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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE METALLURGY LAB MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

INDEX

S.NO. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO

1 SPRING TEST 14

2 TENSION TEST 5 11

3 TORSION TEST 12 15

4 IMPACT TEST( CHARPY) 16 22

5 IMPACT TEST(IZOD) 23 28

6 DEFLECTION TEST 29 35

7 COMPRESSION TEST 36 40

8 HARDNESS TEST(ROCKWELL) 41 43

9 HARDNESS TEST(BRINELLS) 44 - 48
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

INDEX

S.NO. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO

1 SPRING TEST 14

2 TENSION TEST 5 11

3 TORSION TEST 12 15

4 IMPACT TEST( CHARPY) 16 22

5 IMPACT TEST(IZOD) 23 28

6 DEFLECTION TEST 29 35

7 COMPRESSION TEST 36 40

8 HARDNESS TEST(ROCKWELL) 41 43

9 HARDNESS TEST(BRINELLS) 44 - 48
Exp No :
Date :

ALUMINIUM
Aim: To study the microstructure of Aluminium.

Apparatus: Specimen, hacksaw, Grinding wheel, set of emery travels,


Bakelite Powder , disc polisher. Etchant (Sodium hydroxide 10gm + water
90ml), Drier, Metallurgical microscope.

Theory: The best known characteristic of aluminium is its light weight;


Aluminium has good malleability and formability, high corrosion resistance
and high electrical and thermal conductivity. Pure aluminium has a tensile
strength of about 13,000psi. One of the important characteristic of aluminium
is its machinability and workability.

Procedure:

The specimen being small, is mounted on bakelite using mounting press.


The mounted specimen surface is ground until unevenness of surface
is eliminated using Belt Grinder.
After the specimen surface is leveled it is polished on a successively
fine grades of emery papers (120, 220, 400, 600, and finally on 800 grit).
Fine Polishing is done on a disc Polisher (Rotating Polishing Wheel),
the wheel is fitted with a Polishing cloth and suspension of fine alumina
powder in water used as a polishing medium.
A Scratch free surface is obtained after fine polishing for sufficient period (15
minutes)
After fine polishing specimen is thoroughly washed with water and dried.
The specimen is Etched for specified time using a suitable etchant (Sodium
hydroxide 10gm + water 90ml).to preferentially reveals the microstructure.
ALUMINIUM
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE METALLURGY LAB

JOMINY END QUENCH TEST

AIM:

To conduct the hardenability test on steel by end quench test and plotting graph
between distance from quenched end to Rockwell hardness.

APPARATUS:

Muffle Furnace, Fixture, Quick acting water valve, standard size orifice, Rockwell
Hardness Testing machine.

THEORY:

Hardenability is defined as susceptibility to hardening by Quenching. A material that


has high Hardenability is said to harden more uniformly throughout than one with
heir Hardenability.

A steel quenched to 100% martensite upto its centre may have a lower surface
hardness (as its carbon content is low), but it still has higher Hardenability as
compared to a steel having higher surface hardness due to 100% martensite there,
but lower Hardenability.

PROCEDURE:

The specimen (standard size) is heated to proper austenzing temperature


and soak it for required time till uniform temp is obtained throughout the cross
section of the specimen.

It is quickly placed in a fixture, water is impinged from below through standard


orifice allowed from a quick acting value.

The end Quenching continues, until the bar is cooled sufficiently (handling
temperature)

54 Jominey end quench test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE METALLURGY LAB

Flat edge is ground on the surface of the specimen (0.015) in deep Rockwell
hardness values are determined at every 1/16 inch along the length of the
specimen from the Quenched end.

PRECAUTIONS:

Proper soaking time is given to the specimen.

Proper care should be taken while hardening the specimen.

The specimen must be as per IS and BS specifications.

Keep the equipment dry and when not in use by draining the water
through water outlet.

OBSERVATION:

Graph is drawn between distances from quenched end to Rockwell hardness and
is found to be decreasing from the end.

55 Jominey end quench test


MECHANICS OF
SOLIDS LAB MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE


GUDLAVALLERU
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

SPRING TESTING
MACHINE

Spring Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

SPRING TESTING MACHINE


AIM:
To find the stiffness of the given spring using tensile testing machine

APPARATUS:
KMI testing machine model 1.3-D ,,set of weight discs and springs.

PROCEDURE:

1. Select the measuring range by attaching weights on the pendulum rod. (Use
B for 0- 5000N range).

2. To control sudden fall of the pendulum the valve opening of the dash point is
increased for lower range and decreased for higher range.

3. Set the zero in the measuring dial by moving the collar as on the pendulum
bracket arm

4. Fix the griper for tensile testing.

5. Fix the spring between these two grippers.

6. After fixing spring, note the reading of the knife-edge pointing on scale
provided on upper gripping device

7. Turn the power on and press down button to apply gradual tensile force on
the spring.

8. Note the tensile force from the measuring dial for every 10mm elongation of
spring

9. Draw the graph by taking elongation () on X-axis and force (F) on Y- axis.

10. Calculate the slope of the line joining all the measured points by a straight
line, which gives the stiffness of the given spring.

11. Repeated procedure for different springs of same material.

Spring Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

OBSERVATIONS:

Deflection ( ) mm Tensile Force (F) Stiffness


Loading Un-Loading N f
(k )
S.No.
Initial Final Net Initial Final Net Initial Final Net
mm mm mm mm mm mm N
mm

1
2
3
4

CALCULATION:

Net Deflection in loading = Final Initial = mm

Net deflection in unloading = Final Initial = mm

Net Tensile force = Final Initial = N

f
Stiffness k = = N
mm

Spring Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

GRAPH:
A graph is drawn taking elongation on x- axis and tensile force on y- axis.

F2
Force in N

F1

1 2 Deflection in mm .

RESULT:
Stiffness of the given spring =
From graph =

Spring Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

TENSION TEST

Tension Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

TENSION TEST
AIM:
To conduct tension test on the given steel specimen for determining the
1. Stress at yield point.
2. Ultimate stress.
3. Nominal breaking stress.
4. Actual breaking stress.
5. Percentage elongation.
6. Percentage reduction in area.
7. Youngs modulus.
APPARATUS:
1. Universal testing machine with accessories
2. Vernier calipers.
3. Scale.
4. Dot punch.
5. Hammer.
6. Specimens as ISI
THEORY:
The Tension test which is conducted on a universal testing machine at room
temperature is a common method to evaluate strength and ductility under static load
conditions. The tension test is carried out by loading a standard specimen gripped
at both ends and measuring the resultant elongation of the specimens at various
increments of loads.

PROCEDURE:
1. Measure the diameter of the given mild steel specimen at three different
places with the help of vernier calipers and determine the average diameter of
the specimen and gauge length.
2. Mount the specimen in the grip of the movable and fixed cross head

Tension Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

3. Adjust the load stabilizer, start the machine and open the inlet valve slightly.
When the load pointer just kicks it, indicates that the load is held caught
between the grips, and then adjusts the pointer to read zero.
4. Apply the load at a steady uniform rate and until specimen breaks.
5. After some time the actual point returns slowly. At this stage, a neck is formed
in the specimen, which breaks. Note the position of actual pointer during
breaking. Record the maximum load as Breaking load.
6. Press the freeze button and then print to get the graph between load verses
elongation.
7. Repeat the procedure for other specimen.

OBSERVATIONS:

Diameter of rod --- Trial 1 = mm

Trial 2 = mm

Trial 3 = mm

Average diameter of rod d o = mm

Original length (Gauge length) of rod L0 = mm

Yield point load Py = KN

Ultimate load Pu = KN

Breaking load Pb = KN

Diameter of the rod at neck d f = mm

Gauge length l o = mm

Tension Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB
TABULAR FORM
Final Neck
Original Neck Original Original Yield Ultimate Breaking Youngs
%
Length area stress stress stress Modulus %
S.no diameter diameter Length Area Reduction
Lf 2
Af N N N N Elongation
d o mm d f mm Lo mm Ao mm in area
mm mm2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2

Tension Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

GRAPH:
Print the graph between load [y-axis] and deflection [x-axis] from the graph
calculate stresses.

CALCULATION:
2
Original area of cross section Ao = d0
4

2
Area of cross section at neck A
f = df
4

Yieldload
Stress at yield point = N / mm 2
Originalarea

Ultimateload
Ultimate stress = N / mm 2
Originalarea

Breakingload
Actual breaking stress = N / mm 2
Originalarea

A0 A f
Percentage reduction in area = 100
A0

Tension Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

L0 L f
Percentage elongation = 100
L0

Youngs modulus =

Original Length L0 = mm

Final Length L f = mm

RESULT:

Stresses from graph =

Tension Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

TORSION TEST

1 Torsion Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

TORSION TEST
AIM:
To find out the shear stress and rigidity modulus of the given material using
the torsion testing machine
APPARATUS:
Torsion testing machine Model TT-6. Vernier calipers, scale, specimens
SPECIFICATIONS:
Max torque capacity : 60 N m
Torque ranges : 0- 60 N m
No of divisions on dial : 600
Torsion speed : 1.5 RPM
Clearance between grips : 0- 420 mm
Grips for round bars : 4- 8 mm
Grips for flat bars (t) : 1- 5 mm , 25 mm
Motor power : 0.5 HP
Accuracy of torque indication: +1% of true torque above 20% its range
PROCEDURE:
1. Measure the diameter of the specimen and select the suitable grips for the
specimen and insert into the driving and driven chucks
2. Insert the specimen into the two chucks by holding driven chuck firmly.
3. Adjust torque range depending on the type of specimen (hard or soft) by
turning a knob on the right hand side of measuring panel.
4. Then adjust the zero of the angle-measuring disc.
5. Switch on the motor by pressing green button.
6. Switch off the motor after the specimen breaks.
7. Note down the torque shown by the red pointer in the dial and that is the
maximum capacity of specimen.
8. The angle of twist can be directly read on the angle-measuring disc.
9. Repeat the Same Procedure for different specimens of the same material.

2 Torsion Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

T T

OBSERVATIONS:
Shear Rigidity
Gauge Torque Twist stress modulus
Diameter
S.NO Material length (T) ( ) (G)
(d) mm
(L)mm N-m Rad N N
mm 2 mm 2

CALCULATIONS:
d 4
Polar moment of inertia of rod (J) =
32

T G

J r L
Slope = Tan =
T L
Rigidity of modulus= G N
J mm 2

T r
Shear stress () = N
J mm 2
RESULT:

The maximum shear stress on the given material is ___________ N


mm 2

Rigidity modulus ________ N


mm 2

3 Torsion Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

IMPACT TEST
(CHRPY TEST)

1 Charpy Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

IMPACT TEST (CHARPY)


AIM:
To determine the impact strength of the given specimen by conducting
Charpy test.

APPARATUS:
Charpy testing machine with accessories, specimen, Vernier Calipers.

THEORY:
The loads that are suddenly applied to a structure are known as impact loads.
The performance on engineering materials like strength, toughness etc. vary with
rate of loading. Materials exhibits poor performance under dynamic or shock loads.
Hence it is required to know how the strength and toughness varies with impact or
instant shock loads. In the impact test, the impact strength (i.e. the resistance to
shock loads) and the toughness of material under dynamic load is determined.
The principle employed in all impact testing procedures is that a material
absorbs a certain amount of energy before it breaks or fractures. The quantity of
energy thus absorbed is characteristic of the physical nature of the materials. If it is
brittle it breaks more readily, i.e., absorbs a lesser quantity of energy and if it is
tough, it needs more energy for fracture.
The two important standard impact tests are (1) Izod Impact test and (2)
Charpy impact test.

DESCRIPTION:
The machine consists of a swinging pendulum that has an arm and head. For
this test the dimensions of standard specimen are 55 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm . It is a
simple supported beam. Swinging Head strikes other side of the specimen notch.
Pendulum falls from 1.457 m height or from an angle of 140 0. The weight swinging
hammer is 20.932 kg or 250 N. The specimen struck exactly at its centre i.e. 27.5
mm . The machine also has a pedal operated brake, to stop the hammer after the
specimen is struck.

2 Charpy Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

SPECIFICATIONS:

Maximum impact energy of pendulum 300 Joules

Minimum value of scale graduation 2 Joules

Distance between supports 40 mm 0.2 mm

Angle of test piece supports 780 to 800

Angle of inclination of supports 00

Radius of supports 1 mm to 1.5 mm

Maximum width of striker 10 18 mm

Angle of striking edge 300 10

Radius of curvature of striking edge 2 mm to 2.5 mm

Weight of the machine 415 kg (approx.)

PROCEDURE:
1. Measure the dimensions of specimen by using Vernier Calipers.
2. Raise the pendulum and keep it in position, fix the correct striking edges to
the head of the swinging pendulum.
3. Set the pointer of the scale to maximum energy value.
4. Calibrate the tester by releasing the clutch so that the pointer coincides with
zero on the scale with no specimen at the anvil
5. Re-clutch the hammer after calibration.
6. Place the specimen centrally over the supports such that the notch is
opposite to striking end.
7. Reset the pointer on the scale at its maximum value
8. Release the pendulum by operating the two levers simultaneously. The
striking edge strike against the specimen and ruptures it. The specimen
absorbs a part of the energy due to fall of the pendulum.
9. Stop the free swinging or oscillations of pendulum by a pedestal brake.

3 Charpy Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

10. Collect the broken pieces of specimen to observe the nature of fracture.
11. Read the scale reading as shown by the pointer as the toughness of material
in Joules.

OBSERVATIONS:
BREADTH

Vernier
Main Scale Reading MSR VC LC
S.No Coincidence
MSR , mm mm
VC , mm

Avg. Breadth = mm

THICKNESS

Vernier
MSR VC LC
S.No
Main Scale Reading
Coincidence
MSR mm mm
VC , mm

Avg. Thickness = mm

4 Charpy Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

TABULAR FORM

Energy
Area of the absorbed, Specific
Material of Energy absorbed
specimen J Impact Power
the Specimen to break the
S.No. at the Notch J
specimen, J
mm mm Initial Final mm 2

CALCULATIONS:
Specific impact power = Energy absorbed / area of cross section at the notch

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Ensure no one is at the path of swinging hammer, before its every return case

2. The pointer should be at the bottom i.e. it should at maximum value of scale,
prior to the release of the hammer.

3. Ensure the right striking edge, and correct weight of the swinging head.

4. Swinging hammer should be clutched at the standard height depending upon


the type of testing.

5 Charpy Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

RESULT:
Specific impact power of the given material =

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS:
1. Differentiate between Impact loads, gradually applied load and suddenly
applied load?
2. Define strength, toughness, Brittleness?
3. Which type of material absorbs more energy i.e. either Brittle or ductile
material?

6 Charpy Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

IZOD TEST
AIM : To determine the suitability of a material, which is expected to resist repeated
shocks, by determining the energy required to break the material by conducting Izod
test.
APPARATUS:
1. Izod testing machine with Accessories
2. Specimen
3. Vernier calipers

THEORY:
The loads that are suddenly applied to a structure are known as impact loads.
The performance on engineering materials like strength, toughness etc. vary with
rate of loading. Materials exhibits poor performance under dynamic or shock loads.
Hence it is required to know how the strength and toughness varies with impact or
instant shock loads. In the impact test, the impact strength (i.e. the resistance to
shock loads) and the toughness of material under dynamic load is determined.
The principle employed in all impact testing procedures is that a material
absorbs a certain amount of energy before it breaks or fractures. The quantity of
energy thus absorbed is characteristic of the physical nature of the materials. If it is
brittle it breaks more readily, i.e., absorbs a lesser quantity of energy and if it is
tough, it needs more energy for fracture.
The two important standard impact tests are (1) Izod Impact test and (2)
Charpy impact test.

DESCRIPTION:
The machine consists of a swinging pendulum that has an arm and head. For
this test the dimensions of standard specimen are 75 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm . It is a
cantilever beam. Swinging Head strikes face of the specimen notch. Pendulum falls
from 0.758 m height or from an angle of 84 0. The weight swinging hammer is 21.79
kg or 214 N. The specimen struck exactly at its centre i.e. 27.5 mm . The machine
also has a pedal operated brake, to stop the hammer after the specimen is struck.

1 Izod Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

PROCEDURE:
1. The specimen is of square cross section of 10 mm side of and its length is 75
mm . It is notched at a distance of 28 mm from one side, the notch being 2
mm deep and with an inclined angle of 45o.
2. Rise the pendulum and keep it in position, Fix the correct striking edges to the
head of the swinging pendulum.
3. See the pointer of the scale is positioned at the maximum energy value.
4. Calibrate the tester by releasing the clutch so that the pointer coincides with
zero on the scale with no specimen at the anvil
5. Re-clutch the hammer after calibration.
6. The specimen is firmly held in the vice and fastened to base of the machine.
7. Place the specimen centrally over the supports such that the notch is
opposite to striking end.
8. Reset the pointer on the scale at its maximum value
9. Release the pendulum by operating the two levers simultaneously. The
striking edge strike against the specimen and ruptures it.The specimen
absorbs a part of the energy due to fall of the pendulum.
10. Stop the free swinging or oscillations of pendulum by a pedestal brake.
11. Collect the broken pieces of specimen to observe the nature of fracture.
12. Read the scale reading as shown by the pointer as the toughness of material
in Joules.

2 Izod Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

OBSERVATIONS:
BREADTH

Vernier
Main Scale Reading MSR VC LC
Coincidance
S.No MSR mm mm
VC mm

Avg. Breadth = mm

THICKNESS

Vernier
Main Scale Reading MSR VC LC
Coincidance
S.No MSR mm mm
VC mm

Avg. Thickness = mm

3 Izod Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

TABULAR FORM
Energy
Area of the absorbed, Specific
Material of Energy absorbed
S.No. specimen J Impact Power
the Specimen to break the
at the Notch J
specimen, J
mm mm Initial Final mm 2

CALCULATIONS:
Specific impact power = Energy absorbed / area of cross section at the notch

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Ensure no one is at the path of swinging hammer, before its every return case

2. The pointer should be at the bottom i.e. it should at maximum value of scale,
prior to the release of the hammer.

3. Ensure the right stricking edge, and correct weight of the swinging head.

4. Swinging hammer should be clutched at the standard height depending upon


the type of testing.

RESULT: Specific impact power of the given material =

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS:
1. Differentiate between Impact loads, gradually applied load and suddenly
applied load?
2. Define strength, toughness, Brittleness?
3. Which type of material absorbs more energy i.e. either Brittle or ductile
material?

4 Izod Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

DEFLECTION TEST

1 Deflection Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

DEFLECTION TEST
AIM:
To determine the youngs modulus and bending stress for the given steel
beam by conducting deflection test.
APPARATUS:
Two knife edge supports, Deflectometer, Calipers, Scale, load hanger, set of
weights.
THEORY:
A beam extremely supported at both ends and load applied normal to axis of
beam is called simply supported beam. The maximum deflection occurs at middle of
span, where the load is applied at the Mid Point of the beam. The loads are placed
in pan. The pan is adjusted to exactly middle of the beam. Weights are slowly
placed on the pan. The beam under goes deflection. The deflection of the beam is
measured with the help of dial gauge and with the help of relation between deflection
of beam and load system. The Modulus of elasticity of material of the beam is
obtained. For this purpose consider two cases loading & unloading.

L
2

t

Beam cross section
Load

Simply supported beam

2 Deflection Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

DESCRIPTION:
The apparatus consists of beam testing on two simply supported knife

edges. The load W is applied at centre and the maximum deflection is


measured at centre. For this load condition the deflection at centre is given by
L3 W
= f=
My
48 I E I

L3 W
E=
48 I
Where

W = concentrated load at centre in N E=YoungsModulus in N


mm 2

L = Length of the beam in mm f = bending stress N


mm 2
= Deflection of the beam in mm y = Distance of top fiber from
I = Moment of Inertia about Neutral axis Neutral axis
WL
b = breadth of the beam in mm M = Bending moment
4
t = Thickness of the beam in mm

PROCEDURE:
1. Adjust the knife-edge supports for the required span.

2. Measure the dimensions of the given beam.

3. Place test beam over the center of supports.

4. Place the deflectometer under the beam where the deflection is to be


measured.

5. Suspend the hanger at the point where the deflection of the beam is to be
noted.

6. Note the initial reading of the deflectometer.

7. Add the loads to the hanger art the rate of 500N, the load should be carefully
applied with out causing any shock.

3 Deflection Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

8. Note the corresponding deflectometer reading for each increasing load.

9. Observe five set of readings.

10. Remove the loads at the rate of 500 N

11. Note the corresponding deflectometer reading for each decreasing load.

12. Draw the graph load Vs deflection mm taking deflection on X-axis and load
on Y-axis.

OBSERVATIONS:

Span of the beam (L) = mm

Width of the beam (b) = mm

Thickness of the beam (t) = mm

Least count of Deflectometer =

BREADTH

Vernier
Main Scale Reading MSR VC LC
Coincidence
S.No MSR mm mm
VC mm

Avg. Breadth = mm

4 Deflection Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

THICKNESS

Vernier
Main Scale Reading MSR VC LC
Coincidence
S.No MSR mm mm
VC mm

Avg. Thickness = mm

TABULAR FORM
Deflection in, mm Youngs
Deflectometer Reading
Load (Initial Final) modulus
S.No.
W (N) Loading Un-Loading Un- N
Loading Aveg
Initial Final Initial Final Loading mm 2

5 Deflection Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:
For a simply supported beam of span l with central load W and deflection is
measured at mid span
WL 3
Deflection at center, =
48 EI
bt 3
Moment of inertia, I =
12
L3 W
E=
48 I
M F
From the bending equation,
I Y
M
F Y
I
GRAPH:
Plot a graph between load and deflection from the graph corresponding to
any convenient points. Find the value of W/ ratio and calculate E from expression
L3 W
E =
48 I
RESULT:

Youngs modulus of beam materials is = _________ N


mm 2

Youngs modulus from Graph = __________ N


mm 2

Bending stress at the applied maximum load is = __________ N


mm 2

ASSESSMENT QUESTION:
1. Define Youngs modulus, what are its units?
2. What is moment of inertia?
3. Define Hooks Law?
4. Define Bending moment?
5. Area under stress Strain curve is?

6 Deflection Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

COMPRESSION TEST

Compression Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

COMPRESSION TEST

AIM: -
To determine the ultimate crushing strength of concrete and wood
EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS USED:
Compression Testing Machine M/C (CTM).
Wooden block or Concrete block
Scale.
THEORY:
Concrete and Wood are generally used in engineering constructions and it
may be subjected to compressive loads. To with stand the structural loads, it is
necessary to determine the compressive strength of concrete and wood.
Compressive test is conducted at room temperature to determine the ultimate
compressive strength of the given concrete and wooden block under static loading
conditions. The external faces of wooden block are made perfectly plane. The block
is held between the lower and upper cross head of C. T. M. Inter mutual loads are
applied gradually on the specimen. The concrete or wood undergoes compression.
At a particular load the needle of the control unit starts to rotate anti clock wise,
which can be noted as ultimate crushing load.

DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT:


Compression Testing Machine is operated hydraulically. Driving is performed
with the help of electric motor. Depending upon the size of the specimen the C. T. M.
can be set into two ranges C. T. M. consists of two units
(a) Loading & (b) Control Unit.
The specimen is tested upon the loading unit and the corresponding readings are
taken from the dial fitted to the control unit. Hydraulic cylinder is fitted in the center of
the base and the piston slides in the cylinder when the machine is in operated. A
lower table is rigidly connected to an upper crosshead by two straight columns. This
assembly moves up and down. Compression test is conducted by putting the
specimen in between lower table and upper crosshead.

Compression Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

The control panel consists the two valves one is at right side and the another
one at left side. These valves control the flow of oil in the hydraulic system. The right
side valve is a pressure flow control valve and left side valve is return valve to allow
the oil from cylinder to go back in to the tank. Control panel consists of
dynamometer, which measures and indicates the load on the specimen.

PROCEDURE:

1) Prepare the concrete or wood specimen as per required dimensions.

a) In case of compression test of wood perpendicular to the grain, tests


are made on normal 50 x 50 x 150 mm .

b) In case of compression test of wood parallel to the grains the


dimensions of the specimen are 50 x 50 x 200 mm .

c) Incase of concrete block 150 x 150 x 150 mm

2) Measure the dimensions of the specimen with the help of scale.

3) Place the specimen in between the lower table and upper crosshead of C. T.
M. in such a way that the grains of the specimen are perpendicular to the
direction of application of the load.

4) Apply the compressive load on the specimen. The needle of the control unit
rotates in clockwise direction.

5) By applying the load the specimen crushes. At particular load the needle
starts to rotate in anti clockwise direction. The corresponding load is called
ultimate crushing load.

6) Repeat the same procedure by keeping the specimen in such away that the
grains are along the axis of loading and take the ultimate crushing load.

Compression Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

OBSERVATIONS:

When the load is applied perpendicular to the grains of the specimen.

Ultimate Crushing
Area of cross
Ultimate crushing Stress
section
S.No load in N Pc
in mm2 A c Pc A N
mm 2

When the load is applied along the grains of the specimen.

Ultimate Crushing
Area of cross
Ultimate crushing Stress
section
S.No load in N Pc
in mm2 A c Pc A N
mm 2

RESULT:
Ultimate crushing strength of given concrete or wood specimen =
When the load is applied perpendicular to the grains of the specimen =
When load acts along the grains =

Compression Test
GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

ROCKWELL HARDNESS
TEST

1 Rockwell Hardness Test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST

AIM: To measure the Rockwell hardness number for the given material.

APPARATUS: Rockwell hardness testing machine with accessories, emery paper,


Specimen.
THEORY:
Hardness is the property exhibited by a material. It can be defined as the
property of a material by virtue of which it resists scratch, wear, abrasion or
indentation.

DESCRIPTION:
Rockwell Hardness Testing consists of an anvil which can be changed
depending up on the shape of the specimen under test. Different anvils are
available for different specimen. The anvil can moved up or down. But turning the
hand wheel, which is situated, at bottom of the spindle a loading leaver is situated at
the right hand side bottom position of the machine. The loading mass also be
applied by simple operating a handle leaver which is just below the handle wheel.
The machine reading type. These are two scales B and C. B for soft
material, C for Hard materials.

PROCEDURE:
1. Remove all mill scales from the surface of the specimen by rubbing it with
emery paper
2. Based on the type of materials, select the proportional load on the indenting
tool for very hard materials, measure in Rockwell C scale, 1500N
proportional load and diamond penetrator. For medium hard and soft
materials measure in Rockwell E scale, 1000N proportional load and 1.58
mm dia. ball penetrater.
3. Insert indenter and fasten with a screw.
4. Keep the load required for the scale which we are using.

2 Rockwell Hardness Test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

5. Place the specimen on the anvil and turn the wheel to raise the elevating
screw till the small pointer on the dial reaches the set position. Now the
specimen is subjected to the preliminary load of 100N and also set the big
pointer to zero.
6. Push forward the Loading handle to transmit the major load to the specimen.
7. When the penetration is complete (Give 5 to 6 seconds for hard material and
6 to 8 seconds for soft material) release the major load by pushing backward
the loading handle. Keep the initial 100N load still on the specimen.
8. Then directly read the Rockwell C or Rockwell B hardness number on the
dial where the needle stopped and record it.
9. Then release the minor load of 100N by rotating the hand wheel and lowering
the screw.
10. Repeat the Experiments to obtain at least four different sets of observation for
the same material.
OBSERVATIONS:
Minor Major
Indenter Scale
S.No Material Trail No. load in load in R. H. No.
used used
N N

Average R.H.No. =

RESULT: Rockwell hardness No. for the given material = _________ Rc or RB

3 Rockwell Hardness Test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

BRINNELL HARDNESS
TEST

1 Brinnels Hardnes Test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

BRINNELS HARDNESS TEST

AIM: To measure the Brinnel hardness number for the given material.

APPARATUS: Brinnels hardness testing machine with accessories, emery paper,


microscope, specimen.

THEORY:
Hardness is the property exhibited by a material. It can be defined as the
property of a material by virtue of which it resists scratch, wear, abrasion or
indentation.

DESCRIPTION:
For a number of engineering materials which are subjected to friction such as
steel, cast iron etc. it is necessary to find out their resistance to wear and tear
(hardness). Hardness of a surface can be increased by heat treatment or by
chemical treatment and finding out the hardness can check the efficiency of the
process. The Brinnels hardness test is carried out by forcing a hardened steel ball
of diameter D under a load of P into a test specimen and measuring the mean
diameter d of the indentation left on the surface after removal of the load. Normally
for hard materials a ball of 10 mm diameter should be used. For soft material 5mm,
2.5mm, 2mm and 1mm are to be used depending upon the softness of the surface.
P
The British Standard Institution has recommended the following four different
D2
ratios for different materials.

The hydraulic pump applies the load required for specified time. A Brinnel
Microscope is used to measure the Indentation.
2P
BHN =
D[ D D 2 d 2 ]
Where P is the load adjusted in the machine in N
D is the diameter of indenter and

2 Brinnels Hardnes Test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

d is the diameter of impression

In Brinnels Machine the surface area of the Indentation is calculated and is


used as an index of hardness of the metal.
The surface area of Indentation is dependent upon the depth of penetration.
The load applied (in kgf) divided by the spherical area of Indentation in square mm is
taken as the Brinnels Hardness number.

PROCEDURE:
1. Polish the surface with emery paper.
2. Place the specimen on the work table and raise it by turning the elevating
screw till the small pointer on the dial reaches the set position. Now the
specimen is subjected to the preliminary the load 10 kgf
3. Adjust the diaphragm the required weight, that is, if the penetrate diameter is
25mm, and P/D2 ratio is 30, then the load to be adjusted to 187.5 Kg. If the
diameter of penetrater is 10 mm, then the load is 30 Kg (300N). Apply the
load by operating the lever arm.
4. Wait for 30 Sec for soft materials and 15 sec for hard material so as to make
the load reach the specimen fully. Wait till the pointer stops moving.
5. Remove the specimen and measure the diameter of the indentation correct to
0.1mm with Brinnel microscope. To do this, keep the specimen at
microscope adjusted indentation to the scale of the microscope and measure
the diameter of the indentation.
6. Repeated the process to obtain at least 4 different sets of observation for the
same material.
2P
7. Brinnel Hardness number B.H.N =
D[ D D 2 d 2 ]

3 Brinnels Hardnes Test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

OBSERVATIONS:
Diameter of the indenter = mm
Load = kgf

TABULAR FORM
Diameter Load P B.H.N
Diameter of impression
S.No Material of indentor kgf
mm
Trail I Trail II Average

CALCULATION:

2P
B.H.N =
D[ D D 2 d 2 ]

RESULT:
Brinnel Hardness Number for the given material = _________ BHN

4 Brinnels Hardnes Test


GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS LAB

ASSESSMENT QUESTION:
1. Define Hardness? What is meant by Indentation?
2. How the ball Indenter diameter varies with load?
3. What is the load, ball Indenter ratios for different materials?
4. What is the least count for Brinnel Microscope?
5. What are the different grades of ball Indenters?

5 Brinnels Hardnes Test


DEFLECTION OF BEAM
(a)Simply supported beam
Aim:-
To determined youngs modulus of elasticity of material of beam simply
supported at ends.

Apparatus:-
Beam with rectangular cross section, weight, dial indicator

Theory:-
If a beam is simply supported at the ends and carries a concentrated load at its
centre, the beam bends concave upwards. The distance between the original position
of the beams and its position after bending is different points along the length of the
beam, being maximum at the center in this case. The difference is known as
deflection.

Formula:-
In this particular type of loading the maximum amount of
deflection() is given by the relation as


E=

W load applied
L length of the beam
E - youngs modulus of elasticity
I - Moment of inertia
(b)Cantilever beam
Aim:-

To determined youngs modulus of elasticity of material of cantilever beam.

Apparatus:-
Beam with rectangular cross section, weight, dial indicator

Theory:-
A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the
load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. Cantilever
construction allows for overhanging structures without external bracing. If the free end
of a cantilever beam is subjected to a point load, P, the beam will deflect into a
curve. The larger the load, the greater the deflection.
IZOD IMPACT TEST
Aim :-

To determine the hardness of the given workpiece.

Apparatus:-

Izod impact test machine, workpiece, vernier callipers, steel


rule.

Theory:-

The behaviour of material under dynamic loading may


sometime differ remarkably from their behaviour under static or
gradually increasing load. In practice the load on machine members
such as chain, hooks, spring, buffer are more or less suddenly applied
and usuallu fail by brittle fracture. Hence there is a need for studying
the effect produced by dynamic loading.

An impact test indicates the toughness of the material and its


capacity to resist shock loads. The fault in heat treatment process
can be detected by this test. Non homogeneity of the material can
also be found out.

In doing impact test load may be applied in flexure torsion,


compression or tension. Flexural loading is the most common one.
Izod impact testing is done by clamping a specimen in the base of a
pendulum testing machine so that it is cantilevered upward with the
notch facing the direction of impact. The pendulum is released, and
the force cosumed in breaking the sample is calculated from the
height the pendulum reaches on the follow-through.
Formula:-
2
Impact strength(I) =

K- impact energy

A- Cross section area


Torsion test
Aim:-

To determine the modulus of rigidity by conducting torsion


test.

Apparatus:-

Torsion test machine, standard specimen, twist meter for


measuring angle of twist, steel rule

Theory:-
A torsion test measures the strength of any material against maximum twisting forces. It is an
extremely common test used in material mechanics to measure how much of a twist a certain
material can withstand before cracking or breaking. This applied pressure is referred to as
torque. Materials typically used in the manufacturing industry, such as metal fasteners and
beams, are often subject to torsion testing to determine their strength under duress.

There are three broad categories under which a torsion test can take place: failure testing, proof
testing and operational testing. Failure testing involves twisting the material until it breaks. Proof
testing observes whether a material can bear a certain amount of torque load over a given period
of time. Operational testing tests specific products to confirm their elastic limit before going on
the market.

It is critical for the results of each torsion test to be recorded. Recording is done through creating
a stress-strain diagram with the angle of twist values on the X-axis and the torque values on the
Y-axis. Using a torsion testing apparatus, twisting is performed at quarter-degree increments with
the torque that it can withstand recorded. The strain corresponds to the twist angle, and the
stress corresponds to the the torque measured.

After testing, metal materials are categorized as being either ductile or brittle. Ductile metals such
as steel or aluminum have high elastic limits and can withstand a great deal of strain before
breaking. Brittle materials such as cast iron and concrete have low elastic limits and do not
require much strain before rupturing.

Without performing a torsion test, materials would not be properly vetted before being released
for industrial use. It is of paramount importance that the ability for a material to bear a certain
amount of twisting is accurately measured. Otherwise, structures and machines that depend on
such materials could break down causing instability, work flow interruption or even significant
damage and injury.
Formula:-

Modulus of rigidity =

T- Torque applied

L guage length

- polar moment of inertia = (for circular cross section)
32 4

- angle of twist
TENSILE TEST
Aim:-

To determine tensile strength of the specimen

Apparatus:-

Universal testing machine, specimen

Theory:-

The tensile test is most applied one, of all mechanical tests. In


this test ends of test piece are fixed into grips connected to a
straining device and to a load measuring device. If the applied load is
small enough, the deformation of any solid body is entirely elastic.
An elastically deformed solid will return to its original form as soon
as load is removed. However, if the load is too large, the material can
be deformed permanently. The initial part of the tension curve which
is recoverable immediately after unloading is termed. As elastic and
the rest of the curve which represents the manner in which solid
undergoes plastic deformation is termed plastic. The stress below
which the deformations essentially entirely elastic is known as the
yield strength of material. In some material the plastic deformation is
denoted by a sudden drop in load indicating both an upper and a
lower yield point. However, some materials do not exhibit a sharp
yield point. During plastic deformation, at larger extensions strain
hardening cannot compensate for the decrease in section and thus
the load passes through a maximum and then begin to decrease. This
stage the ultimate strength which is defined as the ratio of the load
on the specimen to original cross-sectional area, reaches a maximum value.
Further loading will eventually cause neck formation and rupture.
TEST ON SPRING
Aim:-

To determine stiffness of spring and modulus of rigidity of the spring


wire.

Apparatus:-

Spring testing machine, spring, vernier callipers, micrometer

Theory:-
Springs are elastic member which distort under load and regain their
original shape when load is removed. They are used in railway carriages, motor
cars, scooters, motorcycles, rickshaws, governors etc. According to their uses
the springs perform the following Functions:
(1) To absorb shock or impact loading as in carriage springs.
(2) To store energy as in clock springs
(3) To apply forces to and to control motions as in brakes and clutches.
(4) To measure forces as in spring balances.
(5) To change the variations characteristic of a member as in flexible
mounting of motors.

The spring is usually made of either high carbon steel (0.7 to 1.0%) or medium
carbon alloy steels. Phosphor bronze, brass, 18/8 stainless steel and Monel and
other metal alloys are used for corrosion resistance spring. Several types of
spring are available for different application. Springs may classified as helical
springs, leaf springs and flat spring depending upon their shape. They are
fabricated of high shear strength materials such as high carbon alloy steels
spring form elements of not only mechanical system but also structural system.
In several cases it is essential to idealise complex structural systems by suitable
spring.

Formula:-

64 3
Modulus of rigidity =
4

0
mean radius of spring(R) =
2
0 - major dia of spring
d diameter of the wire
n number of turns
w - load
s - deflection