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Instructor(s): Dr Griffith Ware/Dr Linda Stals First Semester, 2017

Mathematical Sciences Institute


Australian National University

MATH1115, Mathematics and Applications 1 Honours


Assignment 5
Due at 10:00am Tuesday 18th April

Solutions

Linear Algebra
Question 1. Determinant calculations (Webassign Q1-Q4) 5 points

(a) Question 1: Cofactor expansion. (2 subpts)

(b) Question 2: Determinant. (1 subpts)

(c) Question 3: Cofactor expansion with choice of rows or columns. (1 subpts)

(d) Question 4: Triangular matrices. (1 subpts)

Question 2. SPD matrices (Show Working) 10 points


A matrix A Rnn is said to symmetric and positive definite (SPD) if and only if
A = AT and xT Ax > 0 for all vectors x 6= 0 Rn .

(a) Prove that if X Rnn is nonsingular, then A is SPD if and only if X T AX is


SPD. (5 subpts)

(b) Prove that if A is SPD, then all aii > 0 (1 i n). (2 subpts)

(c) Consider m n. Define an m m submatrix B by bij = aij for 1 i, j m. Show


that if A is SPD, then B is SPD. (3 subpts)

Note: Do not use eigenvalues or eigenvectors to answer this question, just use the defini-
tions given above.
Answer
MATH1115, Assignment 5 2

(a) Firstly consider the case where A is SPD.


T T T
Then X T AX = X T AT X T = X T AX since AT = A and X T =
X. So X T AX is symmetric.
Consider y 6= 0 Rn . Then x := Xy 6= 0 since X is nonsingular.
(That is, the only solution to the homogeneous system is the trivial
solutions.) So

y T X T AXy = (Xy)T AXy = xT Ax > 0.

So X T AX is positive definite.
Hence X T AX is SPD.
Now consider the case where X T AX is SPD.
 T T
AT = X 1 X T AXX 1
T T  1 T T
= X 1 X T AX X
T   1 T T
= X 1 X T AX X
T
= X 1 X T AXX 1
= A.

So A is symmetric.
Consider x 6= 0 Rn . As X is nonsingular we can set y = X 1 x 6=
0. So
T
xT Ax = xT X 1 X T AXX 1 x = y T X T AXy > 0.

Therefore A is positive definite.


Hence A is SPD.
(b) Consider the ith unit vector ei . Recall (ei )i = 1 and (ei )j = 0 if i 6= j.
Then as A is SPD

0 < (ei )T Aei


Xn
= (ei )k (Aei )k
k=1
= (Aei )i
Xn
= aik (ei )k
k=1
= aii .

So aii > 0 for all i.


MATH1115, Assignment 5 3

(c) Firstly
bji = aji = aij = bij
for 1 i, j m. So B T = B.
Consider y 6= 0 Rm . Define x 6= 0 Rn by
(
yi if 1 i m
xi =
0 otherwise

Then
m
X
T
y By = yi bij yj
i,j=1
X m
= yi aij yj since bij = aij for 1 , j m
i,j=1
X n
= xi aij xj by construction of x
i,j=1

= xT Ax
>0 since A is positive definite

Hence B is positive definite.


Finally B is SPD.

(a) 1pt for showing A is symmetric gives X T AX is symmetric.


1pt for showing A is positive definite gives X T AX is positive definite.
1pt for showing X T AX is symmetric gives A is symmetric.
1pt for showing X T AX is positive definite gives A is positive definite
1pt for explaining/noting that we need to use the fact that X is non-
singular to know that the x and y used in the proofs are not 0.

(b) 1pt for noting that we need to use the ith unit vector.
1pt for show how the unit vector can be used to get the result.

(c) 1pt for showing B is symmetric


1pt for constructing y
1pt for showing how to use y to get the result

Question 3. Determinants (Show Working) 4 points


MATH1115, Assignment 5 4

(a) If a 44 matrix A has det(A) = 1/2, find det(2A), det(A2 ) and det(A1 ). (2.5 subpts)

(b) Suppose CD = DC, and find the flaw in the following argument: (1.5 subpts)

Taking determinants gives det(C) det(D) = det(D) det(C), so either


det(C) = 0 or det(D) = 0. Thus CD = DC is only possible if C or
D is singular.

Answer

(a) det(2A) = 24 det(A) = 23 = 8.


det(A2 ) = det(A) det(A) = 41 .
det(A1 ) = 1/ det(A) = 2.
(b) Assume that both D and C are n n matrices. Then det(DC) =
(1)n det(DC). So the argument is only true when n is odd. It does
not apply when n is even.

(a) Essentially, right or wrong grading. 0.5pts for each correct answer, 0pt
for a wrong answer. Add additional 1pt if students justified answer (in
some vague way).

(b) 1pt for picking up det(DC) = (1)n det(DC). 0.5pt picking up on the fact
that answer depends on whether n is even or not.

Question 4. Constructing Surfaces (Show Working) 5 points


Find the equation of the sphere that passes through the four points (6, 10, 0), (13, 3, 0),
(1, 3, 12), and (4, 2, 12). Check your answer.
Have a read through Section 10.1 of the 10th and 11th edition of Anton and Rorres on
Constructing Curves and Surfaces Through Specified Points before answering this question.
I also found the working out in http://web.csulb.edu/~jchang9/m247/m247_poster_
P_Moretti_sp09.pdf to be helpful. The aim of this question is to show you one of the
practical applications of determinants.
Hint: Write down the determinant of the corresponding 5 5 matrix. Apply the co-
factor expansion along the top row to express it as a collection of determinants of 4 4
matrices. Then use some software package or online tool to calculate the determinant of
those 44 matrices. Normally you are required to show your working for these types of cal-
culations, but in this case I encourage you to calculate the determinant numerically as it is
way too messy to do by hand. Example online tools include http: // www. bluebit. gr/
matrix-calculator/ , http: // matrix. reshish. com/ determinant. php and http:
// www. mathsisfun. com/ algebra/ matrix-calculator. html .
Answer
MATH1115, Assignment 5 5

We want to calculate
2
x + y2 + z2 x y z 1
6 10 0 1
62 + 102 6 10 0 1
= x2 + y 2 + z 2 13 3 0 1

132 + 32 13 3 0 1
2
1 + 32 + 122 1
1 3 12 1
3 12 1
2
4 + 22 + 122 4 2 12 1
4 2 12 1

136 10 0 1 136 6 0 1

178 3 0 1 178 13 0 1
x
+ y 154 1 12 1

154 3 12 1
164 2 12 1 164 4 12 1

136 6 10 1 136 6 10 0

178 13 3 1
+ 1 178 13 3 0

z
154 1 3 1
154 1
3 12
164 4 2 1 164 4 2 12
= 2856 x2 + y 2 + z 2 5712x + 11424y 0z 468384


= 2856 (x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + z 169


 

So the equation of the sphere is


2856 (x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + z 169 = 0
 

which simplifies to
(x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + z 169 = 0.

Check:
(6 1)2 + (10 + 2)2 + 02 169 = 0
(13 1)2 + (3 + 2)2 + 02 169 = 0
(1 1)2 + (3 + 2)2 + 122 169 = 0
(4 1)2 + (2 + 2)2 + 122 169 = 0

1pt for writing out correct 5 5 matrix.

1pt for writing out correct cofactor expansion into a collection of the
determinants of 4 4 matrices

1pt for correctly calculating determinants of 4 4 matrices

1pt for correctly writing out equation of sphere. Subtract 0.5pts if they
do not simplify the answer.

1pt for checking answer


MATH1115, Assignment 5 6

Calculus
Question 5. Proof from the Axioms 1 (WebAssign Q5) 4 points
Justify each line of the following proof by quoting either a real number axiom, or a
previous line, or one of either Theorem 1.2.2 statement (1) or Theorem 1.2.2 statement
(2) from Calculus Lecture 11 (30 March). Note that the first part of the proof follows the
lines discussed in that lecture.
Theorem 1. Suppose a, b R. Then (ab) = (a)b.
Proof. We will first aim to show that (1)x = x, for all x R.
Let x R be given. Then
(1)x + x = (1)x + 1x (by )
= x(1) + x1 (by )
= x((1) + 1) (by )
= x0 (by )
= 0. (by )
So we have that (1)x + x = 0. (?)
Therefore,
(1)x = (1)x + 0 (by )
= (1)x + (x + (x)) (by )
= ((1)x + x) + (x) (by )
= 0 + (x) (by )
= x . (by )
Because x R was arbitrary, we have that (1)x = x for all x R. ()
Finally,
(ab) = (1)(ab) (by )
= ((1)a)b (by )
= (a)b , (by )
as required.

Question 6. Proof from the Axioms 2 (Show Working) 14 points


Using only the axioms of the real numbers or previously shown results (refer to the
Real Number Axioms section of the Calculus Content on Wattle for a list of permitted
previous results), prove each of the following.
MATH1115, Assignment 5 7

(a) If a, b, c, d R with c 6= 0 and d 6= 0, then (a/c) + (b/d) = (ad + bc)/(cd). (4 subpts)

(b) If a, b, c R then a < b and c < 0 implies that ac > bc. (4 subpts)

(c) If a, b R then 0 < a < b implies that 0 < b1 < a1 . (6 subpts)

Question 7. Intervals (Show Working) 6 points

(a) Let I R have the property that if x, z I, y R, and x < y < z, then y I.
Prove that I is an interval in R. (5 subpts)
[Note: the definition of an interval was given in Calculus Lecture 11 (30 March).]
[Hint: the question has already given you a fixed subset I of real numbers. That subset
is not known to satisfy the definition of an interval, but it does satisfy the following
property:  
(x, z I)(y R) [x < y y < z] = y I .
Based on the fact I is known to have this property, you must show that it satisfies
the definition of an interval as given in lectures.
That is, you must show that I must fit with one of the (long) list of options given in
the lecture.
Note: for each a R this list includes the possibility of the singleton set {a} = [a, a]
and the empty set = (a, a).
The following gives an outline of how your proof might go, with some important details
removed and replaced by . . . . These instances of . . . might represent many or
few missing lines. You may copy what I have written below, filling in the missing
lines as appropriate, or else come up with your own way of expressing the proof.
Firstly, note that if I is the empty set or a singleton set, then I is an interval and
there is nothing left to prove. Hence for the remainder of this proof we may assume
that I has at least two distinct elements. We consider four cases:

Case 1: the set I has no upper bound and no lower bound.


Suppose w R.
...
Therefore, w I.
Since w was an arbitrary element of R, we have that I = R and hence I is an interval.

Case 2: the set I has an upper bound but no lower bound.


...
Let r = .
...
Therefore I = (, r) or I = (, r], and hence I is an interval.

Case 3: the set I has a lower bound but no upper bound.


MATH1115, Assignment 5 8

The fact that I is an interval in this case follows by a similar argument to case 2,
with (, r), (, r], and replaced by (r, ), [r, ], and
, respectively.

Case 4: the set I has both an upper bound and a lower bound.
...
Therefore, I = [a, b], I = [a, b), I = (a, b] or I = (a, b), and hence I is an interval.

Clearly the above cases cover all possibilities for I. Since we have shown that I is an
interval in each case, the proof is complete.

Answer

Firstly, note that if I is the empty set or a singleton set, then I is an


interval and there is nothing left to prove. Hence for the remainder of this
proof we may assume that I has at least two distinct elements. We consider
four cases:

Case 1: the set I has no upper bound and no lower bound.


Suppose w R.
Because I has no upper bound, w is not an upper bound for I and so there
is z I such that w < z.
Similarly, since I has no lower bound, there is x I such that x < w.
Hence we have x, z I, w R, and x < w < z.
Therefore, w I.
Since w was an arbitrary element of R, we have that I = R and hence I is
an interval.

Case 2: the set I has an upper bound but no lower bound.


Since I has an upper bound, by the completeness axiom I has a least upper
bound, sup I.
Let r = sup I.
If w > r then w / I, so we have that I (, r].
Now suppose w < r.
Because r = sup I, there is z I such that w < z < r. (Apply the theorem
from Slide 5 of Analysis Lecture 7, with = r w.)
Also, since I has no lower bound, there is x I such that x < w.
Hence we have x, z I, w R, and x < w < z.
Therefore, w I.
So we have shown that I (, r] and also that if w < r then w I.
Therefore I = (, r) or I = (, r], and hence I is an interval.

Case 3: the set I has a lower bound but no upper bound.


The fact that I is an interval in this case follows by a similar argument to
MATH1115, Assignment 5 9

case 2, with (, r), (, r], upper bounds and sup I replaced by (r, ),
[r, ], lower bounds and inf I, respectively.

Case 4: the set I has both an upper bound and a lower bound.
Since I has an upper bound, by the completeness axiom I has a least upper
bound, sup I.
Let b = sup I.
Since I has a lower bound, by the completeness axiom I has a greatest lower
bound, inf I.
Let a = inf I.
If w > b then w / I, and if w < a then w / I, so we have that I [a, b].
Now suppose w is such that a < w < b.
Because b = sup I, there is z I such that w < z < b. (Apply the theorem
from Slide 5 of Analysis Lecture 7, with = b w.)
Similarly, because a = inf I, there is x I such that a < x < w.
Hence we have x, z I, w R, and x < w < z.
Therefore, w I.
So we have shown that I [a, b] and also that if a < w < r then w I.
Therefore, I = [a, b], I = [a, b), I = (a, b] or I = (a, b), and hence I is an
interval.

Clearly the above cases cover all possibilities for I. Since we have shown
that I is an interval in each case, the proof is complete.

Due to my hint, you will get a lot of nearly correct proofs here. Please
check to see what has been written actually makes sense. If they get Case
1 out properly, but the rest doesnt really make sense, award 2 marks.
Similarly, if they dont explain Case 1 well but do well on another case,
award at least 2 marks. However, they need to reference the completeness
axiom (axiom 14) at a correct point in their proof in order to get full
marks. For cases 3 and 4, be lenient if they dont express the lower
bound / infimum side of things well. I didnt discuss infima and lower
bounds in lectures, so they will be relying on a conceptual symmetric
understanding.

(b) Show that (a) is false if R is replaced throughout by Q. (1 subpts)


[Hint: Note that in the definition of an interval in Q, we require that the endpoint(s)
involved in the specification of that interval to be elements of Q.]
Answer

Consider the set


I = {x Q : x2 < 2} .
MATH1115, Assignment 5 10

This is not an interval in Q, since



I = Q (, 2] ,

where (, 2] is an interval in R.
In particular, if b Q were such that either

I = (, b) Q or I = (, b] Q ,

as an interval in Q, then we would have


that the analogous intervals in
R
satisfy either Q(, b) = Q(,
2] or Q(, b] = Q(, 2].
Either case would imply that b = 2, a contradiction since b Q.

If they give a sensible counter-example but dont explain it give 1 mark.


If their explanation of their counter-example makes any sense at all give
2 marks.

Mathematical Writing

Style Grade : 2 pts

2 pt if the assignment is neatly set out and the logic is easy to follow.

1 pt if the logical steps are not so well structured. For example, there are big jumps
in the steps or steps do not proceed in a sequential order.

0 pt if it is hard to follow the logic used to answer the questions.