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Shop sheet 105

Welding parameters
for duplex stainless steels

Virtually all welding processes used on ller metal than in the base metal. It is heated to about 100C (210F) uniformly
austenitic stainless steels are applicable generally accepted that the more highly and only after the weld preparation has
to duplex stainless steels. This includes alloyed duplex stainless steel weld llers been cleaned.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW, TIG), are suitable for welding the lower alloyed
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW, MIG), duplex stainless steel products. The Heat input and interpass
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW, matching llers have been reported to
stick), Flux Core Wire Welding (FCW), give acceptable results when joining
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW), duplex stainless steels to austenitic
and Plasma Arc Welding (PAW). stainless steels or to carbon and alloy Duplex stainless steels can tolerate
Oxyacetylene welding should not be steels. relatively high heat inputs. The duplex
used because of the associated carbon solidication structure of the weld metal
contamination of the weld. Preheating is resistant to hot cracking, much more
so than that of austenitic weld metals.
Filler metals As a general rule, preheating is not Duplex stainless steels, with higher
recommended because it may be thermal conductivity and lower coefficient
Most ller metals for duplex stainless detrimental. It should not be a part of a of thermal expansion, do not have the
steel welding are described as matching, procedure unless there is a specic same high intensity of local thermal
but typically they are overalloyed in justication. Preheating may be benecial stresses at the welds as austenitic
nickel with respect to the wrought when used to eliminate moisture from stainless steels. While it is necessary to
products that they are said to match. the steel as may occur in cold limit the severity of restraint on the weld,
Usually there is about 2 4% more nickel ambient conditions or from overnight hot cracking is not a common problem.
than in the wrought product. The nitrogen condensation. When preheating to deal
content is typically slightly lower in the with moisture, the steel should be

Table 1: Typical gas metal arc welding (GMAW) parameters for short-circuiting arc transfer and for spray arc transfer for welding duplex
stainless steels with various wire sizes.

Short-circuiting arc transfer

Weld wire diameter Current Voltage

mm Inch A V

1.0 0.035 90 120 19 21

1.2 0.045 110 140 20 22

Spray arc transfer

1.0 0.035 170 200 25 28

1.2 0.045 210 280 26 29

1.6 0.063 270 330 27 30

Source: Avesta Welding

Shop sheet 105

Exceedingly low heat input may result Postweld heat treatment affect the toughness and corrosion
in fusion zones and heat-affected zones resistance of duplex stainless steels.
that are excessively ferritic with a Postweld stress relief is not needed for
corresponding loss of toughness and duplex stainless steels and is likely to Any postweld heat treatment should
corrosion resistance. Exceedingly high be harmful because the heat treatment include full solution annealling followed
heat input increases the danger of may precipitate intermetallic phases by water quenching. Full solution
forming intermetallic phases. To avoid (7001000C/13001830F) or alpha annealing should also be considered
problems in the heat-affected zone, the prime (475C/885F), causing a loss after autogenous welding, since the
weld procedure should allow rapid of toughness and corrosion resistance. weld microstructure will be highly ferritic
cooling of this region after welding. The Postweld heat treating temperatures in if an overalloyed ller metal is not used
temperature of the work piece is excess of 315C (600F) can adversely during welding.
important, because it provides the largest
effect on cooling of the heat-affected

As a general guideline, the maximum Table 2: Typical shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) parameters for welding duplex
interpass temperature is limited to 150C stainless steels with various size electrodes.
(300F) for lean and standard duplex
stainless steels and 100C (210F) for Electrode diameter
superduplex stainless steels. Electronic
Weld wire diameter Current Voltage
temperature probes and thermocouples
are the preferred instruments for mm Inch A V
monitoring the interpass temperature.
When a large amount of welding is to be 2.0 0.078 3560 2228
performed, planning the welding so
2.5 0.094 6080 2228
there is enough time for cooling between
passes is good, economical practice. 3.25 0.125 80120 2228

4.0 0.156 100160 2228

Source: Outokumpu

Table 3: Typical submerged arc welding (SAW) parameters for welding duplex stainless
steels with various size wire.

Weld wire diameter Current Voltage

mm Inch A V

2.5 0.094 250450 2832

3.25 0.125 300500 2934

4.0 0.156 400600 3035

5.0 0.203 500700 3035

Note: Travel Speed is typically 3060 cm/minute Source: Outokumpu

The International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) has made every effort to ensure that the information presented is technically correct. However, IMOA does not represent or warrant the accuracy of the information contained in this shop
sheet or its suitability for any general or specific use. The reader is advised that the material contained herein is for information purposes only; it should not be used or relied upon for any specific or general application without first obtaining
competent advice. IMOA, its members, staff and consultants specifically disclaim any and all responsibility of any kind for loss damage, or injury resulting from the use of the information contained in this publication.

Excerpt from Practical Guidelines for the Fabrication of Duplex Stainless Steels Second Edition 2009. Produced by IMOA. 07/14 2