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Australian National University

Assignment 5

Due at 10:00am Tuesday 18th April

Solutions

Linear Algebra

Question 1. Determinant calculations (Webassign Q1-Q4) 5 points

A matrix A Rnn is said to symmetric and positive definite (SPD) if and only if

A = AT and xT Ax > 0 for all vectors x 6= 0 Rn .

SPD. (5 subpts)

(b) Prove that if A is SPD, then all aii > 0 (1 i n). (2 subpts)

that if A is SPD, then B is SPD. (3 subpts)

Note: Do not use eigenvalues or eigenvectors to answer this question, just use the defini-

tions given above.

Answer

MATH1115, Assignment 5 2

T T T

Then X T AX = X T AT X T = X T AX since AT = A and X T =

X. So X T AX is symmetric.

Consider y 6= 0 Rn . Then x := Xy 6= 0 since X is nonsingular.

(That is, the only solution to the homogeneous system is the trivial

solutions.) So

So X T AX is positive definite.

Hence X T AX is SPD.

Now consider the case where X T AX is SPD.

T T

AT = X 1 X T AXX 1

T T 1 T T

= X 1 X T AX X

T 1 T T

= X 1 X T AX X

T

= X 1 X T AXX 1

= A.

So A is symmetric.

Consider x 6= 0 Rn . As X is nonsingular we can set y = X 1 x 6=

0. So

T

xT Ax = xT X 1 X T AXX 1 x = y T X T AXy > 0.

Hence A is SPD.

(b) Consider the ith unit vector ei . Recall (ei )i = 1 and (ei )j = 0 if i 6= j.

Then as A is SPD

Xn

= (ei )k (Aei )k

k=1

= (Aei )i

Xn

= aik (ei )k

k=1

= aii .

MATH1115, Assignment 5 3

(c) Firstly

bji = aji = aij = bij

for 1 i, j m. So B T = B.

Consider y 6= 0 Rm . Define x 6= 0 Rn by

(

yi if 1 i m

xi =

0 otherwise

Then

m

X

T

y By = yi bij yj

i,j=1

X m

= yi aij yj since bij = aij for 1 , j m

i,j=1

X n

= xi aij xj by construction of x

i,j=1

= xT Ax

>0 since A is positive definite

Finally B is SPD.

1pt for showing A is positive definite gives X T AX is positive definite.

1pt for showing X T AX is symmetric gives A is symmetric.

1pt for showing X T AX is positive definite gives A is positive definite

1pt for explaining/noting that we need to use the fact that X is non-

singular to know that the x and y used in the proofs are not 0.

(b) 1pt for noting that we need to use the ith unit vector.

1pt for show how the unit vector can be used to get the result.

1pt for constructing y

1pt for showing how to use y to get the result

MATH1115, Assignment 5 4

(a) If a 44 matrix A has det(A) = 1/2, find det(2A), det(A2 ) and det(A1 ). (2.5 subpts)

(b) Suppose CD = DC, and find the flaw in the following argument: (1.5 subpts)

det(C) = 0 or det(D) = 0. Thus CD = DC is only possible if C or

D is singular.

Answer

det(A2 ) = det(A) det(A) = 41 .

det(A1 ) = 1/ det(A) = 2.

(b) Assume that both D and C are n n matrices. Then det(DC) =

(1)n det(DC). So the argument is only true when n is odd. It does

not apply when n is even.

(a) Essentially, right or wrong grading. 0.5pts for each correct answer, 0pt

for a wrong answer. Add additional 1pt if students justified answer (in

some vague way).

(b) 1pt for picking up det(DC) = (1)n det(DC). 0.5pt picking up on the fact

that answer depends on whether n is even or not.

Find the equation of the sphere that passes through the four points (6, 10, 0), (13, 3, 0),

(1, 3, 12), and (4, 2, 12). Check your answer.

Have a read through Section 10.1 of the 10th and 11th edition of Anton and Rorres on

Constructing Curves and Surfaces Through Specified Points before answering this question.

I also found the working out in http://web.csulb.edu/~jchang9/m247/m247_poster_

P_Moretti_sp09.pdf to be helpful. The aim of this question is to show you one of the

practical applications of determinants.

Hint: Write down the determinant of the corresponding 5 5 matrix. Apply the co-

factor expansion along the top row to express it as a collection of determinants of 4 4

matrices. Then use some software package or online tool to calculate the determinant of

those 44 matrices. Normally you are required to show your working for these types of cal-

culations, but in this case I encourage you to calculate the determinant numerically as it is

way too messy to do by hand. Example online tools include http: // www. bluebit. gr/

matrix-calculator/ , http: // matrix. reshish. com/ determinant. php and http:

// www. mathsisfun. com/ algebra/ matrix-calculator. html .

Answer

MATH1115, Assignment 5 5

We want to calculate

2

x + y2 + z2 x y z 1

6 10 0 1

62 + 102 6 10 0 1

= x2 + y 2 + z 2 13 3 0 1

132 + 32 13 3 0 1

2

1 + 32 + 122 1

1 3 12 1

3 12 1

2

4 + 22 + 122 4 2 12 1

4 2 12 1

136 10 0 1 136 6 0 1

178 3 0 1 178 13 0 1

x

+ y 154 1 12 1

154 3 12 1

164 2 12 1 164 4 12 1

136 6 10 1 136 6 10 0

178 13 3 1

+ 1 178 13 3 0

z

154 1 3 1

154 1

3 12

164 4 2 1 164 4 2 12

= 2856 x2 + y 2 + z 2 5712x + 11424y 0z 468384

2856 (x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + z 169 = 0

which simplifies to

(x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + z 169 = 0.

Check:

(6 1)2 + (10 + 2)2 + 02 169 = 0

(13 1)2 + (3 + 2)2 + 02 169 = 0

(1 1)2 + (3 + 2)2 + 122 169 = 0

(4 1)2 + (2 + 2)2 + 122 169 = 0

1pt for writing out correct cofactor expansion into a collection of the

determinants of 4 4 matrices

1pt for correctly writing out equation of sphere. Subtract 0.5pts if they

do not simplify the answer.

MATH1115, Assignment 5 6

Calculus

Question 5. Proof from the Axioms 1 (WebAssign Q5) 4 points

Justify each line of the following proof by quoting either a real number axiom, or a

previous line, or one of either Theorem 1.2.2 statement (1) or Theorem 1.2.2 statement

(2) from Calculus Lecture 11 (30 March). Note that the first part of the proof follows the

lines discussed in that lecture.

Theorem 1. Suppose a, b R. Then (ab) = (a)b.

Proof. We will first aim to show that (1)x = x, for all x R.

Let x R be given. Then

(1)x + x = (1)x + 1x (by )

= x(1) + x1 (by )

= x((1) + 1) (by )

= x0 (by )

= 0. (by )

So we have that (1)x + x = 0. (?)

Therefore,

(1)x = (1)x + 0 (by )

= (1)x + (x + (x)) (by )

= ((1)x + x) + (x) (by )

= 0 + (x) (by )

= x . (by )

Because x R was arbitrary, we have that (1)x = x for all x R. ()

Finally,

(ab) = (1)(ab) (by )

= ((1)a)b (by )

= (a)b , (by )

as required.

Using only the axioms of the real numbers or previously shown results (refer to the

Real Number Axioms section of the Calculus Content on Wattle for a list of permitted

previous results), prove each of the following.

MATH1115, Assignment 5 7

(b) If a, b, c R then a < b and c < 0 implies that ac > bc. (4 subpts)

(a) Let I R have the property that if x, z I, y R, and x < y < z, then y I.

Prove that I is an interval in R. (5 subpts)

[Note: the definition of an interval was given in Calculus Lecture 11 (30 March).]

[Hint: the question has already given you a fixed subset I of real numbers. That subset

is not known to satisfy the definition of an interval, but it does satisfy the following

property:

(x, z I)(y R) [x < y y < z] = y I .

Based on the fact I is known to have this property, you must show that it satisfies

the definition of an interval as given in lectures.

That is, you must show that I must fit with one of the (long) list of options given in

the lecture.

Note: for each a R this list includes the possibility of the singleton set {a} = [a, a]

and the empty set = (a, a).

The following gives an outline of how your proof might go, with some important details

removed and replaced by . . . . These instances of . . . might represent many or

few missing lines. You may copy what I have written below, filling in the missing

lines as appropriate, or else come up with your own way of expressing the proof.

Firstly, note that if I is the empty set or a singleton set, then I is an interval and

there is nothing left to prove. Hence for the remainder of this proof we may assume

that I has at least two distinct elements. We consider four cases:

Suppose w R.

...

Therefore, w I.

Since w was an arbitrary element of R, we have that I = R and hence I is an interval.

...

Let r = .

...

Therefore I = (, r) or I = (, r], and hence I is an interval.

MATH1115, Assignment 5 8

The fact that I is an interval in this case follows by a similar argument to case 2,

with (, r), (, r], and replaced by (r, ), [r, ], and

, respectively.

Case 4: the set I has both an upper bound and a lower bound.

...

Therefore, I = [a, b], I = [a, b), I = (a, b] or I = (a, b), and hence I is an interval.

Clearly the above cases cover all possibilities for I. Since we have shown that I is an

interval in each case, the proof is complete.

Answer

interval and there is nothing left to prove. Hence for the remainder of this

proof we may assume that I has at least two distinct elements. We consider

four cases:

Suppose w R.

Because I has no upper bound, w is not an upper bound for I and so there

is z I such that w < z.

Similarly, since I has no lower bound, there is x I such that x < w.

Hence we have x, z I, w R, and x < w < z.

Therefore, w I.

Since w was an arbitrary element of R, we have that I = R and hence I is

an interval.

Since I has an upper bound, by the completeness axiom I has a least upper

bound, sup I.

Let r = sup I.

If w > r then w / I, so we have that I (, r].

Now suppose w < r.

Because r = sup I, there is z I such that w < z < r. (Apply the theorem

from Slide 5 of Analysis Lecture 7, with = r w.)

Also, since I has no lower bound, there is x I such that x < w.

Hence we have x, z I, w R, and x < w < z.

Therefore, w I.

So we have shown that I (, r] and also that if w < r then w I.

Therefore I = (, r) or I = (, r], and hence I is an interval.

The fact that I is an interval in this case follows by a similar argument to

MATH1115, Assignment 5 9

case 2, with (, r), (, r], upper bounds and sup I replaced by (r, ),

[r, ], lower bounds and inf I, respectively.

Case 4: the set I has both an upper bound and a lower bound.

Since I has an upper bound, by the completeness axiom I has a least upper

bound, sup I.

Let b = sup I.

Since I has a lower bound, by the completeness axiom I has a greatest lower

bound, inf I.

Let a = inf I.

If w > b then w / I, and if w < a then w / I, so we have that I [a, b].

Now suppose w is such that a < w < b.

Because b = sup I, there is z I such that w < z < b. (Apply the theorem

from Slide 5 of Analysis Lecture 7, with = b w.)

Similarly, because a = inf I, there is x I such that a < x < w.

Hence we have x, z I, w R, and x < w < z.

Therefore, w I.

So we have shown that I [a, b] and also that if a < w < r then w I.

Therefore, I = [a, b], I = [a, b), I = (a, b] or I = (a, b), and hence I is an

interval.

Clearly the above cases cover all possibilities for I. Since we have shown

that I is an interval in each case, the proof is complete.

Due to my hint, you will get a lot of nearly correct proofs here. Please

check to see what has been written actually makes sense. If they get Case

1 out properly, but the rest doesnt really make sense, award 2 marks.

Similarly, if they dont explain Case 1 well but do well on another case,

award at least 2 marks. However, they need to reference the completeness

axiom (axiom 14) at a correct point in their proof in order to get full

marks. For cases 3 and 4, be lenient if they dont express the lower

bound / infimum side of things well. I didnt discuss infima and lower

bounds in lectures, so they will be relying on a conceptual symmetric

understanding.

[Hint: Note that in the definition of an interval in Q, we require that the endpoint(s)

involved in the specification of that interval to be elements of Q.]

Answer

I = {x Q : x2 < 2} .

MATH1115, Assignment 5 10

I = Q (, 2] ,

where (, 2] is an interval in R.

In particular, if b Q were such that either

I = (, b) Q or I = (, b] Q ,

that the analogous intervals in

R

satisfy either Q(, b) = Q(,

2] or Q(, b] = Q(, 2].

Either case would imply that b = 2, a contradiction since b Q.

If their explanation of their counter-example makes any sense at all give

2 marks.

Mathematical Writing

2 pt if the assignment is neatly set out and the logic is easy to follow.

1 pt if the logical steps are not so well structured. For example, there are big jumps

in the steps or steps do not proceed in a sequential order.

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