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# TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEMS

BY CATASTROPHE THEORY

by

A l l MOHAMED MIHIRIG
B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of A l Fateh, 1978
M.A.Sc, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984

## THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

in

## DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming

to t h e r e q u i r e d standard

December 1987

## Ali Mohamed M i h i r i g , 1987

In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced

degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it

freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive

copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my

## department or .by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or

publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written

permission.

Department

1956 Main Mall
V6T 1Y3

DE-6G/81)
ABSTRACT

## Transient stability analysis i s an Important part of power system

planning and operation. For large power systems, such analysis i s very

## expansion i s used to f i n d the energy balance e q u a t i o n i n terms of clearing

time and system transient parameters. The energy function i s then put i n

## modelling problem because the e f f e c t s of e x c i t e r response, f l u x decay and

- i i -
systems damping can a l l be included i n the transient stability analysis.

## requirements for on-line assessment of transient stability of power

systems.

- i i i -

Page

ABSTRACT i i

LIST OF TABLES v i i

## LIST OF FIGURES viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xi

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

## CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE STABILITY PROBLEM AND ITS SOLUTION 5

2.1 Introduction 5

## 2.4 S o l u t i o n of the T r a n s i e n t S t a b i l i t y Problem 12

2.4.1 Numerical I n t e g r a t i o n 12

## 2.4.3 Pattern Recognition Method 18

2.5 D i s c u s s i o n of E x i s t i n g Methods 22

## CHAPTER 3 APPLICATION OF CATASTROPHE THEORY TO TRANSIENT

STABILITY ANALYSIS 26

- iv -
Page

Analysis 28

Problem 29

## 3.3.1 C y l i n d r i c a l - R o t o r I n f i n i t e Bus Power

System 31

3.3.2 Numerical R e s u l t s 38

3.4.2 Results 48

3.5 Summary 54

## CHAPTER 4 TRANSIENT STABILITY REGIONS OF MULTI-MACHINE

POWER SYSTEMS 55

4.1 Introduction 55

## 4.3 T a y l o r E x p a n s i o n of the A c c e l e r a t i n g Power 65

4.3.1 T r a n s i e n t S t a b i l i t y Regions U s i n g T a y l o r

Expansion 70

## 4.4 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the C r i t i c a l Machines 72

4.5 N u m e r i c a l Examples 74

## 4.5.2 CIGRE 7-Machine T e s t System 84

- -v
Page

4.6 D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s 84

RESPONSE 90

5.2 Damping 91

REFERENCES 112

APPENDIX A 117

APPENDIX B 122

APPENDIX C 126

APPENDIX D 130

APPENDIX E 131

- vi -
LIST OF TABLES

Page

system 80

## the proposed methods f o r the 7-machine power

system 86

- vii -
LIST OF FIGURES

Page

F i g u r e 2.1 P a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure 19

locations 24

## F i g u r e 3.6 The t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y l i m i t s g i v e n by the

swallowtail catstrophe 47

## F i g u r e 3.7 Transient stability region f o r a l l possible fault

l o c a t i o n s and l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s 49

## F i g u r e 3.8 The t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y r e g i o n i n terms of s t a b i l i t y

l i m i t s and c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g times 50

- viii -
Page

## F i g u r e 5.1 Effect of damping i n c l u s i o n on the a c c e l e r a t i n g

power d u r i n g f a u l t - o n p e r i o d 96

## F i g u r e 5.2 Effect of damping i n c l u s i o n on the a c c e l e r a t i n g

power d u r i n g f a u l t - o n p e r i o d 96

## F i g u r e 5.3 The phasor diagram of the g e n e r a t o r internal

q u a n t i t i e s f o r the t r a n s i e n t s t a t e 98

- ix -
Page

U > 0 120

U < 0 120

catastrophe 120

## F i g u r e B.2 The cusp p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n V(X) at d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s

of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s 125

x -
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

## Thanks are extended t o G a i l Schmidt f o r her p l e a s a n t a t t i t u d e and

skilled t y p i n g of the m a n u s c r i p t .

- xi-
1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

## a l a r g e number of s t a b i l i t y studies to determine the c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g time

or system s t a b i l i t y limits.

## such as generator c o n t r o l s , s t a b i l i t y c o n t r o l s and p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s . The

d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s of a t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y analysis are:
2

## ii. Time responses of generator v a r i a b l e s , bus v o l t a g e s , c u r r e n t s , and

a c t i v e and r e a c t i v e power.

## very time consuming i n the system p l a n n i n g stage where a l a r g e number

of cases need t o be c o n s i d e r e d .

## 2. I n system o p e r a t i o n s , t h e r e a r e s i t u a t i o n s where f a s t s o l u t i o n i s need-

ed t o make o p e r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . These s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t

## ensure system s e c u r i t y or t o make d e c i s i o n s that may put s t a b i l i t y of

the system at r i s k .

## 3. The power system o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s change d u r i n g the' course of the

day and year, while stability studies are done off-line for certain
3

## severe cases. This leads t o improper decisions i n some cases and,

t h e r e f o r e , may i n c r e a s e o p e r a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s .

## tional decision. The best s o l u t i o n , of course, i s t o have an o n - l i n e method

that d e a l s w i t h system o p e r a t i o n s on a r e a l - t i m e b a s i s .

## should be adaptable to changes i n operating conditions, different

d i s t u r b a n c e s , and s t a b i l i t y controls.

4

## new methods i n order to f u l f i l l a l l these r e q u i r e m e n t s .

T h i s r e s e a r c h i s m o t i v a t e d by the c h a l l e n g i n g problem of d e v e l o p i n g a

## satisfactory fast direct method f o r the assessment of t r a n s i e n t stability.

The main o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s a r e :

## also given by using the c a t a s t r o p h e theory. Chapter 5 p r e s e n t s the cap-

ability of the new method to include excitation, flux decay and system

## damping i n the power system model. Chapter 6 summarizes the c o n c l u s i o n s and

achievements of t h i s project.
5

CHAPTER 2

2*1 Introduction

## operation and control procedures of electric power systems. Since then

several studies have been conducted and new concepts and directions have

power systems.

## p r e s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d by a l i t e r a t u r e review of the d i f f e r e n t methods used and

suggested to analyze i t .

## a r i s e when the g e n e r a t o r s o s c i l l a t e because of d i s t u r b a n c e s that occur from

t r a n s m i s s i o n f a u l t s on s w i t c h i n g o p e r a t i o n s .

6

## a large disturbance i n the power system such as a sudden l o s s of generators

or l o a d s , s w i t c h i n g o p e r a t i o n s , or f a u l t s w i t h subsequent c i r c u i t isolation.

## Such l a r g e d i s t u r b a n c e s c r e a t e a power unbalance between supply and demand

in the system. This unbalance takes place at the generator shafts and

## . The generators which tend to l o s e synchronism should be t r i p p e d , i . e .

disconnected from the system before any s e r i o u s damage occurs, and subse-

7

## relays t o operate falsely and t r i p the c i r c u i t breakers of u n f a u l t e d l i n e s .

In such cases the problem becomes very complicated and may result i n more

generators l o s i n g synchronism.

## The equation of motion of n g e n e r a t o r rotors i n a power system of

n-machines i s g i v e n by

## M.6. + D. 6 = p - P = P , i = 1,2, . n (2.1)

i i ' i i i ei ai

where
= 2 ( G E E . cos 6 + B, . E . E . s i n 6 ) (2.2)
ei ij i J ij ij i j ij'
j=l

i n t e r n a l r o t o r angle of machine 2.

M. to 1^ = i n e r t i a constant,

moment of i n e r t i a ,

10 angular speed,

damping coefficient,

mechanical power i n p u t ,

e l e c t r i c a l power output,
ei
a c c e l e r a t i n g power.
ai
G ,B r e a l and imaginary p a r t s of reduced n o d a l admittance matrix.
ij* i j
6 6 - 6 .
ij i j
i n t e r n a l v o l t a g e s of machine i,j.
V E
j

## Under steady state conditions, P .=0, and 6. i s c o n s t a n t . When a

ai i
{

disturbance occurs, P
. becomes d i f f e r e n t from zero and e q u a t i o n (2.1)
ai
describes the behaviour of 6 w i t h time. F o r machine i t o be s t a b l e , 6
8

## governor), transmission lines and loads. Furthermore, the choice of the

power system model w i l l depend upon the stability study to be carried out

and the p e r i o d of a n a l y s i s [ 2 ] .

## flux linkages and a s m a l l change i n speed. The voltage equation i s given

by

|E| / 6 - V fc + r a I t + j x- l t
(2.3)

## where |E|: magnitude of v o l t a g e behind transient impedance.

6: angle of |E| ( v a r i a b l e ) .

V terminal voltage.
t
r armature r e s i s t a n c e .
a
transient reactance.

I terminal current.
t
9

## differential and p h a s o r - a l g e b r a i c equations [ 3 ] . The d i f f e r e n t i a l equation

is:
i
dE ,
-1 =J - ( K - . - O (2.4)
dt ' f d 1

A
do
i

## phasor equations of the above q u a n t i t i e s a r e :

E* = E - j ( x - x ' ) l , (2.5)
q q q d d

I t a t d d <}q

E = V + r I + jx I (2.7)
q t a t q t

## the cases when a longer period of a n a l y s i s i s needed when a high-speed

voltage-regulator i s considered [ 2 ] .
10

## The exciter is a device that supplies flux to the synchronous

generator and directly controls the output voltage of the generator. The

## desired system v o l t a g e during transient and steady s t a t e operations. There

are many types of exciter control systems i n use i n power systems . The

## basic components of an exciter control system are the regulator, amplifier

and exciter. The regulator measures the actual regulated voltage and

## determines the v o l t a g e deviation. The deviation s i g n a l i s then a m p l i f i e d to

provide the signal required to control the exciter field current that

changes the exciter output voltage and hence results i n a new excitation

level for the generator. Reference  gives the detailed differential

e q u a t i o n s of the e x c i t e r c o n t r o l system.

11

n
1. = E Y E (2.8)
j-1 J J

row of the
J i j

P
ei-V iO E (2
- 9)

## or constant current at c o n s t a n t power factor. The equation f o r constant

complex power i s

S = P i + jQ = E li = constant (2.10)

f o r c o n s t a n t impedance i s
E
i
Z. = y~ = c o n s t a n t (2-11)
i
and f o r constant c u r r e n t a t c o n s t a n t power f a c t o r i s

## Transmission l i n e s and l o a d s a f f e c t directly the s t a b i l i t y limits . The

types of l o a d models mentioned above are not adequate models i f the load i s

## of a dynamic type. I t i s very important to use more advanced l o a d models

12

for dynamic loads especially when high voltage variations are expected

[5,6].

synchronism.

.

## problem. These approaches w i l l be discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g sections.

2.4.1. N u m e r i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n Methods

## These methods solve the power system differential equations (swing

equations) during and after the transient period. From the response of
13

types:

## 1. One-step methods: these methods r e q u i r e only information concerning the

previous time point to calculate the values at the next time point.

C o n s i d e r a s e t of n o n - l i n e a r differential equations

^ = f(y,t) (2.13)

## one-step method c a l c u l a t e s a t p o i n t 1 s t a r t i n g from p o i n t 0 u s i n g a s t r a i g h t

l i n e defined by the d e r i v a t i v e a t p o i n t 0

yi = yo d r l o
+ h ( 2 a 4 )

## the next one, and the i t e r a t i o n continues until the s o l u t i o n i s obtained.

These methods have h i g h accuracy when the time interval Is s m a l l , but the

## information about two or more preceding points. The predictor-corrector

method  c a l c u l a t e a p o i n t y as f o l l o w s
14

*n+l * }
k=0
\Vk n + k=-l
b
k f
^
t
n-k ) ( 2
' 1 5 )

where appropriate values for the a and b constants are chosen for the

r
n n ' n

## The number s e r i e s approach  Is another type of m u l t i - s t e p method

where the generator angles versus time are obtained using the following

iterative equation

6 + - 6 + i ^ L + i ^ P _ (2.16)
n+2 n w a n+1

## Equation (2.16) is derived from the swing equation by evaluating 6(t)

i n t e g r a t i o n by the t r a p e z o i d a l rule.

## transient stability studies are the formidable computation time required,

the need for human interpretation of the swing curves f o r assessing the

transient stability and the f a c t t h a t the method cannot be used for on-line

assessments of stability.
15

## analysis of even a moderate s i z e d power system is still too time consuming.

Analog and hybrid simulation  have been suggested. In these schemes,

all the differential and algebric equations are s o l v e d i n analog form and

## methods, Lyapunov's stability theory has been applied to the transient

stability problem.

## Let the system be r e p r e s e n t e d by a s e t of d i f f e r e n t i a l equations

dX.
^JL = f (X 1 X ,
2 ... X , n t), i = l,...n. (2.17)

## The origin of the state vector X is considered t o be stable, i . e .

f (0,0
i ... 0,t) = 0 , i = l,...n.

## exists i n the neighborhood of the o r i g i n such that,

16

1. V(0,t) - 0

2. V(X,t) > 0 X e R, X * 0

3. fffidl <0 X e R
dt

where R i s a r e g i o n around the stable point X=0 and is called the region of

. The main

conditions.

## found by s o l v i n g the equation

P., - P = 0 , i = 1, ... n
i ei

where P^ and P ^
g are the mechanical input power and the electrical

17

## desired properties [20,21]. It should be noted here that different V

functions may yield different answers in the sense that they comprise

## The transient energy function method  is the most promising

approach among the direct methods. Remarkable progess has been made in

recent years [23,24]. However, the method i s s t i l l not suitable for on-line

## integration of the system differential equations beyond the clearing

time.

3. It is shown that the value of the Lyapunov function and the critical

clearing time are related . Hence, t h i s method can yield stability

18

## at from another a n g l e , t h i s method can i n d i c a t e whether a c l e a r i n g time

i s adequate or n o t .

## not received general acceptance from the u t i l i t i e s . The main reasons f o r

t h i s a r e the f o l l o w i n g p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s method:

## points c l o s e s t to the post f a u l t s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m p o i n t s , and i n v o l v e s

the s o l u t i o n of n - n o n l i n e a r a l g e b r a i c equations.

that:
19

S(X) - {

## < 0 for unstable X

S(X) is called the decision function and X i s the state variable , where

(X , X X^).

## Tra i n i n g Feature Training

Data_* Decision
set extraction procedure

Figure (2.1)

1. Training Set:

## In order to o b t a i n S(X), a t r a i n i n g set of various operating condi-

t i o n s must be a v a i l a b l e . Each o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n or s t a t e i s s p e c i f i e d

## particular X condition constitutes a component of the pattern vector

X = (X^ Xj x
n ) * I d e a l l y , every conceivable pattern should be

## system o p e r a t i n g conditions. Each p a t t e r n of the t r a i n i n g s e t must be

c l a s s i f i e d whether i t i s s t a b l e or unstable.
20

2. Feature extraction:

where

## m = mean of the v a r i a b l e i n the s t a b l e class.

s
m = mean of the v a r i a b l e i n theu n s t a b l e c l a s s .
u
cr = v a r i a n c e of the v a r i a b l e i n the s t a b l e c l a s s .
s
a = v a r i a n c e of the v a r i a b l e i n the u n s t a b l e c l a s s .
u
Feature extraction begins w i t h the computations of the F v a l u e s f o r

## procedure of c a l c u l a t i n g F w i t h the r e s t of the f e a t u r e s Is repeated and

s e l e c t i o n continues .
21

3. T r a i n i n g Procedure:

## the d e c i s i o n f u n c t i o n S ( X ) . T h i s f u n c t i o n can be f i r s t o r d e r such as

S(X) = W + W. X, + ... + W X

o 1 1 mm

The w e i g h t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s (W ,
Q ... W ) are determined such that
ffi

S(X) > 0 i f X i s s t a b l e

algorithm .

## form  g i v e n below

m m m
S(X) = W + Z W, Z. + Z Z W,. Z, Z,
1-1 1 1
1=1 j-1 i j 1 i

above.

## The non-parametric approaches r e l y on e x p e r i e n c e to s e l e c t the proper

v a r i a b l e s to be used i n s t a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

## 1. It i s suitable f o r o n - l i n e assessment of t r a n s i e n t stability if a reli-

a b l e d e c i s i o n f u n c t i o n i s determined.
22

used.

## configuration so t h a t a d i f f e r e n t S(X) i s needed f o r any change i n the

system configuration.

## an i n d i v i d u a l machine and that only a s i m p l i f i e d power system model i s

used.

One may expect better results from the pattern recognition method

23

where

K.E = - MW2

and

TM = P - P
max c

## M = i n e r t i a constant of the machine

W = speed

p = maximum power f o r p o s t - f a u l t c o n d i t i o n
max
P = l i n e power a t the i n s t a n t a f a u l t i s cleared
c

## K.E and TM have o p p o s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with loading conditions as

shown i n F i g . 2.3.

the form
j.52

j.16
0
j . 16

j.52

H - 3.0 T, Z T,
|E| 1.25 pu

2d j 0.1.6 pu

TM(%)
KE(%) 1 0 0

90 110

80
70 105
60
50 100

70 80 90 100 (%)

TM

KE

## F i g . 2.4 The decision function f o r three d i f f e r e n t f a u l t locations

25

S(.X) = W
x
z
+ <t> o
S(X) > 0 : stable

<t> = constant
o

26

CHAPTER 3

3.1 Introduction

## Therefore, transient s t a b i l i t y of power systems becomes a major factor i n

planning and day-to-day operations and there i s a need for fast on-line

s o l u t i o n of t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t any p o s s i b l e l o s s of synchronism

## for fast assessment of t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y and e v e n t u a l l y t o implement these

methods f o r o n - l i n e a p p l i c a t i o n s .

## Catastrophe theory has been applied to the study of stability of

various dynamic systems  and in recent years to the steady state

27

limits.

## stability problem. A well defined transient stability region i n terms of

system parameters i s obtained; these regions are suitable for fast on-line

applications.

3.2 C a t a s t r o p h e Theory

## system when subject to smooth changes in operating conditions. The term

"catastrophe" is used for such sudden changes that are caused by smooth

alterations.

28

## then there are only seven d i s t i n c t types of c a t a s t r o p h e s known as the seven

elementary catastrophes, and in none of these are more than two state

## Consider a c o n t i n u o u s p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n V(X,C) which r e p r e s e n t s the

system behaviour, where X are the state variables and C are the control

## control variables C to define the continuous region. Let the potential

function be represented as

V(X,C) : M X C * R (3.1)

respectively.

## that represents all critical points of V(X,C). I t i s the subset R Q

X R C

defined by

v x V (X)
C = o < - >
3 2
29

where V ( X ) = V ( X , C ) and V
C x i s partial d e r i v a t i v e with respect t o X.

which

v v (x) = 0
x c

and V x V (X) =
C 0 (3.3)

## The singularity s e t , S, i s then p r o j e c t e d down onto the c o n t r o l space

R r
by e l i m i n a t i n g the s t a t e v a r i a b l e s X u s i n g (3.3) and ( 3 . 2 ) , to o b t a i n the

changes.

## presented i n detail i n Appendix (Al). A simplified a n a l y s i s of the seven

elementary c a t a s t r o p h e s Is g i v e n i n Reference [ 4 0 ] .

## When the same procedure was applied to cylindrical-rotor generators,

Catastrophe C o n t r o l Space State Space Function Catastrophe Manifold
Dimension Dimension

2
Fold 1 1 1/3 x - a x
3

x -a

3 .
Cusp 2 1 x^-ax-1/2 b x 2
x -a-bx

4 , 2
Swallowtail 3 1 1/5 x - a x - l / 2 b x - l / 3 c x
5 2 3
x -a-bx-cx

5 2 3
Butterfly 4 1 1/6 x - a x - l / 2 b x - l / 3
6 2
cx -dx
3 4
x -a-bx-cx -dx

3x +a+cy
3 3
Hyberbolit 3 2 x +y +ax+by+cxy

3y +b+cx
2

2 2
3x -y +a+2cx

3 2 2 2
Eliptic 3 2 x -xy +ax+by+cx +cy -2xy+b+2cy

2xy+a+2cx

2 4 2 2
Parabolic 4 2 x y+y +ax+by+cx +dy x +4y +b+2dy
2 3

31

P = P sin6 (3.4)
e m

where P =
m X,
d

## to P^. The machine w i l l o s c i l l a t e between 6Q and 6 2

a s
shown In F i g . 3 . 2 .

If the new operating angle i s higher than the maximum power limit, the

## The energy of o s c i l l a t i o n s between 6 and 6^ i s g i v e n by

6
2
f Pa d6 * (3.5)
6
o
32

jo.72

g infint
P bus

E = 1.71 V = 1. /o.o
6 = 36.5 jo.72
o

F i g . 3.1

6
0 6
1 6
2
Angle

## F i g . 3.2 The power-angle curve

33

P = P - P sin 6 (3.6)
a i m

P i s the a c c e l e r a t i n g power.

## We now expand equation (3.6) by T a y l o r s e r i e s around 6^ a t t=0, P a

becomes

P ( 2 )
t 2

P (t) = P
a a
( 0 )
+ P ( 1

a
>t + J-
j
+ ...
2
(3.7)

where

(m) _ a
(3.8)
, m
d t o

Therefore

P ( 0 )
- P - P sin 6
a i m i

d P
(1) _ P cos 6 6=0
m o
d t

(1) (3.9)
d P
(2) P sin 6 6 P cos 6 6
m o m o
d t

= -P cos 6 6
m 0
34

(2)
/Q\ D P

(3) _ a
= P cos 6 6 J
+ p sin 6 (26)6
m o m o
d t

## + P sin 6 6 6 - p cos 6 6=0

m o m o

,(4) _ a
- - P cos 6 N
,
6 ' * + 3P sin 6. 6'
a
" dt m 0 m 0
0

where 6 = 0 at t = 0

Since the change i n the power input of the machine i s smooth and

## p (2) 2 t p (2) 4 t p (6) 6 t

P (t) = P ( 0 )
+ a
+ -5 + (3.10)
a ' v
a 2! 4! 6!

Let 6 = 6 Q + \ Y t ,
2
( 6 - 6 Q ) ^ y t 2
, 6' - \ Y t 2

,(0)
where Y
M

,(6)
P<>6. P ( 4 )

+ 'J- ,3
P (6') - p ( 0 )
: + b l
+ 6 (3.11)

6Y 18 Y

## 6' r e p r e s e n t s the change i n r o t o r angle corresponding to changes i n

power i . e . a t t = 0 , 6' =0

35

## p (l) ,2 6 p (2) ,3 6 p (3) ,4 6

V = P ( }
6' + .1 + _? + (3.12)

a
2 3! 4!

V v = P > (
+ P ( 1 )
6' + P < >iZ
2
+ !f (3.13)
6' a a a
2! 3!

## To put e q u a t i o n (3.12) i n the cusp c a t a s t r o p h e manifold, the second order

term must be e l i m i n a t e d .

Let 6' = X - a

P <> 2

and a = a
(3.14)
p (3)
a

## Substitute equation (3.14) i n (3.13) to o b t a i n

2
p (2) p O)
V V = (P ( 0 )
+ K ) + (P ( 1 )
- ) X + JL X 3
- 0
X a v
a' a ,
2P ( 3 ) 6

p (2) 2

= X 3
+ (P ( 1 )
- X + -J (P^ 0 )
+ K ) - 0
a

p (3) a
2 p (3) p (3)
a a a
36

X 3
+ aX + b = 0 (3.15)

where

p (2) 2

a = _ i _ ( P CD - I f )
p O) 3
2 p (3)
a a

b - _1_ ( p <>
a + K )
p (3) 8

P () 2
P O) a 3

" * 2! 3!

V 2
V = 3 X 2
+ a = 0 (3.16)
A.

## From e q u a t i o n (3.16) and e q u a t i o n (3.15) the s t a t e v a r i a b l e X c a n now

be e l i m i n a t e d t o get the b i f u r c a t i o n s e t B,

4 a 3
+ 27 b 2
= 0 (3.17)

37

## Fig. 3.3 The b i f u r c a t i o n s e t of the cusp c a t a s t r o p h e which r e p r e s e n t s

the steady s t a t e s t a b i l i t y r e g i o n .
38

## Consider the one-machine i n f i n i t e - b u s system of F i g . 3.1, g i v e n the

following data

H = 3 s , V ro = 1. /0.0 pu

E = 1.71 pu , 6 = 36.5
q pu

X, = 1.05 pu , X_ = 0.36 pu
d t

catastrophe.

effect.

39

>

>

## . 3.4 The energy function s t a b i l i t y criteria

a. stable
b. c r i t i c a l l y stable
c unstable
40

## attempt to apply the catastrophe theory we need to find a continuous

function that represents the system behaviour during the transient period.

## We need a l s o to d e f i n e the degenerate and non-degenerate c r i t i c a l points i n

terms of t r a n s i e n t stability.

## C o n s i d e r a g a i n the one-machine i n f i n i t e - b u s system of F i g . 3.1. If a

fault occurs on one of the lines near the machine bus, the rotor will

## considered as the energy e q u i l i b r i u m surface or catastrophe manifold at

which the kinetic energy equals the potential energy of the system. All

## which are d e f i n e d by the b i f u r c a t i o n s e t , are the p o i n t s which correspond to

the transient stability limits of the power system at which any small

## I n summary, s i n c e the energy f u n c t i o n d u r i n g the t r a n s i e n t period i s

continuous and represents the power system behaviour, the 'energy balance

41

## clearing time and the t r a n s i e n t stability limits define the degenerate

c r i t i c a l points.

## classical model [ 2 ] ) , the swing e q u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the system behaviour

is g i v e n by

.2,
M = P. - P - P (3.18)
, i e a
dt z

e max

## . > P^ = mechanical i n p u t power ( c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t r a n s i e n t ) .

P^ = a c c e l e r a t i n g power.

6 = rotor angle.

## clearing time t . The accelerating power P will exhibit two

c a

discontinuities, one when the f a u l t occurs and the other when the f a u l t i s

## cleared. Multiply equation (3.18) by 6 and i n t e g r a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o time

u s i n g the p o s t - f a u l t network c o n d i t i o n s to o b t a i n

1 M 6 = P cos 6 + P, 6
2
- P cos 6 - P 6 (3.19)
2 c m c l e m m i m ?

where
42

6^ = c r i t i c a l clearing angle.

6^ = w = speed a t c r i t i c a l clearing.

## = maximum power of p o s t - f a u l t network.

6^ = u n s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m angle (maximum a n g l e ) .

## energy (P.E) of the p o s t - f a u l t network. I f the f a u l t i s c l e a r e d a t the

c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g time, then

K.E = P.E

## m a n i f o l d , N, which i s the g r a d i e n t o f the energy i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n V ( 6 ^ ) .

N = V. V(6 ) =
o c ' _ c m
1
M 6 - P cos 6 - P, 6
c i c
2
+ P
m
cos 6 + P, 6
m i m
=0
c 2
(3.22)

## l i m i t s of the power system as

V 2
V(6 ) = 0 (3.23)
o c
c
U s i n g T a y l o r s e r i e s expansion t o approximate 6 and 6 as a f u n c t i o n of time
c c

## transient s t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s ) we get

43

6 = W = Yt and 6 =6 +1 yt 1
(3.24)
c c c c < > 2 c

## where Y = a c c e l e r a t i o n a t the i n s t a n t of f a u l t occurrence

Y = I [P. - P ( t )] (3.25)
M

Let X = I Y t 2
(3.26)
2 C

and K = p 6 + p cos 6
mm m m

## cosine term (cos 6^) by i t s expansion, then e q u a t i o n (3.22) becomes

(6 + X ) 2
(6 + X ) 4

N = V R V ( 6 ) = MYX - P [l- - + ] - P f 6 + X ) + K = 0
6
c c m a
. 21 4! 1

(3.27)

(6 + X ) 2
(6 + X ) 4

## N = MYX - P +2 P - P -P,(6+X)+K=0 (3.28)

' ma 2 ! ma ^, m a i o '

## thus the fourth-order truncation would be enough to represent the

equilibrium s u r f a c e N.
44

N = - J l i x 4
- J ^ 6 x 3
+ [2-) P X + (MY + 6 P - J
2
63
- P J X
24 6 4 o ma 6 o i '

+ (J5i 6 2
- 6 4
- P - P fi + K) = 0
2 0
24 0 1113

P P
Let A = , B = _S. 6
24 6

2-6 2

C = ( _) P , D = (MY + 6 P - 6 J
- P )
v y
m a oma o i
4 t
6

and E = JUi 6 - 2
6 4
- P - P 6 + K)
o 2 24 1113

N = -AX - BX + CX + DX + E = 0
4 3 2
(3.29)

term.

Let X = y - a

N = -A(y-a) 4
- B(y-a) 3
+ C(y-a) 2
+ D(y-a) + E = 0

## = -Ay + (4A<x - B ) y + (C-6Aa + 3Ba)y

4 3 2 2

+ (D - 2ca - 3Ba 2
+ 4Aa )y - A a + Bot + Cot - Dot + E = 0
3 4 3 2

IB
then a=
4 A
Substitute f o r ot and get
45

8 A 2 B 8 .2
A

4 A 16 2 A 256 3 A

d i v i d e by -A

4 rC 3 B 2
i 2 rD 1 CB 1 B^ \
N = y - I- . Jy - I- Jy
A 8 .2 A 2 .2 8.3

2 2 4
_ E + D * _ - _ _ - _1_ 5_ = 0
1 4
A 2 1 6
A 3 2 5 6
A 4

Let

u = - + !-)
A 8 2 A

v= -(E-Ic!--!^) (3.30)
A 2 . 2 8.3
A A

2 4
E . D B C B 3 B
and w = - +
4
A 2 1 6
A 3 2 5 6
A 4

then N becomes

N = y 4
+ uy 4
+ vy + w = 0 (3.31)

## Equation (3.31) i s the m a n i f o l d of the s w a l l o w t a i l c a t a s t r o p h e

46

1 5 1 3 1 2
V(y) = y + - uy J
+ vy^ + wy (3.32)

5 3 2

## consists of a l l the degenerate c r i t i c a l p o i n t s of V. These are the p o i n t s

at which
V V(y) = M = 0
y

and V y
2
V(y) = 0 (3.33)

V y
2
V(y) = 4y 3
+ 2uy + u = 0 (3.34)

## It i s interesting t o note that the control variable (U) i n this case i s

c o n s t a n t and n e g a t i v e .

3B 2

We have u = - ( + )
A 8.2
A

P P
i. 1 1 1 3
T> ma c
where A = , B = o
24 6

2 - 6 2

and C = P (-
ma

thus,

u = - (12 - 66 2
+ 66 ) = - 12
2

o o

## only two dimensions i n u and W. We can plot the b i f u r c a t i o n s e t of the

F i g . 3.6 The t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y l i m i t s g i v e n by the s w a l l o w t a i l
c a t a s t r o p h e f o r the power system of F i g . 3.5
48

## i n s i d e the p o s i t i v e s i d e of F i g . 3.6 and the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s have to be

met:

1 2
Since X = _ Yt > 0

2 c

and X = y - a

or y > a (3.36)

IB c
we have a = = o

4 A

## two minima. The c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g time i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the f i r s t positive

critical p o i n t of y > 6.
q

3.4.2 Results

49
50

## Fig. 3.8 The t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y r e g i o n i n terms of stability limits

and c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g times.
51

T c - /
2 ( y
" C )
(3.38)
Y

' c c r

## define the region of s t a b i l i t y which depends on operating conditions, fault

locations and time. But by using the catastrophe theory, the stability

## l o c a t i o n s by u s i n g e q u a t i o n s (3.30) and s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r A, B, C, D and E to

get

u = 2L (My + Pj + 8(6 3
- 6 ) (3-39)
p
ma r

w = 24(6
o
2
+ til
p

ma
o p

ma
6
o
+ *L
p

ma
6 - JL + 1)

52

## In this case B and C can be combined together to form a l a r g e machine B+C,

and the system can be reduced to a two-machine power system. The swing

## e q u a t i o n of machine A a g a i n s t the e q u i v a l e n t machine (B+C) can be w r i t t e n i n

the form

,2c
M - = P - (P + P s i n (6 - a)) (3.40)
7 I c m

dt Z

## The same procedure of the previous section can be applied to

calculate the equilibrium surface from the energy balance equation .

in this case.

## equation for t h i s case i s .348 seconds and that c a l c u l a t e d by time s o l u t i o n

is .35 seconds. The method shows very close agreement w i t h the numerical

## integration method. When e i t h e r the fault l o c a t i o n or the loading condi-

tions are changed, the machines may respond to the disturbance in different

## fault locations and loading conditions. Therefore, a faster method

F i g . 3.9 The equivalent two machine power system
54

3.5 Summary

limits.

## each transient case can be easily calculated in terms of the system

parameters without r e p e t i t i v e i t e r a t i o n s .

etc.
55

CHAPTER 4

4.1 Introduction

## much more c o m p l i c a t e d than the simple power systems analyzed i n Chapter 3.

The analysis in this case involves every machine in the power system

## are usually neglected or approximated, although they are significant

network elements [ 5 0 ] .

ii. Although fast exciters respond within the first swing period (.1

effects.
56

## rather i n the amount of power that can be d e l i v e r e d without risking

system s e c u r i t y f o r s p e c i f i e d c l e a r i n g times.

## iv. Network r e d u c t i o n and c a l c u l a t i o n s of s t a b l e and unstable equilibrium

points for large power systems are time consuming. For unstable

## equilibrium points, existing algorithms cannot always be relied upon

to converge to the r i g h t s o l u t i o n .

## methods need the identification of the critical machines for each

disturbance considerd.

## The equation of motion of machine i i n a multi-machinfe power system,

using c l a s s i c a l model r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s g i v e n by
57

- P (4.1)
mi ei

n
where P (4.2)
ei

## = e l e c t r i c a l power output of machines

P
mi =
mechanical power i n p u t

= intertia constant

6 = r o t o r angle

= speed d e v i a t i o n

= internal voltage

## g^j = transfer conductance

b . = transfer susceptance

## power system i n order to e v a l u a t e the transient s t a b i l i t y of the system f o r

a specific fault.

n
Let M, (4-3)
0
58

1 n

U
M Q i*k 1 1

## c e n t e r of angle of the power system e x c l u d i n g the c r i t i c a l machine.

Let e k = 6 k - 6 0

- 6, - i _ I ( M l )
K
M Q i*k 1 1

also

k
* M Q i*k 1

9 . - 6 . - 1 - S (M 6 ) (4.5)
k
* M Q i*k 1 1

## machine k w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c e n t e r of angle (COA).

\~V^-r- J P
mk " e k

\
P
1

M
o
*
i
n

,
(

t
P

k
mi- ei) P
<'>
4 6

V k " mk '
P P
ek " ^ X < mi " e i >
P P
<'> 4 7

M i*k
Q

## following steps: >

59

F i r s t we l e t <= E g ^

and C^-^y^
E q u a t i o n (4.7) becomes

"kV P
mk " kk - X
D
< ij D C O S
kj +
Scj S i n
V

M, n n
- JL Z (P - Z (D. cos 0 + C, , s i n 9 ) j
J-l
m i
M Q i*k l j i j l j l j

## Separate the term B ^ k from the l a s t term and o b t a i n

Vk - mk P
" kk " ^
D
X ^ mi " jP
k < ijD C O S 0
i j + C
i j S i n G
i j
) )

K n
+ ^ (D cos 9 + C sin 9 )
M Q i*k k i k l k l k

- z^ (D k j cos e k j + sin e k j )

## Let P = P - D,, - ^ Z (P . - S (D cos 9 + C s i n 9 )) (4.8)

k mk kk M i # k mi i j Ij l j i j

then

W = P
k ~ ^ b S l n
k " 3 C O S
\ ] ( 4
* 9 )

where

KL n n
a = _ S (D cos 9 + C., s i n 9 ) - Z (C sin 9 - D cos 9 )
M n i*k l k 1 k
j*k 1 J J
60

n M, n
b = (D s i n 9 + C cos 0 ) - _J Z (D., s i n 9 - C,. cos 9 )
j*k k 3 2
M Q i*k l f c
i ik i

## E q u a t i o n ( 4 . 9 ) can be w r i t t e n i n a more convenient form

\ \ - k- k p T s i n
<\ - V ( 4 a o )

where

- 1 a

a = tan _
k
b
. 2 _,_ 2 l / 2 v x
and T, = (a + b )
k

## The s t a b l e and u n s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m p o i n t s of e q u a t i o n (4.10) can be

e a s i l y computed by s o l v i n g e q u a t i o n (4.11) f o r 9^

P
k " k
T S i n ( Q
k " V =
(4-1D

9 U
= n - ef (4.12)
k k

61

stability.
C O

## k i n e t i c energy generated by the fault

2
k
- e =
\ \l
Q = p
k ( e
k k
e )
- k
T [ c o s ( e
k - 4) - c o s( e
k k ) ]

(4.13)
f f f C
where P^, T^ and oc^ are the system parameters f o r f a u l t - o n network and 0^ i s

the c l e a r i n g a n g l e .

## manner by i n t e g r a t i n g e q u a t i o n (4.10) between and 0^ u s i n g the post-fault

network parameters, we o b t a i n

(e = o ) .
62

## The energy balance equation f o r c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g becomes:

I M - pP e - T cos (Qp - o) + k U
= 0 .. (4.15)

where k U
= P 9^ + T cos (GJJ - c)
r
a g a i n we r e p r e s e n t 9^ by T a y l o r s e r i e s expansion

and

k
e =
Vc

where Y, =
k w
1 [P,
k
-
ek
P^Ct-.
OH
v ]

" 1 . 2

L e t X =
~ Vc
By r e p l a c i n g c o s ( 9 ^ - ot^) i n e q u a t i o n (4.15) w i t h the c o s i n e s e r i e s

expansion up to the f o u r t h o r d e r , we o b t a i n

= 0
2! 4!

Let P - 9 - aP

## then we get the c a t a s t r o p h e m a n i f o l d equation

63

k
+ i p x 3
+ i ( i - 5l) x
2
+ (MY, - pP) + 2
Tl B- i f3 )x
3

24 6 2 2 k k k
6

+ ( k u
- T P - p P e + ! k
p 2
- ^ p 4
) = 0 (4.16)
2 24

24
M u l t i p l y e q u a t i o n ( 4 . 1 6 ) by - to give:
T P
f

2 T
X 4
- 4BX 3
- 12(1 - *L)X 2
- I 4
(MY, - pP + B- A p )X
3

2 T p k k k
6
k

(4.17)
~ ( k U
" k - k k
T P 9 +
~ P "~ 2
-0

Tp 2 24
A
k

## We need t o e l i m i n a t e the t h i r d order term i n o r d e r t o have e q u a t i o n (4.17)

i n the s w a l l o w t a i l c a t a s t r o p h e m a n i f o l d form

Let A 3 = - 4B

A 2 = - 12(1
2

A x = - (MY - P j + TP B -
2
k B ) 3

4
64

A Q - - 1*
T P
(k U
- - 0P +l l
T

2
B 2
T
- B )
4

24
X
k

and x = y - u (4.18)

3
A

u = _ (4.19)
4

We o b t a i n the s w a l l o w t a i l c a t a s t r o p h e manifold

4 2

y +uy + u y + w = 0 (4.20)

3 2
where u = (A - A )
8
. (A, - ^ I t f L )
1
2 8
2
/A A
1 3 A
. 2 3
A A
3 . 4.
w = (A - + - A- )
U
4 16 256

## The b i f u r c a t i o n s e t B can then be d e f i n e d by

4y 3
+ 2uy + u = 0 ... (4.21)

65

## 2. C a l c u l a t e the parameters P , T fc fc and t o form the dynamic e q u i v a l e n t of

the c r i t i c a l machine(s).

## It i s important to note that the transient stability region using

this method is the same shape regardless of fault location and loading

V i - mi P
< ij
D C O S 6
i j + C
i j S l n 6
ij>

66

## during the t r a n s i e n t p e r i o d i s g i v e n by:

t t t
c f c u
V
i =
f P
a l ( t ) d t +
f P
a i ( t ) d t +
' P
a i ( t ) d t ( 4
' 2 3 )

## P f ( t ) i s post-fault accelerating power,

ai

t i s the c l e a r i n g time.

s u

67

rt
0 s r

t
s
/ P J ( t ) dt
n (4.24)

0 a l

## machine and the f a u l t i s cleared at c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g , we o b t a i n the energy

balance equation,
c t t
u
V. = / (pf(t) - pj(t))dt + / PJJ(t) d t = 0
1 a Qa t a
8
(4.25)

## Equation (4.25) i s e v a l u a t e d by r e p l a c i n g P ( t ) and P ( t ) w i t h P

their
3. 3.
T a y l o r s e r i e s e x p r e s s i o n s , i n the form:

P (t)= P ( 0 )
+ i -P ( 1 )
t + i - P >t ( 2 2
+ (4.26)
a a u a 2, a

where P ( m )
= 1 (4.27)
a t=0
dt m

## and the a c c e l e r a t i n g power of machine i

n
P - P - E (D . cos 6 + C.. s i n 6 )
ai mi i j i j i j i j

## We note that a t t=0

= 0
68

and 6^ = 6 ^ ( I n i t i a l o p e r a t i n g condition)

Therefore P , ( 0 )
= P - P . ( t = 0)
ai mi ei

n
= P (4.28)
mi j = \ < ij D c
s 6
i j + c
i j s i n

(1) _ d
= Z (D.. s i n 5 - C.. cos 6.1)6..
ai
dt 3 1

t -0 J-l i j i j i J i J i j

Since = 0
ij t-0

Therefore P f * = 0 1
(4.29)
ai

* - - 2i
t=0
^ (D j cos 6 + C j sin 6 ^ ) 6 ^

al d t ai

( sin 6 i
ij i j i j
+ D i j C C O S 6 ) 6

Since 6 = 0

n
n c 0 c 0
P ! 2 )
= S (D sin 6 (4.30)
ij i j i j

ai
C C S 6 6
j
J-l

Ij al I

69

## t h i s reduces the number of T a y l o r s e r i e s c o e f f i c i e n t s to one h a l f .

Therefore,

P
al = a<*
d i
P 0 ) + L p

2!
i 2 >
< 2 +
M
4!
4 )
' 4 +
- M-'D
The accelerating power c o e f f i c i e n t s have to be calculated f o r the

## conditions. Thus e q u a t i o n (4.25) becomes;

C
c D P ( 2 ) f
- P ( 2 ) P
P ( 4 ) f
- P ( 4 ) P

V. - J (<Pl 0 )
- P< 0 )
) + 0 ^ _ ) t 2
t 4

1
0
a
2! 4!

p (6) _ (6)P
f
p

+ (_f 1 ) t )dt + /
6
P ( t ) dt - 0
P
(4.32)
6! t a

## The critical energy i s evaluated off-line f o r each p o s t - f a u l t condition by

the t r a p e z o i d a l r u l e as f o l l o w s
t
v c r - J U
P j ( t ) dt
s

V (1+1) = V (k) +1 (P ( t ) ( k + l ) - P ( t ) ( k ) ) - ( t ( k + l ) - t ( k ) )
A
70

## We start with the resultant Taylor series expansion of equation

(4.32).

P
( 2
> p >
( 4
.
p (t) = p (o) + t z
+ - i _ t* + ...
a a
2! 4!

## The rotor angle can also be represented by the form

6 = 6
I Oi
+I T
Y
i
t 2

which provides good agreement with the time solution for t < .5 second

.
* c 1 2
We let x =
i " 0i = - Y
i fc

2
substitute for t i n the accelerating power series

p (2) p (4)
P (x) = P ( 0 )
+ _!_ X + _!_ X 2
+ ... (4.33)
a a
Y 2
Y
i 6y z

## The energy balance equation can be evaluated with respect to the

x <
c
V = J P (x)dx + V =0
i Q a
71

P ( 3 ) p (4) 3

= P ( 0 )
x + x 2
+ _i_JL + . . . + V = 0 (4.34)
3
2Y 2 C r

18

## The c h o i c e of the determinant order d e c i d e s the c a t a s t r o p h e manifold

type as f o l l o w s

X 2
= fold

V 3
X = cusp
4 = swallowtail
X

5 = butterfly

## The cusp c a t a s t r o p h e m a n i f o l d from e q u a t i o n (4.24) i s g i v e n by

p<4> P < >
2

v = a
x + 3 a
x +p 2 ( 0 )
x +V = 0

18Y 2
" i
3 T T P ' 2 1 8 Y 2
P < 0 )
1 8 r2

= x J
+ _ x z
+ a
X + IV = 0 (4.35)

P (4> p (A) P ( 4 ) ^
a a a

= X 3
+ ^X 2
+ A^X + AQ = 0 (4.36)

## In order t o put e q u a t i o n (4.36) i n the standard cusp m a n i f o l d we need t o

2
e l i m i n a t e the second order term (X ) .

We l e t X = y - B

A
P=

We g e t
72

3 A
2 2
2 1 2
A A

y J
+ (A - ) y + (A + - -i_) = 0 (4.37)
1
3 27 3

or

y + u y + u = 0 (4.38)

where

## The bifurcation set i s defined by equation (4.38) and the s e t of

degenerate c r i t i c a l p o i n t s .

3y 2
+ u - 0 (4.29)

The b i f u r c a t i o n s e t g i v e n i n Appendix B c o n s i s t s of a l l s t a b l e p o i n t s

disturbance.

73

## occurrence as a first identification and then calculate the critical

clearing time f o r each machine. The machine with the lowest critical

\ " ^ t mi " e i
P P ( t
>
i M

## where Pg^Ctg^ *" ^ s t i e e

^ e c t r
i c a
i power output during fault a t the

instant of f a u l t occurrence.

ii. The machines which have h i g h and positive initial accelerations are

## to the system Instability. These machines are combined t o form a

c r i t i c a l group.

74

## be carried out only when a f a u l t o c c u r s a t non-generator buses or f a r from

g e n e r a t o r buses.

steps.

then calculated.

75

## 4.5.1 The Three-Machine System

This system with nine buses, three machines and three loads, i s

## base i n Table 4.1. Generator data and i n i t i a l operating c o n d i t i o n s are

g i v e n i n T a b l e 4.2.

Bus No. G B

Generators
1 1-4 0 - 8.446
2 2-7 0 - 5.485
3 3-9 0 - 4.168

## Transmission 4-5 1.365 -11.604

... L i n e s 4-6 1.942 -10.511
5-7 1.188 - 5.975
6-9 1.282 - 5.588
7-8 1.617 -13.698
8-9 1.155 - 9.784

Load A 5-0 1.261 - 0.263
Load B 6-0 0.878 - 0.035
Loda C 8-0 0.969 - 0.160
4-0 0.167
7-0 0.227
9-0 0.283

77

## Generator data Initial Conditions

Gen. No. H P E
d mo
(MW/MVA) (pu) (pu) (pu) (degree)

## solution, dynamic equivalent and Taylor series methods. A comparison

between the three methods i s given i n Table 4.3 i n terms of the critical

clearing time. Both methods show very good agreement with the time

solution.

## Fig. 4.2 shows the a c c u r a c y of the T a y l o r s e r i e s method u s i n g terms up

to the second order term for the angle during the fault-on period. Fig.

## 4.3 shows a comparison between the Taylor series approximation of the

accelerating power and the time solution for different fault locations

during the t r a n s i e n t p e r i o d .

## the T a y l o r s e r i e s method. S t a b l e p o i n t s are marked i n s i d e the region.

250.0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
time i n seconds

F i g . 4.2 A c c u r a c y of T a y l o r s e r i e s d u r i n g the f a u l t - o n p e r i o d
u s i n g o n l y the second o r d e r term.
time s o l u t i o n
T a y l o r s e r i e s method
C.C.T. c r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g time
0.3

time i n seconds
- Afferent fault locations
F i e . 4.3 The a c c e l e r a t i n g power f o r d i f f e r e n t r a
time s o l u t i o n
Taylor series
Fault at C r i t i c a l C l e a r i n g Time [second)

7 .11-.12 .1 .11

## T a b l e 4.3 C r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g time by the time s o l u t i o n and the

proposed methods f o r the 3-machine power system.
81

## F i g . 4.4 The t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y r e g i o n of the 3-machine power

system u s i n g the dynamic e q u i v a l e n t method. S t a b l e cases
are marked ( x ) i n s i d e the r e g i o n .
F i g . 4.5 The t r a n s i e n t s t a b i l i t y r e g i o n of the 3-machine
system u s i n g T a y l o r s e r i e s method w i t h s t a b l e cases
marked (x) i n s i d e the r e g i o n .
83
84

## The CIGRE 225 KV test system i s shown i n F i g . 4.6. I t has 10 buses

and 13 lines. Buses 1 through 7 are generating buses while loads are

## located at buses 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Generator, l o a d and t r a n s m i s s i o n

line data are g i v e n i n T a b l e 4.4. The base v a l u e s used are 225 KV and 100

MVA.

## case u s i n g the t h r e e methods. T a b l e 4.5 g i v e s a comparison between the time

solution and the two methods presented in this chapter in terms of the

c r i t i c a l clearing time.

The transient stablity regions are shown i n Figures 4.7 and 4.8.

Both methods show very good agreement with the time solution plus well

## for a l l l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s and fault locations.

4.6 D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s

## have shown the feasibility of catastrophe theory application to

multi-machine power systems. The accuracy of the methods i s very good when

## method repetitively and human i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to e v a l u a t e a s i m i l a r case.

85

GENERATORS

Bus p X M E 6
base
p
m
(MVA) (%)( ) (MW s /rad) (MW) (p.u) ()

## 1 100 7.4 6.02 217 1.106 7.9

2 100 11.8 4.11 120 1.156 -0.2
3 100 6.2 7.59 256 1.098 6.5
4 100 4.9 9.54 300 1.110 3.9
5 100 7.4 6.02 230 1.118 7.0
6 100 7.1 6.77 160 1.039 3.6
7 100 8.7 5.68 174 1.054 7.9

Bus p Q Bus P Q
(MW) (MVar) (MW) (MVar)

## 2 200 120 8 100 50

4 650 405 9 230 140
6 80 30 10 90 45
7 90 40

LINES

Bus R X uC/2
(ohm) (ohm) (MS)

1 - 3 5 24.5 200
1 - 4 5 24.5 100
2 - 3 22.8 62.6 200
2 - 10 8.3 32.3 300
3 - 4 6 39.5 300
3 - 9 5.8 28 200
4 - 5 2 10 200
4 - 6 3.8 10 1200
4 ~ 9 24.7 97 200
4 - 10 8.3 33 300
6 - 8 9-5 31.8 200
7 - 8 6 39.5 300
8 - 9 24.7 97 200

## ( ) These v a l u e s i n c l u d e the t r a n s f o r m e r ' s r e a c t a n c e s

and a r e expressed on a 100 MVA base.

T a b l e 4.4 Data f o r the CIGRE 7-machine system (taken from Ref. )
F a u l t at C r i t i c a l C l e a r i n g Time [second)

## T a b l e 4.5 C r i t i c a l c l e a r i n g time by the time s o l u t i o n and the

proposed methods f o r the 7-machine power system.
87
88
89

## The a c c u r a c y of the T a y l o r s e r i e s method becomes a problem when t i s

higher than .5 second . To obtain good accuracy beyond this limit

## system s e c u r i t y . T h i s p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n can e a s i l y be handled by the

proposed methods w i t h o u t l o s s of a c c u r a c y .

90

CHAPTER 5

## In this Chapter a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the modelling problem i s

presented. The new model proposed includes damping, f i e l d flux decay and

excitation response.

## Power utilities are hesitant to accept the direct methods of

transient stability assessment mainly because they raise doubts about the

## l i n k i n g the main f i e l d winding remains constant during the transient. This

may be true only i f the exciter does not respond during the f i r s t swing

## response within .1 second, so that the c l a s s i c a l model assumption i s not

valid for such exciters. In fact, during the l a s t decade trends i n the

91

.

5.2 Damping

speed .

## The damping torque due to the f i e l d winding i s usually s m a l l because of the

relatively long time constant. The damper winding component of the damping

disturbances.

## the eddy currents which are induced by asynchronous operltion, such as

s l i p p i n g p o l e s or oscillations.
92

## synchronous motors w i t h t h e i r mechanical s h a f t loads develop damping torque

during disturbances.

## power components, both mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l . The damping coefficients

are usually i n the range of 1-3 pu. This represents mechanical damping,

generator and load damping. Larger values are also reported i n the

literature .

## The swing e q u a t i o n of machine i In an n-machine power system i s g i v e n

by

M. 6 + D 6 = P - P . . ..
i i i mi ei i = l , . . . n (5.1)

P
ai - mi " P P
e i" D
*i ( 5
' 2 )

P ( ) = P
4 t
( 0 )
+ ! - p ( 1 )
t + !-p( >t 2 2
+ ...

p (m) = ai
a
, m t=0
dt

we have
93

## P = P , - Z (D, . cos 6 + C. . s i n 6 ) - D& (5.3)

ai mi j ij ij ij ij i
= 1

We note that at t = 0 , 6^ = 0 .

Therefore

ai
( 0 )
= P_, " E (D*4 cos 6 +c
'ij "ij
. sin
4 6)
'ij'
- D(0) (5.4)
" j=l m i i J

(1) _ d P
ai
ai
dt t=0

11
0
- - E (-D , s i n 6,, + C,, cos 6 6 v
D)6f>
ij
4
ij -ij ij ij

= - D 6|) (5.5)

(0)
(0) _ ai
where 6 (5.6)
M.

(2) _ ^ a i
ai
dt' t=0

n 0. ,? 0,2
- = (
" iJ
D C
S
^J ' iJ
C S n
'i? ( 6
i >

^ (-D j sin 6
+ cos 6 )
6^ - 0*6^

## - E (D sin 6 - C cos 6 ) 6 - D*6^ 0

(5.7)
94

P ( 1 )

where 6 0
= (5.8)
M
i

Derivation of p
a ^ ^ an
& p
a i ^ a r e
8i v e n
i n
Appendix D. We note here

account.

P, = P \$ > 0
+ P < > t 1
+ ! ? l ^ t 2
+ ... (5.8)
ai ai ai 2J

## The energy e q u i l i b r i u m s u r f a c e i s then formed u s i n g e q u a t i o n (4.23)

V
i =
' Q
( P
a i " ai> P d t +
I P
a? d t + V
cr= 0
<'>
5 9

T h i s becomes

= A t 4
4
+ ^ t 3
+ A^ 2
+ A^t + A Q + k g + V r - 0 (5.10)

whe re A - i - (P f ( n )
- P P ( n )
)
n . a
n

t
c
K = / P dt -
P
constant
s J
Q ai

## given i n S e c t i o n 3.4.1 to get

X 4
+ uX 2
+ vX + w - 0 (5.11)

'y

95

systems.

## armature circuit induce other c u r r e n t s i n the r o t o r circuit which carries

the field current. The flux linking the armature circuit will decay

96
_.
0i8 ___ .

## o.o H 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 ^ 1 ' 1

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

time in seconds
F i g . 5.1

0.8 T I

## 0.0-i 1 1 " 1 " 1 < 1 1

1 1 r J

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
time in seconds
F i g . 5.2 E f f e c t of damping i n c l u s i o n on the accelerating power during
the fault-on period for two test cases.
97

## with f i e l d f l u x decay and e x c i t a t i o n response are expressed as f o l l o w s

n
M
i 6
i= P
mi " j = \ < ij
D C 0 S 6
i j + C
i j 6 l n 6
iJ>

and
dE'
T ' jd o i< ^ " E
fA<
fdi~
E
%q i -

d i~
x
^ ) d l1*4
' di (5.12)

where

## T^ ^ Q : d - a x i s t r a n s i e n t open c i r c u i t time constant

E
qi : v o
^- t a
8 e a
l 8 the q - a x i s r e l a t e d to E^ by angle
n
4>^.

E
fdi : e x c i t a t
*- o n
voltage a p p l i e d to f i e l d winding.

di di

di

E . = E cos <t>
qi i i

## Equation (5.12) becomes

i fdi d E E

T
doi - r " \ - di - V cx d
i . ( 5 a 3 )

dt cos 4>

98

## F i g . 5.3 The v e c t o r diagram of the generator i n t e r n a l q u a n t i t i e s

f o r the t r a n s i e n t s t a t e .
99

T
doi - - - v ( x
di- di>
x
, V i g
J
E
J
c o s 6
i J
+ b
i J
E
J
s i n 6
i J
) ( 5
- 1 4 )

dt cos^ j=l J J
J J J

eliminated.

## by the r a t e of Increase or decrease of the e x c i t e r v o l t a g e , i . e . , the s l o p e

CE *"* AO
determined by i n F i g . 5.4. The time, i n seconds, f o r the e x c i t e r
OE

## or less i s taken t o be a f a s t h i g h i n i t i a l response e x c i t e r .

The e x c i t e r v o l t a g e response i s g i v e n by
-t/T
E... = E + (E - E ) ( 1 - e ) e
(5.15)
rdi o c o

## where E i s the i n i t i a l e x c i t e r voltage

o

E maximum c e i l i n g voltage
c

rdi
Exciter
Voltage

time i n seconds

## 5.* The t J P i d -citation ,olta e-ti*e

g response
101

, d E, E - (E -E )e

dt cos <t>.

n
" E
i " ( X
di" di X )
\ i s
il l
E C O S 6
i j + b
i j j
E S l n 6
i j } ( 5
* 1 6 )

## equation (5.16) f o r the t r a n s i e n t period (t < .5s). F ( t ) i s expanded

around t=0 as f o l l o w s

F(t)
- F (0) + F a> ^ +
2 )
t 2 + _ (5.17)
t=0 2!

where

,(n) _ d F ( t ) u

t=0
dt

iTherefore

E n
F ( 0 ) . _o_ _ i ( 0 ) _ ( x ^_ + b^EjBlnfi^)
cos <t>,

(5.18)

F (D . d F(t)
dt t=0
102

-tli
1 <V o E ) e
d E
i n

T cos 4^ dt M
j=l J J J

+ b i j E j cos 6^)6^

at t = 0

ij dt T 1

doi

Thus

. (E -E ) (0)
F ( 1 )
= l (5.19)
\ C
*1
S T
doi

## p(2)^ F (3) ^ (n)

f ^ evaluated i n the same way. Equation (5.16) i s

## evaluated using (5.17), and we get

E. = E(o) + F ( 0 )
t + I + I (5.20)
1
2 6

## E^ depends on the length of the t r a n s i e n t p e r i o d . As we e x p l a i n e d i n the

previous chapter the Taylor series method can give good results up to a

second).
103

## stability. The swing equation of the critical machine i i n an n-machine

system i s g i v e n by

V i = P
mi~ f x
E
i j E
<Sij c o s
6
ij + b
ij s i n
j>
6 ( 5 > 2 1 )

= P
ai
From e q u a t i o n (5.20) l e t the i n t e r n a l v o l t a g e of the c r i t i c a l machine be

(0) F ( 1
>t 2
F ( 2 )
t 3

E = E(o) + F t U ;
t + _ + _ (5.22)

1
2 6

## Substitute (5.22) in ( 5 . 2 1 ) and expand P i n a T a y l o r s e r i e s as i n S e c t i o n

4.3 to o b t a i n

P ( 2 )
t 2

+
a
...
ai a a 21

where P ( n )
= *A

dt n t =

## The a c c e l e r a t i n g power c o e f f i c i e n t s are e v a l u a t e d and g i v e n as follows

P a
0 )
- P m i ~ ^ E (0)E
I j (g j cos 6 t + b j sin 6 )
(5.23)

## p(D = - I F <>E. (g., cos 6 + b., sin 6 ) (5.24)

a j = 1 3 i j i j i j IJ
104

P > - a
2
- ^ F U> E j ( 8lJ cos 6 ^ + b J sin 6^)

## The derivation of these coefficients and P ^ \ 3

P^ ^
4
a r e g i v e n i n Appendix
3 3

E.

## w r i t t e n down i n terms of the a c c e l e r a t i n g power c o e f f i c i e n t s as i n e q u a t i o n x

(5.9)

V
i = '0
( P
a i" a? P ) d t +
' Q
P
a? d t + V
cr = 0
< " >
5 26

## second., Thus e q u a t i o n (5.26) becomes

V. = A . t 4
+ a t 2
+ A . t + A_ + K + V = 0 (5.27)
I 1 0 s cr
0
H I

where

A = (P f ( n )
- P P ( n )
)
n i ai ai
n!

t
c
K = / P dt = constant
P

s J
Q ao

V = critical energy
cr
105

## standard s w a l l o w t a i l catastrophe (Appendix A) i n the form

X 4
+ uX 2
+ vX + w = 0 (5.28)

## generated by the f a u l t . Therefore, the degree of s t a b i l i t y i s i n c r e a s e d and

the critical c l e a r i n g time i s also increased. This means that when fast

exciters are used the system can generate more power f o r the same c l e a r i n g

time.
0.8-

0.6-

0.4 c l a s s i c a l model
proposed method

0.2-

0.0 I ' 1
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
time i n seconds
Fig. 5.5

0.8-

0.6-
c l a s s i c a l model
proposed method

0.4-

0.2

0.0 1 I
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
time i n seconds
F i g . 5.6
The effect of flux decay and e x c i t a t i o n response on the accelerating
power during the transient period for two test cases.
107

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS

## group i s formed f o r the r e s t of the system. The energy balance e q u a t i o n is

derived from the equation of motion of the critical machine against the

## stability region i s derived by the b i f u r c a t i o n technique. This stability

region is valid for different loading conditions and fault locations. This

108

## T h i s method i s l i m i t e d to a p e r i o d of .5 second f o r best a c c u r a c y . However,

this i s adequate f o r most large power systems since typical clearing times

method.

109

## damping, flux decay and e x c i t a t i o n response i n the p r e s e n t e d methods,

all factors that directly effect transient stability are taken into

110

system.

approach.

Ill

## This research considered only single disturbances. Multiple distur-

bances should a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .

## on-line steady state stability assessment approach can be developed

u s i n g the c a t a s t r o p h e theory.
112

REFERENCES

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117

APPENDIX A

## The potential function i s

V(X) = X + uX + vx + wX

## The b i f u r c a t i o n s e t , B, i s a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l surface i n the c o n t r o l

space u, u and w.

u u

## surve i n C, and i f we can s k e t c h t h i s curve f o r a l l v a l u e s of u we can b u i l d

up the complete s u r f a c e B.

w-axis.

dw (A.3)
dX
118

and = - (30X 2
+ 3u) (A.4)
dX

## If U i s positive, then cannot vanish. Hence u is a strictly

dX
monotone f u n c t i o n of X and the e q u a t i o n

^ = - 2 (A.5)
du

## is valid everywhere. Moreover, equation (A.2) i m p l i e s that X u < 0 with

e q u a l i t y o n l y when X = u = 0, a t which p o i n t w a l s o v a n i s h e s .

## It f o l l o w s that B y i s smooth, t h a t w i s l a r g e when |x| i s l a r g e , and

dw
that the s i g n a l of i s t h e same as t h a t of u, v a n i s h i n g o n l y at the
du
origin. T h i s enables us to draw F i g . ( A . l ) .

## If u i s negative, then vanishes f o r two r e a l v a l u e s of X, /

dX 10
dw
Consequently, vanishes f o r three v a l u e s o f X, these two t o g e t h e r w i t h
dX

## (A.2) i m p l i e s t h a t f o r |x| < / the product X u cannot be n e g a t i v e . Since

10

X and u a l s o v a n i s h t o g e t h e r , i t f o l l o w s t h a t i f u i s s m a l l and p o s i t i v e so

du
119

## symmetric about the w-axis, establishes that the c r i t i c a l point is a

r e l a t i v e maximum.

10

## have just seen that X = 0 corresponds to a maximum a t the o r i g i n , and

substituting into equation (A.l) we find that both the other roots give

9u 2

20 u

## self-intersection, we can draw F i g . (A.2). And s i n c e the e q u a t i o n of the

l i n e of p o i n t s of s e l f - I n t e r s e c t i o n i s the p a r a b o l a

v - * L2 . u 0
I
20
We can put the curves B u together t o form the s u r f a c e B shown i n F i g .

## u < 0 then the s o l u t i o n of E q u a t i o n ( A . l ) i s

X 2
= (- 3u / ( 9 u 2
- 20w))
10

## There a r e three cases:

2
9u
(a) w > Equation ( A . l ) has no r e a l roots and V has no critical
20
120

Fig.(A.2)
Fig.(A.1)

## r>f the swallowtail

The b i f u r c a t i o n set of tne *
121

points.

9u 2
2
0 < w < Because /(9u - 20w) i s r e a l and l e s s than the r e a l and
20
2
positive -
3 u , both solutions for X a r e r e a l and p o s i t i v e and V has
four c r i t i c a l points, two maxima and two minima.
2

maximum.
122

APPENDIX B

## The cusp catastrophe:

The p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i s

V(X) = X 4
+ uX 2
+ uX (B.l)

## so the e q u i l i b r i u m s u r f a c e i s a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space i n x, u and u g i v e n

by

4X 3
+ 2uX + u = 0 (B.2)

## and the s i n g u l a r i t y s e t i s the subset of the e q u i l i b r i u m s u r f a c e such that

the d e r i v a t i v e of (B.2) i s a l s o e q u a l t o z e r o . I t i s g i v e n by

12X 2
+ 2u = 0 (B.3)

## We find the b i f u r c a t i o n s e t by e l i m i n a t i n g the s t a t e v a r i a b l e X from (B.2)

and (B.3), we o b t a i n

8U" + 2 7 u
3 2
- 0 (B.4)

## Equation (B.4) i s the projection of the three-dimensional manifold of

equation (B.2) onto the c o n t r o l space (u-u). The cusp manifold and the

b i f u r c a t i o n s e t i s shown i n F i g . ( B . l ) .

## Equation (B.2) has three real roots within the b i f u r c a t i o n set

r e g i o n , o r when

8u 3
+ 27 u 2
< 0

But when

8u 3
+ 27u 2
> 0
123

124

## there i s only one real root.

Figure (B.2) shows the bifurcation set of u-u plane i n which the

## f u c t i o n s V(X) i s sketched for different v a l u e s of the parameters u and u.

,. .* Tne cusp p o t e n t i a l f - c t i o n VCX) a t d i f f e r e n t
v a l u e s of the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s .
126

APPENDIX C

## The accelerating power of machine I i n an n-machine power system i s

given by ( E q u a t i o n 4.22)

## P = P , - Z (D. . cos 6 + c. . s i n 6 ) (CI)

ai mi - 1 i j i j i j i j '

## We expand P ^ i n the neighborhood of t=0 to o b t a i n ,

m
P , t ) - P<> + 1- P ^ t + 1- P < > t 3 2
+ ... + - p l ( n )
t (C2)
3.x 3 - . 3 3 . 3
1! 2! m!
T

where

,(m) _ a

m
dt t-0

## and 6. = 6 (initial angle)

n
therefore (C.3)
P
a 0 )
- V - <1] " s 6
iJ +
1J 6 l n 6
i3>

0 0,
- Z (D sin 6 - c . cos 6 )
3
dt ^ t-0 J-l 3 J J J

Since u. . = 0
t=0

therefore P (1) _
= 0 (C4)

To s i m p l i f y the d e r i v a t i v e e q u a t i o n s we l e t
127

n
0 0
A = Z ( D ^ cos 6 jLj + c j s i n 6^)
(C.5)

and

## the d e r i v a t i v e s of A and B w i t h r e s p e c t t o time a r e

dt 1 J
dt J

(1) * (2)
f o r convenience let 6^ = 6^ y
, 6^ = 6 ... and so on

therefore

P<> = P , - A
a mi

dt a j

## P<3) . d_ (1) = d_ (1)

dt 3
dt

A 6.!^ + B 6. . ( 2)
= B c (2)
"IJ Ij " 6 ^' (C.7)

(3) . i . . (D (D CD
3
P P (2) 2 A 6 6 (2) _ B 6 + A 6 6 (2) + B 6 (3)
a . a i j i j i j i j Ij IJ
dt

(C8)
= 0
128

p CD P (1)
where 6< > 3
- - = 0
M
i M
j

P< > =
a
4

d
1_ P<
t a
> 3
= B 6< >
i j
4
+A6< >6< >
i j i j
1 3

+ 2A 6<> - B 6 J >

2
1
1
6 < > + 2 A S ^

2 1
^ , ^ - 2B 6 ^ ) 6<>

2

" 3
- \ f \ ? - A
\ ^

P >
( 4
- B 6 /*> + 3 A 6 <2) 2
(C9)
a i j i j

## P< > - * _ P< > - B 6 / 5 ) + 5A 6 / / > 6 / / >

5 4
+
1 0 A
^ "> B 6//> 6//> 2

a d a i j i j i j i j i j i j i j

## - 15 B 6 < > 6 < > - 10 A 6 < > \ < >1 j

2 2
i j
1
1
1 2
+ B 6 ^ - 0
(C.10)

P<> =
a d
1- P<
a
> 5
= B 6< >
i j
6
+ 6 A 6//>6//>+ 15 A 6 < > 6 <*>- 15 B
i j i j i j i j i j
2
6/^V/* i j

+ 10 A 6 < > - 60 B *
3
* h - 20 A 6 ^ 6 < > - 15 B 6 < >"
3
4
2

## 45 A 6 < >6 5 >

1
l
1
2 2
+ 15 B 6 " * + A 6 '

B 6 ^ + 15 A ^ 6 5 > 2)

4
- 15 B 6 < >
2 3
( C l l )
129

## Note that 6 ^ ) = 6^ > -

3
6 \

5 )
= 6 < > ... = 0

7
130

APPENDIX D

D e r i v a t i o n of p
a ^ ^ a <* n p
a ^ ^ including damping:

P < ) - _3
<> P
2

ai ai d t

## From e q u a t i o n (C.8) of Appendix C

(3)
P } ' (without damping) = 0
a l

Therefore

, - -> CD
Also

p {> - i - P >
al d t ai

From e q u a t i o n (C.4) we o b t a i n
P < > - B 6 <*>
4
+ 3 A 6 C2> - D 6 (5) 2

ai i j i j i j

Since 6 J
1
5 )
= 0

then

P <>
ai
4
- B 6 <*>
i j
+ 3 A a/
i j
)' 2

- ^ ( D ^ - m 6 - c
i j C os * ])*K
3

, 0. < ( 2 ) '
+ c l j S in A
6 ) j 6 J

(D.2)
131

APPENDIX E

response.

## The accelerating power of machine i i s

P
a i - mi " ^ P
V j <lj C O S 5
ij + b
ij S i n 6
ij> ( E a )

and

E = E(0) + F ( 0 )
t + l i - i t + ... 2
(E.2)
1
2

## Recalling equation (5.16)

d E
i E
c ~ ( E
c " V " t / T e

T
d 0 ; - - ^ F
-- e
- r<v- di>
E x

i dt cos 4>

S Ej ( g J cos 6 J + b j sin t 6 )
j (E.3)

the coefficients F ( 0 )
, F ( 1 )
are given i n Section (5.3), F ( 2
\ F ( 3 )
are

## derived from (E.3) and g i v e n as follows.

F (2) = J__c
(E - E )
0 J (1)
_ + _ s
n
s i n 5 0
0

x 2

e
" S
* i W ' J = 1 j j j

b cs 6, CE.4)
132

,(2)
,(3) _ 1 ( E
c " V (E.5)
z 3 cos
"doi
e

## The d e r i v a t i o n of the a c c e l e r a t i n g power c o e f f i c i e n t s are as follows

Let A i = E j ( g ^ cos 6 ^ + b j s i n 6 )

(B.6)
B
ij j E (8
U 8 i n 6
ij " ij b C S
\^
d A
then M--B 6
dt
ij ij
d B
0

dt

Let
ij \i ' ij 6 6
ij ' * etc.

## Substituting equations ( E . 6 ) , and (E.2) to ( E . l ) to o b t a i n the T a y l o r series

c o e f f i c i e n t s of P ^ we get

## P<> - , , - I E<> A , , (E.7)

a mi i i j

,(D _ d P
ai = - S ( F ^ A . J, " E(0) B 2 61 J
dt t=0 j=l

i F ( 0
> A (E.8)
j=l ij
133

>(2) _ d P
ai n
E (E(0) B 4 4 6^ 2 )
- F ( 1 )
A,,) (B.9)
dt t=0 j=l ij i j ij'

,(3) . ^ a i n
(E.10)
dt" t=0

4
ti\ d p
<

^ I 6f ( 1 > B
ij 6
i f } + 3 E
<> i j A 6
i f > 2

dt t=0

+ E(O) B j 6 <

4 )
- F ( 3 )
A j ] (E.ll)