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How To Make Concrete At Site?

M 25 Example
PORTLAND CEMENT:
Joseph Aspdin, a mason at Leeds prepared a cement in 1824 by heating a mixture of finely-divided clay and hard limestone in a furnace until CO2 had
been driven off; this temperature was much lower than that necessary for clinkering. The prototype of modern cement was made in 1845 by Isaac Johnson,
who burnt a mixture of clay and chalk until clinkering, so that the reaction necessary for the formation of strongly cementitious compound took place. The
name ‘Portland Cement’ was given due to the resemblance of the colour and quality of the hardened cement to Portland stone- a limestone quarried in
Doset.

The process of manufacturing of cement consists essentially of grinding the raw materials ( calcareous materials such as limestone or chalk and
argillaceous materials such as shale or clay), mixing them intimately in certain proportion and burning in a large rotary kiln at a temperature of upto about
14500C when the material sinters and partially fuses into balls known as clinker. The clinker is cooled and ground to a fine powder, with some gypsum
added, and the resulting product is the commercial Portland Cement so widely used throughout the world.

MAKING CONCRETE:
Just mix cement, aggregates and water, cast this mix in a mould, open the mould next day. A uniform hard mass will be found, which is known as concrete,
any body can make it. The simplecity in making concrete make this material to be look like very simple in its production, yet it as not so simple. Due to
ignorance about concrete no other building materials ever mis-used as concrete in the construction. In India concrete is being used in the construction since
the last 70 years. Yet 80% of the builders have no proper understanding of this materials. Go to any construction site (except big construction sites) you
will find that sand and aggregates are being taken in iron tasla or cane baskets to charge the mixer without the consideration of site aggregates actual
grindings, moisture content and bulking of sand. The water is poured in the mixer without any measured quantity. It could be well imagine what sort of
concrete structure will be made with the concrete being produced in this crude method.

Most of the contractors, builders, masons etc. still follow 1:2:4 or 1:1.5:3 mixes they are not aware of Design Mixes and Concrete Admixtures. This paper
described how Design Mixes can be converted into volume with 1 Bag Cement, 2 Boxes of sand and 4 Boxes of Aggregate. The site practical problem is
the dispersion of water and liquid admixtures into the mixer. For this the site should fabricate a plastic circular graduated measuring container of 30 lit
capacity with a tap fitted at its bottom. This container is to be fitted on top of the mixer. From this container water and liquid admixtures can conveniently
poured direct into the mixer in a measured quantity.

EXAMPLE OF MIX DESIGN


1. For a construction site M-25 Grade of concrete is required to be designed as per IS: 456-2000. The mix will be taken by volume. Workability required is
50 mm slump. Normal Superplasticizer will be used in the mix. The materials will be mixed at site in a tilting drum mixer of one cement bag capacity.

2. For durability consideration, maximum free W/C ration = 0.50 minimum cement content 300 kg/m3 including Fly ash.

3. Test datas of aggregates are as given in table-1.

4. Cement will be used PPC, having 7 days average compressive strength of 37.5 N/mm2

5. Mean design target strength:


25 + 1.65 x 5 = 33.3 N/mm2 at 28 days age

Table-1 Test Data of Dehradun Aggregates:

I.S. Sieve Size Percentage Passing

River Sand 20 mm Crushed Aggregate

40 mm
100 100

20 mm
100 86

10 mm
95 3

4.75 mm
79 0

2.36 mm
72

1.18 mm
56

600 micron
47
300 micron
27

150 micron
6

Specific Gravity
2.65 2.65

Water absorption %
0.80 0.50

Bulk density kg/lit


1.78 1.40

Note : The sand is not falling to any grading Zone of IS : 383-1970. The aggregate grading is 20 mm single sized as per IS: 383-1970.
If 95% this sand passes on 4.75 mm sieve, then the sand will become of Zone-II as per IS : 383-1970. The following mix is worked out as per Zone-II sand.
For detail calculations refer reference of No. 1.

a) For the target strength and given cement and Aggregate W/C ration found to be = 0.49

b) Water for OPC 190 kg/m3. For PCC 5/100 x 190 = 9.5 , Say 10
190 – 10 = 180 kg/m3 to give 50 mm of Slump with the given aggregates. Normal Superplasticizer at a dosages of
7 ml/kg cement will give 15% water reduction without loss of workability.

Water = 180 – 27 = 153 kg/m3


c) Cement = 153/0.49 = 312 kg/m3
d) Density of OPC concrete = 2405 kg/m3
Density for PPC Concrete = 2405 – 24 = Say 2380 kg/m3
e) Aggregates = 2380 -153 – 312 = 1915 kg/m3
f) Sand (Zone-II) = 1915 x 0.36 = 689 kg/m3
g) 20 mm aggregate = 1915 – 689 = 1226 kg/m3

Mix. No. 1 On the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates-


Water =153 kg/m3
PCC=312 kg/m3
Sand=689 kg/m3
20 mm Aggregate=1226 ml/m3

Mix No. 2
95-79 = 16% oversized particles in the sand is to be adjusted in the above mix. The modified mix on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates is
given below:
Water=153 kg/m3
PCC=312 kg/m3
Sand=820 kg/m3
20 mm Aggregate =1095 kg/m3
Normal Superplasticizer=2184 kg/m3

Accordingly mix ratio by weight on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates is given below:

Cement : Sand : 20 mm Agg.


1 : 2.63 : 3.51 W/C Ratio = 0.49

Mix ratio by volume on the basis of room dry aggregates is given below:
Cement : Sand : 20 mm Agg.
1 : 2.14 : 3.63 Free W/C Ratio = 0.49

MIX RATIO BY VOLUME FOR ONE BAG OF CEMENT


1. Cement = One bag = 50 kg = 35 lit = 35000 cc
2. Sand (room dry) = 2.14 x 35 = 74.9 lit = 74900 cc
3. 20 mm Aggregate (room dry) = 3.63 x 35 = 127.05 lit = 127050 cc
4. Free Water = 24.5 lit
5. Normal Superplasticizer = 350 ml

MEASURING BOXES TO BE MADE AT SITE


1. Cement = One bag = 50 kg
2. Sand (room dry) = 33 x 33 x 34.4 cm …… two boxes
3. 20 mm Aggregate (room dry) = 33 x 33 x 29.2 cm ….. four boxes
4. Free Water = 24.5 lit
5. Normal Superplasticizer = 350 ml

In the above example M-25 Design mix is converted to the familiar 1 bag cement : 2 boxes of sand and 4 boxes of aggregate. While making concrete at site
the moisture content of site sand and aggregate must be taken into account in the mixing water and bulking of sand. In the field trial mixes are to be carried
out to finalized the mix.

REFERENCES:
1. Kishore Kaushal, “Manual of Concrete Mix Design based on IS : 456-2000, Standard Publishers Distributors, 1705-B, Nai Sarak, Delhi-110 006,
2. Kishore Kaushal, “Combining Fine & Coarse Aggregates” CE & CR, Jun, 2004, pp. 46-50.

We are thankful to Sir Kaushal Kishore for sharing this utmost important research paper here on the website. This would be of great use to all the civil
engineers who work in field

Filed under Mix Design | 0 Comments

M-35 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009


Dear All

Again I am back with M-35 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009


Regards
Raj Mohammad Khan

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H

A-1
Stipulations for Proportioning

1
Grade Designation M35

2 OPC 53 grade confirming to


Type of Cement IS-12269-1987

3
Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 20 mm

4 Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 310 kg/m3

5 Maximum Water Cement Ratio


(MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

6
Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 50-75 mm (Slump)

7
Exposure Condition Normal

8
Degree of Supervision Good

9
Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate

10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H


Cl. 1703.2) 540 kg/m3

11 Superplasticiser Confirming to
Chemical Admixture Type IS-9103

A-2
Test Data for Materials

1
Cement Used Coromandal King OPC 53 grade

2
Sp. Gravity of Cement 3.15

3
Sp. Gravity of Water 1.00

4
Chemical Admixture BASF Chemicals Company

5
Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 2.884

6
Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 2.878

7
Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605

8
Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97%
9
Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83%

10
Water Absorption of Sand 1.23%

11 Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm


Aggregate nil

12 Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm


Aggregate nil

13
Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand nil

14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse


Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse


Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15 Sp.Gravity of Combined Coarse


Aggregates 2.882

16
Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

A-3
Target Strength for Mix Proportioning

1
Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 47N/mm2

2
Characteristic Strength @ 28 days 35N/mm2

A-4
Selection of Water Cement Ratio

1 Maximum Water Cement Ratio


(MORT&H 1700-3 A) 0.45

2
Adopted Water Cement Ratio 0.4

A-5
Selection of Water Content

1
Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit.

2 Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm


Slump 160 Lit.

3
Superplasticiser used 0.5 % by wt. of cement

A-6
Calculation of Cement Content

1
Water Cement Ratio 0.4

2
Cement Content (160/0.42) 400 kg/m3
Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

A-7
Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

1
Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00%

2
Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 62.00%
Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 38.00%

A-8
Mix Calculations

1
Volume of Concrete in m3 1.00
2
Volume of Cement in m3 0.13
(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of
Cement)x1000

3
Volume of Water in m3 0.160
(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of
Water)x1000

4
Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 0.00168
(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of
Admixture)x1000

5
Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 0.711
Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4)

6
Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 0.441
Sr. no. 5 x 0.62

7
Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 0.270
Sr. no. 5 x 0.38

A-9
Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)

1
Mass of Cement in kg/m3 400

2
Mass of Water in kg/m3 160

3
Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 704

4
Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 1271
3
Mass of 20 mm in kg/m 915
Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 356

5
Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 2.00

6
Water Cement Ratio 0.40

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil
engineers.

Filed under Mix Design | 2 Comments

M-30 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009


Dear All

Again I am back with M-30 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009


Regards
Raj Mohammad Khan

M-30 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H

A-1
Stipulations for Proportioning

1
Grade Designation M30

2 OPC 53 grade confirming to


Type of Cement IS-12269-1987
3
Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 20 mm

4 Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 310 kg/m3

5 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 0.45

6
Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 50-75 mm (Slump)

7
Exposure Condition Normal

8
Degree of Supervision Good

9
Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate

10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl.


1703.2) 540 kg/m3

11 Superplasticiser Confirming to
Chemical Admixture Type IS-9103

A-2
Test Data for Materials

1
Cement Used Coromandal King OPC 53 grade

2
Sp. Gravity of Cement 3.15

3
Sp. Gravity of Water 1.00

4
Chemical Admixture BASF Chemicals Company

5
Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 2.884

6
Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 2.878

7
Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605

8
Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97%

9
Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83%

10
Water Absorption of Sand 1.23%

11
Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate nil

12
Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate nil

13
Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand nil

14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse


Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse


Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15
Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882

16
Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

A-3
Target Strength for Mix Proportioning
1
Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 42N/mm2

2
Characteristic Strength @ 28 days 30N/mm2

A-4
Selection of Water Cement Ratio

1 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 0.45

2
Adopted Water Cement Ratio 0.42

A-5
Selection of Water Content

1
Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit.

2 Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm


Slump 160 Lit.

3
Superplasticiser used 0.5 % by wt. of cement

A-6
Calculation of Cement Content

1
Water Cement Ratio 0.42

2
Cement Content (160/0.42) 380 kg/m3
Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

A-7
Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

1
Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00%

2
Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 62.00%
Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 38.00%

A-8
Mix Calculations

1
Volume of Concrete in m3 1.00

2
Volume of Cement in m3 0.12
(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of
Cement)x1000

3
Volume of Water in m3 0.160
(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of
Water)x1000

4
Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 0.00160
(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of
Admixture)x1000

5
Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 0.718
Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4)

6
Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 0.445
Sr. no. 5 x 0.62

7
Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 0.273
Sr. no. 5 x 0.38

A-9
Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)
1
Mass of Cement in kg/m3 380

2
Mass of Water in kg/m3 160

3
Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 711

4
Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 1283
Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 924
Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 359

5
Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 1.90

6
Water Cement Ratio 0.42

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil
engineers.

Filed under Mix Design | 1 Comment

M-25 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009


Dear All

Again I am back with M-25 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009.

Regards
Raj Mohammad Khan

M-25 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H

A-1
Stipulations for Proportioning

1
Grade Designation M25

2 OPC 53 grade confirming to


Type of Cement IS-12269-1987

3
Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 20 mm

4 Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 310 kg/m3

5 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 0.45

6
Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 50-75 mm (Slump)

7
Exposure Condition Normal

8
Degree of Supervision Good

9
Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate

10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl.


1703.2) 540 kg/m3

11 Superplasticiser Confirming to
Chemical Admixture Type IS-9103

A-2
Test Data for Materials

1
Cement Used Coromandal King OPC 53 grade
2
Sp. Gravity of Cement 3.15

3
Sp. Gravity of Water 1.00

4
Chemical Admixture BASF Chemicals Company

5
Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 2.884

6
Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 2.878

7
Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605

8
Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97%

9
Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83%

10
Water Absorption of Sand 1.23%

11
Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate nil

12
Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate nil

13
Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand nil

14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse


Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse


Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15
Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882

16
Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

A-3
Target Strength for Mix Proportioning

1
Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 36N/mm2

2
Characteristic Strength @ 28 days 25N/mm2

A-4
Selection of Water Cement Ratio

1 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 0.45

2
Adopted Water Cement Ratio 0.43

A-5
Selection of Water Content

1
Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit.

2 Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm


Slump 138 Lit.

3
Superplasticiser used 0.5 % by wt. of cement

A-6
Calculation of Cement Content

1
Water Cement Ratio 0.43
2
Cement Content (138/0.43) 320 kg/m3
Which is greater then 310 kg/m3

A-7
Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

1
Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00%

2
Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 62.00%
Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 38.00%

A-8
Mix Calculations

1
Volume of Concrete in m3 1.00

2
Volume of Cement in m3 0.10
(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of
Cement)x1000

3
Volume of Water in m3 0.138
(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of
Water)x1000

4
Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3 0.00134
(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of
Admixture)x1000

5
Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 0.759
Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4)

6
Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 0.471
Sr. no. 5 x 0.62

7
Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 0.288
Sr. no. 5 x 0.38

A-9
Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)

1
Mass of Cement in kg/m3 320

2
Mass of Water in kg/m3 138

3
Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 751

4
Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 1356
Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 977
3
Mass of 10 mm in kg/m 380

5
Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 1.60

6
Water Cement Ratio 0.43

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil
engineers.

Filed under Mix Design | 2 Comments

M-20 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009


Dear All
Again I am back with M-20 Mix Designs as per IS-10262-2009
Regards
Raj Mohammad Khan
M-20 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H

A-1
Stipulations for Proportioning

1
Grade Designation M20

2 OPC 53 grade confirming to


Type of Cement IS-12269-1987

3
Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 20 mm

4 Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 250 kg/m3

5 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 0.5

6
Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 25 mm (Slump)

7
Exposure Condition Normal

8
Degree of Supervision Good

9
Type of Aggregate Crushed Angular Aggregate

10 Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl.


1703.2) 540 kg/m3

11 Superplasticiser Confirming to
Chemical Admixture Type IS-9103

A-2
Test Data for Materials

1
Cement Used Coromandal King OPC 53 grade

2
Sp. Gravity of Cement 3.15

3
Sp. Gravity of Water 1.00

4
Chemical Admixture Not Used

5
Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 2.884

6
Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 2.878

7
Sp. Gravity of Sand 2.605

8
Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 0.97%

9
Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 0.83%

10
Water Absorption of Sand 1.23%

11 Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm


Aggregate nil

12 Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm


Aggregate nil

13
Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand nil
14 Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse
Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15 Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse


Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

15
Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 2.882

16
Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates Separate Analysis Done

A-3
Target Strength for Mix Proportioning

1
Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 30N/mm2

2
Characteristic Strength @ 28 days 20N/mm2

A-4
Selection of Water Cement Ratio

1 Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H


1700-3 A) 0.5

2
Adopted Water Cement Ratio 0.5

A-5
Selection of Water Content

1
Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 186 Lit.

2
Estimated Water content for 25 mm Slump 145 Lit.

3
Superplasticiser used nil

A-6
Calculation of Cement Content

1
Water Cement Ratio 0.5

2
Cement Content (145/0.5) 290 kg/m3
Which is greater then 250 kg/m3

A-7
Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

1
Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 62.00%

2
Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 65.00%
Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.65) 35.00%

A-8
Mix Calculations

1
Volume of Concrete in m3 1.00

2
Volume of Cement in m3 0.09
(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of
Cement)x1000

3
Volume of Water in m3 0.145
(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of
Water)x1000

4
Volume of Admixture @ 0% in m3 nil
(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of
Admixture)x1000
5
Volume of All in Aggregate in m3 0.763
Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4)

6
Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3 0.496
Sr. no. 5 x 0.65

7
Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3 0.267
Sr. no. 5 x 0.35

A-9
Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)

1
Mass of Cement in kg/m3 290

2
Mass of Water in kg/m3 145

3
Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3 696

4
Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3 1429
Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3 1029
Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3 400

5
Mass of Admixture in kg/m3 nil

6
Water Cement Ratio 0.5

We are thankful to Er. Raj M. Khan for sharing this information with us on engineeringcivil.com. We hope this would be of great significance to civil
engineers.

Filed under Mix Design | 12 Comments


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When would torsional stiffness of members be considered in analyzing a bridge?

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