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STRESSES IN POST TENSIONED BEAMS

Suganthapriya K1, S Karthika2

2Assistant Professor, Civil Department, Dr Mahalingam College of engineering and Technology

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Abstract - The assessment of stress distribution in the equal to 1.0 has been taken with a material which is

anchorage zone of a pre stressed concrete post tensioned homogenous, isotropic and linearly elastic and these were

beam is of particular importance. Because, the state of stress not totally valid for concrete. The value of Poissons ratio of

exists in these beams is extremely complicated and three concrete varies from zero to 0.2. The ratio the loaded cross

dimensional in nature. This paper deals with the study on sectional area on the end block, k has been varied from 0.01

literatures of stress distribution in anchorage zone. The to 0.81.It was observed that the transverse tensile stress of

authors suggestions were discussed and the possible methods large magnitude occur along the axis of loading.

with reference to the transverse tensile stresses were studied.

It has been concluded from the study that there is necessity to The intensity of this stress is largest when k, the ratio of

study Anchorage zone stresses in three dimensions. loaded area to the cross sectional area is smallest and as k

increases the magnitude of this transverse tensile stress

Key Words: Anchorage zone, Transverse tensile stress, decreases. In a case a comparison has been made for using

three dimensional stresses, Literatures different values of , the ratio of loaded depth to depth of the

end blocks. In comparing the results of these solutions with

1. INTRODUCTION the results of Zelinski and Rowe, Poissons ratio of 0.167 was

used.

Many studies have been carried out in pre stressed concrete

It was concluded from the investigations were Along the

beams. Always a special consideration was given to the

axis of the end block the position of zero and maximum

anchorage zone or end block in Post tensioned beams. The

tensile transverse stress move away from the loaded end.

anchorage zone is the zone between the end of the beam and

The maximum bursting tensile stress occur on the axis of

the section where only longitudinal stress exists. The major

loading for both the concentric and eccentric loading or

criterion for end block is due the state of stress distribution

whether the cross section is square or rectangular for all

is complex and three-dimensional in nature. These

values of k. Except the value of is very small, the two

anchorage zone stresses developed are continuous linear

dimensional solution gives the values of maximum

distribution which produces transverse tensile stresses and

transverse tensile stress. In case of an end block of square

shear stresses. Hence there is a requirement of additional

cross section with central loading of over a square area, the

reinforcement for tensile stresses are required. Therefore a

stresses y and zwill be equal.

good study on this anchorage zone stress distribution is

needed highly. The bursting tension due to y is larger than that due to

z and thus steel designed for y if provided in the

1.1 Background of Study

perpendicular direction is sufficient for the bursting tension

A number of investigators have studied the stress

due to z. From the three dimensional solution it was

distribution in the anchorage zone using empirical equations

observed that the presence of sapling zone near the loaded

and theoretical solutions based on the two or three

surface on the longitudinal forces of the end block. The

dimensional elasticity or experimental techniques. The

importance of present study was that the stresses in the

important investigations where done by Magnel,

interior of the end block were larger than those on the

Guyon,Iyengar,Zelinski and Rowe, Yettram and Robbins et al.

surface.

The main aim of stress analysis in the anchorage zone is to

obtain the transverse tensile stress distribution in the end A.L Yettram studied on the effect of the

block from which the total transverse bursting tension could concentration ratio, a/a upon the magnitude and

be computed. distribution bursting stresses by using finite element

idealization. The author had utilized double symmetry and

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURES an element mesh is used to represent one quarter of the

prism. The distribution of the bursting stress yover the

2.1 STRESSES IN END BLOCK critical plane y=0 for values of a/a equal to 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and

0.7respectively. These results confirm that bursting stress in

K.T.S Iyyengar investigated on the theoretical and

the fully three dimensional problem, exhibit a significant

numerical analysis of stress distribution in rectangular prism

variation in the third principal direction. Although surface

with length to depth ratio equal to 2.0 and depth to width

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values of bursting stresses have shown to be greater than remembered that the actual distribution of stress in end

mean values throughout the range of concentration ratios. block of post tensioned beams is a three dimensional one.

The experimental investigation of the problem indicates the

For a small anchorage a high concentration of bursting importance of the point and also the cable ducts cast in the

stresses was developed in the centroidal axis and is concrete will affect the distribution of the stresses.

separated from the bearing face only by a compression zone.

As the concentration ratio increases, the inner stress region 2.3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ANCHORAGE ZONE

moves further from bearing face whereas the outer region

moves nearer. In the case of anchorage across the full width P.K. Gupta et al., investigated in the development of

of a wide beam, the centroidal and surface stresses are stresses in anchorage zone in prestressed post-tensioned

distinctly different; thus a plane stress two dimensional concrete beam using the finite element analysis. A finite

analysis will not be accurate. The three dimensional finite element computer code on the platform of a supercomputer

element methods reveal variations in the stress distribution PARAM 10000 was developed and employed for this study. A

which are significant if the real behavior of anchorage zone parallel algorithm for matrix inversion method was

in post tensioned members completely. developed and implemented in the presented finite element

code. Concentric and eccentric prestressing forces were

K.T.S Iyyengar reviewed on the two dimensional applied for prestressing of the beams. Effect of Poissons

theories on anchorage zone stresses of Guyon, Morsch, ratio over the bursting tensile force developed in the

Sievers and few others were examined. The stress anchorage zone was studied and an equation to compute the

distribution in the post tensioned prestressed concrete magnitude of bursting tensile force by incorporating the

beams, the stress distribution is three dimensional in nature effect of Poissons ratio was proposed.

and complex. The distribution of the transverse tensile stress Two cases were considered for the study.In order to get the

and other quantities computed by Guyons method and the in-depth stress distribution, various simulation studies were

comparison of these results with the study almost agree carried out and several distribution curves were produced

closely. The maximum stress given by Guyon is slightly for concentric prestressing forces at different values of k

higher than the results of this study. ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 and ranging from 0 to 0.3. It was

observed that the magnitude of maximum transverse tensile

It was concluded that a theoretical solution of the two - stress (t (max)) in the anchorage zone starts decreasing

dimensional elasticity problem of anchorage zone stresses in with the increase in the value of k. It was also observed that

post tensioned beams has been presented under all the four as the value of k increases, the locations of zero and

types of cases, viz., normal and tangential, symmetrical and maximum transverse tensile stress points start moving away

asymmetrical. Numerical results for the case of a from the loaded face and close to the center of beam.

symmetrical normal loading were also been carried out by To study the effect of eccentric prestressing forces, a

the author. The assumption made by many researchers that particular set was considered which has k = 0.1 and = 0.15.

the stress distribution becomes purely a longitudinal one at It can be observed that as the eccentricity of prestressing

a distance equal to the depth of the beam can be justified. force increases the magnitude of t (max) inside the

anchorage zone also increases but its location shifts towards

2.2 ANCHOR ZONE STRESSES: the loading face.

S.P Christodoulides investigated on stress It was concluded that Study shows that Poissons

distribution in the end anchorages of post tensioned ratio affects the magnitude of bursting tensile force in

concrete beams using photoelastically. This work was prestressed post-tensioned concrete beam. An expression

designed as a preliminary investigation to the solution of the for computing the magnitude of bursting tensile force was

complete three dimensional problems and there were some developed incorporating the effect of Poissons ratio. The

deviations from the practical form of post tensioned results of developed equation was compared with the

concrete units which were considered permissible. The available literature and discussed. It was found that the

distribution of principal stresses was recorded, as it is equation given in Indian Standard Code IS: 1343-1980

considered that failure will be governed by the maximum computes maximum magnitude of Fbst. Effect of eccentricity

principle tension. over the transverse tensile stress developed in spalling zone

was found to be that stresses of very high magnitude were

It was concluded from the study that the maximum

developed for the higher magnitude of the eccentricity.

shear stress and the absolute maximum principal stress

Hence it was advised that spalling zone should be carefully

occur immediately under and on the center line of the

analyzed for prestressed post-tensioned beams subjected to

loading steel cubes, i.e, anchorages. The position and the

eccentric prestressing forces. Significant saving in

magnitude of the principal tensile stresses obtained explain

computational time was achieved by employing parallel

the anchorage failures. In these beams the mild steel

computing technique in Finite Element Analysis .It was also

reinforcement provided at the end anchorages would be

founded that the obtained Speedup is very much near to the

considered inadequate if compared with the values of tensile

ideal Speedup.

stresses given by the author. It must however be

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 3149

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 05 | May -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

study on three dimensional stress analysis of anchorage in Prestressed Concrete Beams, ASCE, Journal of Structural

zone in prestressed post-tensioned concretebeam using Division, Vol. 97, No. 3, 1971, pp 807-824.

finite element analysis using ANSYS. A case study was

performed in which the loaded area ratio (k) was varied for L. Yettram and K. Robbins, Anchorage Zone Stressed in

beam subjected to concentric loading & eccentric loading Axially Post-Tensioned Members of Uniform Rectangular

and various stress distribution were obtained. Section, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 21, No. 67,

1969, pp 103-112.

The problem of anchorage zone was idealized as

three-dimensional problem by adopting a cubical block. This IS : 1343 1980 : Indian Standard Code of Practice for

block was discretized using 35705 tetrahedral elements Prestressed Concrete. 1st Rev. Bureau of Indian Standards,

with 57228 nodes for performing finite element analysis. New Delhi, 1981.

Default material properties of concrete available in ANSYS

were used in the present analysis. To get accurate results, N. Krishna Raju, Prestressed Concrete, Fifth edition, Tata

the mesh was kept advance fine with relevance center. McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2009.

Circular shape anchorage plate was considered during the

N .Rajagopalan, Prestressed concrete, Second

analysis. The diameter of this plate was adjusted such that

edition,Narosa Publishing House, 2008.

value of k varies from 0.1 to 0.7 for concentric loading, then

the analysis of anchorage zone is carried out for different P. K. Gupta and R. N. Khapre, A Study On Development of

values of k. Displacement support was provided at the back Stresses In Anchorage Zone Using Parallel Processing, Asian

face of loaded face such that displacement along the axis of Journal of Civil Engineering (Building & Housing), Vol. 9, No.

loading is restricted. The author used cylindrical co- 1, 2008, pp 47-59.

ordinate system instead of Cartesian co-ordinate system so

that stresses in radial and circumferential direction have MeenakshiChougade, Analysis of stresses in Anchorage

been obtained. zone using ANSYS, Intenational Journal of Innovative

From the study the author concluded that there is a Research in Science & engineering ISSN(online) 2347

reduction of stresses with introduction of eccentric loads 3207.

this directly affects the bursting tensile forces.Exactly

reverse situation can be seen in case of spalling zone. Hence

it was recommended to analyse spalling zone as well as

anchorage zone for prestressed post-tensioned concrete

beams subjected to eccentric loading.

3. CONCLUSIONS

analysis of stress distribution in End block or Anchorage

zone of Prestressed concrete beams. The study pointed need

for experimental and numerical investigation of three

dimensional stress distributions in Anchorage zone. Some

papers showed the numerical study using Finite Element

software.

REFERENCES

The End-Anchorages of Prestressed Concrete Beams.

Comparison of The Results Obtained Photoelastically, with

Strain-Gauge Measurements and Theoretical Solutions,

International Association for Bridge and Structural

Engineering, Vol. 16, 1956, pp 50-70.

Zone Stresses in Post- Tensioned Prestressed Beams,

Journal of American Concrete Institute, Vol. 59, No. 10, 1962,

pp 1443-1465.

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