and stare decisis in judicial decisions.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Section 14.3 The Supreme Court

Mentor Note: According to Article III, some cases going to the Supreme Court will fall under its
original jurisdiction, while others enter under the Courts appellate jurisdiction.

Answer the following questions:

1. What is the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction?

2. How do most cases reach the Supreme Court? (Briefly describe.)

3. How does a court case appeal to the Supreme Court?

4. Why does the Supreme Court pick some court cases and not others?

5. What happens to an appealed court case that the Supreme Court refuses to hear?

6. What is the difference between judicial restraint and judicial activism?

7. Explain the difference between judicial restraint and judicial activism. Connect these different
judicial philosophies with the majoritarian and pluralist models of democracy.

8. What are the steps in the Supreme Courts decision-making process?

9. Which of the following statements about judicial review is not correct? Circle, highlight, or
check the correct answer.

It is the power of the courts to declare national, state, and local laws invalid if they
violate the Constitution.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) formally established the Supreme Courts power of
judicial review.
The Supreme Court has no discretion about the cases it wishes to hear as part of its
exercise of judicial review.
Article III of the Constitution does not include an explicit reference to judicial review.

10. Which of the following is the result of a court issuing a petition of certiorari? Circle, highlight,
or check the correct answer.
A lower courts ruling is kept in place
A defendants arguments are rejected
A lower courts ruling is subject to review
An apellant's case is dismissed

Supplemental Resource: The Judicial Branch video

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
For a closer look at the federal judiciary and the power of judicial review watch The Judicial
Branch. This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can
be accessed here: The Judicial Branch Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete The Judicial Branch Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 15: Order and Civil Liberties

Section 15.1- The Bill of Rights


Answer the following questions:

1. Explain how civil liberties (negative rights) promote the value of freedom. (Use the freedom
of religion as an example. See section 15.1 of the text.)

2. Explain how civil rights (positive rights) promote the value of equality. (Use the example of
the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as an example. See section 15.1 of the text.)

Mentor Note: For review, and to connect the chapters, we recommend you complete the
following Constitution Amendments chart. Use it as a reference to study for the assessment.

Complete the following:


Identify each Amendment and its main ideas in the chart below. (See the Constitution in the
appendix of your text and Table 3.2 from chapter three for additional information.)
The Bill of
Rights-
Main Ideas of the Amendment
Amendments to
Constitution
1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
7th

8th

9th

10th

Section 15.2- Freedom of Religion


Mentor Note: When you review Supreme Court cases in this and other chapters of the text, we
encourage you to focus on three central features or aspects of those cases:
1. The central constitutional issue presented by the case
2. The most relevant facts that produced the conflict in the case
3. How the Supreme Court decided the case (including at least one key aspect of the Courts
argument).

Answer the following questions:

1. Define free-exercise clause:

2. Define establishment clause:

3. What are the main ideas in the following Supreme Court cases on the free-exercise and
establishment clauses of the 1 Amendment?
st

Lemon v. Kurtzman (Lemon Test)

Sherbert v. Verner (Strict Scrutiny)

Section 15.3- Freedom of Expression

Answer the following question:

What are the main ideas in the following Supreme Court cases on the free speech clause of the
1 Amendment?
st

Tinker v Des Moines:

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
Section 15.4- The Right to Bear Arms

Answer the following questions:

What are the main ideas in the following Supreme Court cases:

District of Columbia v. Heller:

McDonald v. Chicago:

Section 15.5- Applying the Bill of Rights to the States


Mentor Note: Originally, the Bill of Rights applied only to the national government. About sixty
years after ratification of 14th Amendment (1868), the US Supreme Court began to gradually
and selectively apply the Bill of Rights protections to the states through its decisions.
Specifically, the Court used the "due process clause " of the 14th Amendment to ensure states
complied with provisions in the Bill of Rights. This process has been called selective
incorporation. (See Figure 15.2 in the text.)

Answer the following questions:

1. What is the due process clause in the 14th amendment and what does it mean?

2. How does the Supreme Court case Gideon vs. Wainwright illustrate the process of
selective incorporation? Specifically, what constitutional right did the Court extend to
defendants in state courts?

3. Explain the main ideas and legal standards from these Supreme Court cases:

Gideon v. Wainwright:

Miranda v. Arizona:

Mapp v. Ohio:

4. Explain the USA Patriot Act and how it impacts civil liberties.

5. Explain how the exclusionary rule relates to unlawful search and seizure.

Section 15.6- The Ninth Amendment and Personal Autonomy

Answer the following questions:


1. Define and describe the right to privacy.

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

2. Explain how the right to privacy is different from other protections found in the Bill of
Rights.

3. Explain the main ideas and legal standards from these related Supreme Court cases:

Griswold v. Connecticut:

Roe v. Wade:

Lawrence v. Texas:

4. Which of the following accurately highlights the difference between the right to free
speech and the right to privacy (personal autonomy)? Circle, highlight, or check the
correct answer.
The right to free speech is absolute and the right to privacy is qualified.
The right to privacy is absolute and the right to free speech is qualified.
The right to privacy is an implied right; the right to free speech is an enumerated
right.
The right to free speech is an implied right; the right to privacy is an enumerated
right.

Supplemental Resource: Civil Liberties VS Civil Rights video


For a closer look at the differences between civil rights and civil liberties watch Civil Liberties
VS Civil Rights. This video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this
video can be accessed here: Civil Liberties VS Civil Rights Transcript. For additional practice,
you can also complete the Civil Liberties VS Civil Rights Knowledge Check to assess your
learning.

Supplemental Resource: Civil Liberties of the First Amendment video


For a closer look at civil liberties watch Civil Liberties of the First Amendment. This video was
created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed here: Civil
Liberties of the First Amendment Transcript. For additional practice, you can also complete the
Civil Liberties of the First Amendment Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.
__________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 16: Equality and Civil Rights

Section 16.1 Two Conceptions of Equality


Answer the following question:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution
1. What is the difference between equality of opportunity and equality of outcome?

Section 16.2 The Civil War Amendments


Answer the following questions:

1. Explain the three major ideas of the Fourteenth Amendment.

2. What are black codes/Jim Crow laws?

3. Describe racial segregation in the United States. Reference the Supreme Court decision in
Dred Scott (found in chapter 4.2 in subsection Judicial Interpretation).

4. Explain the separate but equal doctrine.

5. How did the court apply the Fourteenth Amendment in Plessy v. Ferguson? * See Mentor
note in Section 15.2 about what you should know about each court case.

Section 16.3 The Dismantling School Segregation


Answer the following questions:

1. How did the court apply the Fourteenth Amendment in Brown v. Board of Education? * See
Mentor note in Section 15.2 about what you should know about each court case.

2. Explain the differences between de facto and de jure segregation. Which of these types of
segregation was upheld in the Plessy case, but dismantled in the Brown case?

Section 16.4 The Civil Rights Movement


Answer the following questions:

1. Describe the civil rights movement.

2. Who was Rosa Parks and why was she significant to the civil rights movement?

3. What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott and why was it significant to the civil rights
movement?

4. Who was Martin Luther King Jr. and why was he significant to the civil rights movement?

5. Describe the following outcomes of the civil rights movement:

The Twenty-Fourth Amendment:

The Civil Rights Act of 1964:

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

The Voting Rights Act of 1965:

The Fair Housing Act of 1968:

Regents of University California Davis vs Bakke:

6. How did affirmative action laws change with the Supreme Court's ruling in the Regents
case?

Section 16.5 The Civil Rights and Other Minorities


Describe the effect of the civil rights movement on other minority groups' struggles for
equality, listed below.

Native Americans

1. The national government switched from focusing on separation of Native Americans to


assimilation. When did Native Americans receive citizenship and why was that
significant?

Hispanics

2. What event gave Hispanics national recognition for more rights?

Disabled Americans

3. How did the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) extend the protections provided in the
Civil Rights Act of 1964? What does the ADA guarantee to individuals with disabilities?

Homosexual Americans (LGBT Americans)

4. Ending the dont ask, dont tell policy in the military led to what result?

Mentor Note: The Supreme Court decided that the right to same-sex marriage was
guaranteed by the Constitution in the case Obergefell v. Hodges (2015).

Section 16.6 Gender and Equal Rights: The Womens Movement


Answer the following questions:

1. Define protectionism:

2. Describe the Nineteenth Amendment.

3. Describe how Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 pressed for womens rights.

4. What was the purpose of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)?

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Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

5. Why did the ERA fail to be ratified by the States?

Supplemental Resource: 5 Major Ideas of the 14th Amendment video


For a closer look at the 14th amendment watch 5 Major Ideas of the 14th Amendment. This
video was created by one of the course mentors. The transcript for this video can be accessed
here: 5 Major Ideas of the 14th Amendment Transcript. For additional practice, you can also
complete the 5 Major Ideas of the 14th Amendment Knowledge Check to assess your learning.

For additional information, please attend one of our live cohort sessions. If you feel you still
need and would like further assistance, please contact the course mentor.

Page 45 of 46
Study Guide Survey of United States Government and Constitution

Appendix A, Study Guide, Chapter 3


Roadmap Image Alternate or Long Description (from page 8)
This image illustrates a concept map using one of the end of chapter summaries of your learning
resource. It is color-coded and laid out with individual shapes enclosing text and arrows, to emphasize
that sections or terms of the summaries can be used by you as a study tool. You can break down the
summaries, identify terms, words, and themes, and use these to help you see connecting concepts.
The larger paragraph is entitled 3.3 From Revolution to Confederation, and is followed by the
paragraph After independence, a government was needed to replace the British monarchy. The
Americans chose a republic, and defined the structure of that republic in the Articles of Confederation.
Although the Articles guaranteed the states the independence they coveted, they were a failure; they
left the central government too weak to deal with disorder and insurrection.
The first point of emphasis is about independence. Independence of the states also created a weak
central government with very little power to engage in setting policies and enforcing them, such as no
power to tax.
The second point highlights the word republic in the paragraph. It defines it as a government rooted
in the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by elected representatives responsible to the
governed.
The third highlighted area leads from the highlighted term Articles of Confederation to emphasize
state sovereignty, In a confederation, the states retain their sovereignty, which means that each has
supreme power within its border.
The fourth point connects to the section referring to disorder and insurrection. Here, two examples are
given, as in trade wars and Shays Rebellion.
Return to Section 3.2

Branches and Powers of Government Image Alternate or Long Description (from


page 9)
This illustration shows icons representing the three branches of government: Legislative, Executive,
and Judicial. It is laid out like a celled grid or table, to demonstrate specific powers of each, as well as
how the powers of these branches interrelate to each other.
The Legislative Branch can make laws. The Executive Branch can veto laws, and recommend
legislation. The Judicial Branch can also review legislative acts.
The Executive Branch can make executive appointments; likewise, the Senate can confirm or reject
these appointments. The Legislative Branch can also override Executive vetoes, and reject foreign
treaties that the Executive Branch has made. The Executive Branch also can enforce laws. The Judicial
Branch can review Executive Acts and issue injunctions.
The Judicial Branch has the power to interpret laws. The Executive Branch has the power to grant
pardons and nominate judges. The Legislative Branch has the power to impeach officials, and create or
eliminate courts.
Return to Section 3.4

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