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Perforating Requirements

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For Fracturing Stimulations
Perforations

Communication between the welbore and the reservoir

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In a fractured-stimulated wellbore, is the conduit between the
fracture and the wellbore

Should minimize the near-wellbore pressure drops due to


perforation friction, micro-annulus pinch points, multiple competing
fractures and fracture turtuosity.
Micro-annulus pinch points

(SPE 30506)

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Near-wellbore fracture turtuosity
(SPE 30506)

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Underbalance perforating

Insufficient underbalance does not remove all sand debris from the
perforations.

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This debris creates an external filter cake in the perforation during
the injection.

High pressure drops can be expected.


Micro-annulus

Perforating can create micro-annulus

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(SPE 59480)
Micro-annulus width due to perforating

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w width (in) For,
Poisson ratio dw = 8-1/2-in, Pm-PR = 2000 psi
=0.25, E = 1E06 psi
Pm Micro-annulus pressure (psi)
w = 0.0106-in
PR Reservoir pressure (psi)
which, for a fluid velocity of 3.28 ft/s
dw well diameter (in) corresponds to a rate of 99 bpd (for a viscosity
E Young modulus (psi) of 1 cp)
Hard-rock hydraulic fracturing (I)
(no micro-annulus, vertical wells)

Dry gas wells, no liquid in wellbore,


small hollow guns and 1 2 spf can

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maintain good bond.
Abass (SPE 28555)
180 perfs at <30 PFP <30
Preferred Fractured Plan

If not possible, use 60 phase.


Shot density at 60 phase must be
three times the one at 180 phase.
Hard-rock hydraulic fracturing (II)
(no micro-annulus, vertical wells)

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(SPE 59480)
Hard-rock hydraulic fracturing (III)
(no micro-annulus, vertical wells)

Stadulis (29549) - 0 phase, 1 spf with proppant slugs to prevent


multiple competing fractures and near-wellbore screen-outs.

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Three factors: low shot density, closed micro-annulus and proppant
slugs. Which are driving to success ?
Does a single or biwing fracture propagates with 0 phase ?
If a biwing is initiated, the wing opposite to the perfs will restrict flow
rate and may screen-out.

PFP

screen-out
Hard-rock hydraulic fracturing (IV)
(open micro-annulus, vertical wells)

Preferred
Fracture Plane

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100
Micro-annulus

Re-orientation

Preferred
Fracture Plane
10 to 30
100

Multiple fractures
Hard-rock hydraulic fracturing (V)
(open micro-annulus, vertical wells)

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(SPE 59480)
Hard-rock hydraulic fracturing (VI)
(deviated and horizontal wells, vertical fractures)

If the well is the PFP, 180 oriented up and down.


ARCO uses this technique up to 65 deviation.

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If the stress direction is not known, perforate up and down .
To minimize the initiation of multiple fractures, the higher the angle
the shorter the interval.
For deviation < 45, 10 ft perforated interval should be enough.
For deviation > 45, decrease the perforated interval.
For deviation >75, short clusters (less than 3 ft, multiple
phases angles).
Perforated interval
PFP
PFP
well well
10 ft

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middle of the interval
multiple factures induced
decreased width

100 ft

6
Penetration depth

4 to 6 inches into the formation (maximum).

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In theory, hole should be > 6 times proppant diameter.

In practice, hole should be > 10 to times the larger proppant


diameter.

Large stress contrast favor 60 phase.


Shots and hole size

Pressure drop is a function of the injection rate per perforation and


viscosity of the fracturing fluid.

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During the treatment, hole size increases due to erosion by the fluid
and, mainly, by the proppant.
For 0 and 180 phases, all the holes contribute to the fracture.
For 120, only two-thirds contribute to the fracture and for 60 only
one-third is connected.
Pressure drop across perforations should be less than 25 psi.