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A new urban village for Cambridge

Land north of Newmarket Road, Cambridge


Outline planning application to South Cambridgeshire District Council

Lighting Statement

December 2013
Wing

Lighting Statement

December 2013

Marshall Of Cambridge (Airport Properties) Ltd


Wing

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December 2013
Lighting
Wing
Statement
Lighting Statement
December 2013

Marshall Of Cambridge (Airport Properties) Ltd

The Airport
Newmarket Road
Cambridge
Cambridgeshire
CB5 8RX

Mott MacDonald, East Wing, 69-75 Thorpe Road, Norwich NR1 1UA, United Kingdom
T +44 (0)1603 226780 F +44 (0)1603 619365 W www.mottmac.com
Wing
Lighting Statement

Contents

Chapter Title Page

1 Introduction 1

2 Performance Objectives 2

3 Environmental Considerations - Obtrusive Light 3


3.1 Obtrusive Light Limitation Design Guidance_______________________________________________ 3
3.2 Environmental Zone Classification ______________________________________________________ 3
3.3 Obtrusive Light Limitations ____________________________________________________________ 4

4 Lighting with LEDs 5


4.1 Adoption Implications ________________________________________________________________ 5
4.2 What White Is Right? ________________________________________________________________ 6
Warm White Neutral White Cool White __________________________________________________________ 6

5 Local Environmental Constraints 7


5.1 Cambridge Airport __________________________________________________________________ 7
5.2 Bats _____________________________________________________________________________ 7

6 Lighting Classes Movement Network 8


6.1 Newmarket Road Boulevard___________________________________________________________ 8
6.1.1 Traffic Route _______________________________________________________________________ 8
6.1.2 Conflict Areas ______________________________________________________________________ 9
6.1.3 Typical Lighting Column Mounting Heights ______________________________________________ 10
6.2 Primary Streets ____________________________________________________________________ 10
6.2.1 Traffic Route / Subsidiary Road _______________________________________________________ 10
6.2.2 Typical Lighting Column Mounting Heights ______________________________________________ 11
6.3 Secondary Streets _________________________________________________________________ 12
6.3.1 Subsidiary Road ___________________________________________________________________ 12
6.3.2 Typical Column Mounting Heights _____________________________________________________ 12
6.4 Tertiary Street and Shared Surface Pedestrian Priority Lanes ________________________________ 13
6.4.1 Subsidiary Roads __________________________________________________________________ 13
6.4.2 Typical Column Mounting Heights _____________________________________________________ 13
6.5 Cycle Highway with Parallel Pedestrian Paths and Shared Pedestrian and Cycle Paths ____________ 14
6.5.1 Subsidiary Roads __________________________________________________________________ 14
6.5.2 Typical Column Mounting Heights _____________________________________________________ 14

7 Lighting Classes Retail Areas 15

8 Lighting Classes Schools 17

9 Lighting Classes Sport Areas 18

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10 Lighting Classes Amenity Areas 19


10.1 Linear Park, Beta Square and The Circus _______________________________________________ 19
10.2 Market Square ____________________________________________________________________ 20

11 Summary 22

Appendices 23
Appendix A. Movement Network Drawing _________________________________________________________ 24
Appendix B. Non Residential Uses Drawing ________________________________________________________ 25
Appendix C. Public Shared Open Spaces _________________________________________________________ 26

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Lighting Statement

1 Introduction

This Lighting Statement has been prepared on behalf of Marshalls for the proposed Wing Development on
the outskirts of Cambridge in the proximity of the existing airport. The proposed development will provide a
vibrant mixed community with up to 1,300 homes, retail premises, community amenities, a school and
open spaces.

All lighting for the proposed development will need to be designed with the interests of safety and
minimising crime and the fear of crime.

The purpose of this report is to identify best practice for each lighting scenario and provide technical detail
and principles of lighting.

The proposed development will require new and amended accesses to Newmarket Road creating a new
boulevard along with the internal access roads within the development. This new and amended network of
roads is referred to as the Movement Network.

The Movement Network will consist of a mix of road types that are designed to adoptable standards and
either maintained by Cambridgeshire County Council (CCC) or maintained privately. At this stage
confirmation of which roads will fall within each category has not be confirmed.

Areas other than the Movement Network will also be maintained privately.

For areas that are to be adopted by CCC, a design strategy will need to be agreed with CCC and their PFI
contractor regarding lighting standards and equipment specification.

For an overview of the proposed development reference should be made to drawing SK-PP-04 shown in
Appendix A.

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2 Performance Objectives
Deliver high quality and efficient lighting which creates an attractive and safe environment for residents
and visitors alike.
Create a lighting solution, which aspires to make use of modern luminaire and lamp technology to
provide an energy efficient and flexible lighting scheme.
To provide an environment where people feel safe and secure.
Be sensitive to the setting while creating an enhanced and vibrant environment which aspires to
incorporate local artistic elements into the strategy wherever possible.
To aspire to meet appropriate standards in a creative way to instil the different spaces with different
atmospheres, and to use light architecturally to emphasise views and vistas and create a sense of
theatre within key spaces.
Pay particular attention to the sensitive nature of the sites ecology and identify areas of darkness in
order to preserve the landscape, minimise environmental impact and minimise cost.
Provide a lighting installation which minimises sky glow, light spill and the luminous intensity which can
be experienced from luminaires.
Ensure that any proposed lighting does not have a detrimental effect to the safety and running of the
airport.
Provide safe, attractive and clear key routes during the evening for users and visitors.

The proposed lighting will need to be designed in accordance with current versions of relevant European
and British Standards. Lighting intended to be adopted by CCC will need to be designed and installed in
accordance with the current version of CCC development specification.

At the time of writing this report the current versions of the following documents are referenced:

Cambridgeshire County Council Standard Development Specification Dated 14/04/2011


British Standard for the Code of practice for the design of road lighting BS 5489-1:2013
British Standard for Road Lighting Part 2:Performace requirements BS EN 13201-2:2003
Institution of Lighting Professionals Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Light, 2011

The remainder of this report considers that these documents are current however prior to carrying out
design work these documents should be verified as current and if superseded the standards and lighting
levels discussed in this report should be reassessed.

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3 Environmental Considerations -
Obtrusive Light
3.1 Obtrusive Light Limitation Design Guidance

Light intensity and distribution needs to be carefully considered to ensure that direct upward light is
minimised, and light distribution cut-offs from luminaries do not result in severe lighting contrast on light
receiving surfaces such as floors and walls. Luminaries, lamps, optics and equipment shall be specified
and located to minimise any direct upward light component in order to reduce light pollution. In addition
light trespass and spill light will need to be minimised through design.

Figure 3.1: Types of Obtrusive Light

Source: ILP Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Light (2011)

3.2 Environmental Zone Classification

To assess the appropriate levels of obtrusive light an appraisal will need to be carried out to classify the
site in terms of its Environmental Zone which equates to the district brightness of the surroundings, see
Table 3.1 for environment zone information.

With reference to the design parameters and based upon previous practical experience the following
classification forms the basis of the criteria which must be met by the external lighting installation.

The site can be considered as either having a Rural Surrounding, due to its outer suburban location and
proximity to the aerodrome, or having a Suburban Surrounding. In the case of a site being between two
possible environmental zones, ILP guidance recommends that the most difficult environmental zone of the
two options to achieve is assigned for assessment purposes. Therefore in line with ILP guidance, we have
applied an E2 environmental zone which equates to Low district brightness area Village or relatively dark
outer suburban locations.

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Proposed development Environmental Zone Categorised as E2 Rural

Table 3.1: Environmental Zones (ILP guidance notes for the reduction of obtrusive light - 2011)

Zone Surrounding Lighting Examples


Environment

E0 Protected Dark UNESCO Starlight Reserves, IDA Dark Sky Parks

E1 Natural Intrinsically dark National Parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty


areas etc.

E2 Rural Low District Village or relatively dark outer suburban locations


Brightness

E3 Suburban Medium district Small town centres or suburban locations


brightness

E4 Urban High district Town/city centres with high levels of night time activity
brightness

3.3 Obtrusive Light Limitations

It can be seen from table 3.2 that a lighting installation located in an area deemed to be more sensitive will
understandably equate to greater constraints with regards to obtrusive light. Based on our appraisal, see
below for maximum levels of obtrusive light associated with an E2 Zone.

Table 3.2: Obtrusive Light Limitations (ILP guidance notes for the reduction of obtrusive light 2011)

Environmental Sky Glow Light Intrusion (into Luminaire Intensity Building


Zone ULR (Max Windows) Ev (Lux) I (Candelas) Luminance
%) Pre-curfew

Pre- Post- Pre- Post- Average, L


2
curfew curfew curfew curfew (cd/m )

E0 0 0 0 0 0 0

E1 0 2 0 2,500 0 0

E2 2.5 5 1 7,500 500 5

E3 5.0 10 2 10,000 1,000 10

E4 15 25 5 25,000 2,5000 25

Curfew: The time after which more stringent requirements (for control of obtrusive light) will apply; often a
condition of use of lighting by the local planning authority. If not otherwise stated 23:00 hrs. is suggested
by the ILP.

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4 Lighting with LEDs

Light Emitting Diode (LED) based light sources are small, lightweight, durable, have a long life and
produce light almost instantaneously. They are unaffected by frequent switching, and can be easily
dimmed.

The lifetime of LED based luminaires is usually 15 to 25 years; this is more than three times the life of
current technologies adopted. Traditional SON-T lamps need to be changed, typically every 4 years. MBF-
U based lamps such as the HPL-N lamps need to be changed at a maximum interval of every two years.
This maintenance all adds a burden in terms of time, cost, traffic flow disruptions, carbon associated with
maintenance vehicles etc. LED based luminaires have low maintenance cost due to the fact that the lamp
change function is not a requirement for LED based lighting. There is however a requirement to change
the LED driver, which provides power to the LEDs, at more regular intervals. A high quality LED driver
should have a minimum 6 year life expectancy. This will therefore enable driver replacement during
routine maintenance.

Other advantages of LED based luminaires are that they comply with the Restriction of Hazardous
Substances Directive and therefore dont contain Mercury or Lead and dont emit any poisonous gases.
This has an environmental and cost benefit as the deposal of traditional lamps can be expensive.

4.1 Adoption Implications

As previously discussed, lighting that is intended to be adopted by CCC will need to be designed and
installed in accordance with the current version of CCC development specification.

The preferred luminaire specification detailed in the development specification provides options for
luminaires that are functional and basic in design appearance. There is also limited options regarding the
use of LED luminaires, however there is scope to specify an alternative lantern that is in keeping with the
ideals of the development. If a more architectural luminaire is preferred, a commuted maintenance
payment maybe requested from CCC to cover any additional costs incurred.

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4.2 What White Is Right?

LED light sources come in various shades of white, the three main shades of white for LEDs are cool
white, neutral white and warm white, see figure 4.1 for a practical indication of these colours. The colour of
the light emitted by these near white light sources is indicated by the light sources correlated colour
temperature (CCT). This is a measure of the warmth or coolness of the light emitted and is measured in
Kelvin (K). The lower the kelvin value, the warmer the colour of the light and vice versa.

Figure 4.1: Example of Corrected Colour Temperature

Warm White Neutral White Cool White

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5 Local Environmental Constraints

5.1 Cambridge Airport

The proposed Wing development is located in close proximity to Cambridge Airport and as such the
proposed development lighting will need to take account for Safeguarding in the interests of the airports
safety.

To limit the external lighting impact of the development upon the airport, luminaires should be position at 0
tilt and be specified as flat glass with a luminous intensity rating of G4 or greater, which equates to no
upward light above 95 from the Nadir of the luminaire.

Areas of the development that are in close proximity to the aircraft landing zone of airport will need to
consider that viewed from above the layout of an external lighting installation may appear similar to that of
a runway. Positions of lighting columns will need to be considered to limit this impact. The overall level of
illumination in this area should also be considered to avoid diminishing the effect of the aircraft landing
lights provided. Lighting column heights may also require limiting to further lessen the likelihood of an
incident.

The colours and orientation of advertising signs must also be considered as these can also be mistaken for
lights provided for aircraft landing.

Initial discussions have been carried out with Mr Ian Rogers the Airport Safety Manager who advised that
lights used in the proximity of the flight path to the runway should have a blue light source. A practical
solution to this request is to use a LED light source with a CCT of greater than 5,300 Kelvins which
equates to a Cool Blue type LED. Further details on this can be found in section 4.

Further discussions will need to be carried out with the Airport Safety Manager as part of the design coding
process.

5.2 Bats

Following the results from the interim bat survey and associated survey report we can conclude that any
lighting installed must be sensitive to the presence of bats. Due to British and European legislation
Wildlife & Countryside Act (1981) (as amended) and the Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations
1994 (as amended) lighting in the vicinity of a bat roost, causing disturbance could constitute an offence.

Mitigation measures should be considered where appropriate. Further guidance can be obtained from the
Bat Conservation Trust and Institution of Lighting Professionals, Bats and Lighting in the UK document.

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6 Lighting Classes Movement Network

As discussed in the Introduction and Performance Objective sections, adoption criteria for the lighting used
on the Movement Network has yet to be confirmed. The following lighting classes have however been
provided in accordance with requirements of BS 5489-1:2013 to provide a level of lighting that provides
safety and wellbeing to all users.

For further details of the layout of the Movement Network including the various routes each section takes,
a drawing (12-592_PL 06 Revision C) has been included in Appendix A.

6.1 Newmarket Road Boulevard

Newmarket Road is one of the main access roads into Cambridge and to ascertain a lighting class the road
has been classified as a traffic route. Figure 6.1 shows a typical layout of the proposals for the boulevard.

Figure 6.1: Extract Newmarket Road Boulevard

Source: Drawing 12-592_PL07 - Pollard Thomas Edwards architects (PTEa)

6.1.1 Traffic Route

Table A.3 BS5489-1:2013 specifies lighting classes based on a speed limit of 40 mph or less, number of
carriageways and traffic flow (measured in Average Daily Traffic (ADT) or Annual Average Daily Traffic
(ADDT)), an extract of the table is shown in Table 6.1.

The lighting class for Newmarket Road has been based on a 30mph speed limit, single carriageway with
an assumed traffic flow between 7,000 and 40,000 ADT which equates to a lighting class of ME4a. This
assumption is based on the existing AADT being approximately 14,000.

If on assessment the traffic flow is deemed to be lower or higher, an appropriate lighting class from Table
6.1 can be selected.

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Table 6.1: Extract of Traffic Route Lighting Classes


Single Carriageway Dual Carriageway Dual Carriageway
Traffic Flow (ADT) Lighting Class Junctions >3kM apart Junctions <3kM apart
>40,000 ME3b ME4a ME3b
>7,000 <40,000 ME4a ME5 ME4a
<7,000 ME5 ME6 ME5

Source: BS 5489-1:2003 Table A.3

Table 6.2 provides details of lighting levels associated with each lighting class.

Table 6.2: Overview of Traffic Route Lighting Levels


Average Uniformity Longitudinal Disability Glare
Lighting Class Luminance Luminance Uniformity TI Surround Ratio
ME3b 1.0 0.4 0.6 15 0.5
ME4a 0.75 0.4 0.6 15 0.5
ME5 0.5 0.35 0.4 15 0.5

Source: BS EN 13201-2:2003 Table 1a ME-series of lighting classes

Whilst the lighting levels associated with the footpaths are not normally considered for ME class road
lighting, depending on the anticipated level of footpath usage an appropriate standard will need to be
considered. Reference should be made to Table 6.6 which details comparable lighting levels.

The lighting levels for the Slip Road shown in Figure 6.1 should be considered similar to that of Tertiary
Roads etc.

6.1.2 Conflict Areas

The Primary and Secondary access points as shown in Figure 6.2 will need to be considered as conflict
areas.

Figure 6.2: Extract Newmarket Road Boulevard Conflict Areas

Source: Drawing 12-592_PL-06 - Pollard Thomas Edwards architects (PTEa)

Lighting levels for conflict areas are derived from the highest lighting class of the intersecting roads. As
shown in Figure 6.2, the Boulevard intersects with both the Primary and Secondary Streets at various

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points. The Boulevard, Primary and Secondary Streets all have a recommended lighting class of ME4a
(see sections 6.2 and 6.3).

Table 6.3 provides information on the corresponding traffic route conflict area lighting class. The highest
incoming lighting class of ME4a corresponds to a conflict area lighting class of CE3. If on assessment
there is a change to the highest incoming traffic route lighting class then the conflict area lighting class can
be amended in accordance with Table 6.3.

Table 6.3: Extract of Conflict Area Lighting Classes


Traffic Route Lighting Class Conflict Area Lighting Class
ME2 CE1
ME3b CE2
ME4a CE3
ME5 CE4

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.4

Table 6.4 provides details of lighting levels associated with each lighting class.

Table 6.4: Extract of Conflict Area Lighting Levels


Conflict Area Lighting Class Average Illuminance Uniformity
CE1 30 0.4
CE2 20 0.4
CE3 15 0.4
CE4 10 0.4

Source: BS EN 13201-2:2003 Table 2

Further guidance for Conflict Areas should be sort from ILP Professional Lighting Guide 02, The
Application of Conflict Areas on the Highway.

6.1.3 Typical Lighting Column Mounting Heights

Typical column mounting heights for this class of road will be either 10 metres or 12 metres. Due to the
potential width of the carriageway a maximum column height of 12 metres may need to be utilised.

These typical column heights are indicative only and can be discussed further at the Design Code Stage.

6.2 Primary Streets

6.2.1 Traffic Route / Subsidiary Road

The primary streets will act as the main transport routes within the development catering for all types of
movement including cyclists and pedestrians. Access to each part of the development will be provided via
the primary streets. As such the lighting class associated with these types of roads will need to be derived
from the lighting classes associated with traffic routes.

The lighting class for the primary streets has been based on a 20mph speed limit, single carriageway with
a medium traffic flow (ADT > 7,000 <40,000) which equates to a lighting class of ME4a.

If on assessment the traffic flow is deemed to be lower or higher, an appropriate lighting class from Table
6.5 can be selected.

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Table 6.5: Extract of Traffic Route Lighting Classes


Single Carriageway Dual Carriageway Dual Carriageway
Traffic Flow (ADT) Lighting Class Junctions >3kM apart Junctions <3kM apart
>40,000 ME3b ME4a ME3b
>7,000 <40,000 ME4a ME5 ME4a
<7,000 ME5 ME6 ME5

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.3

With the higher anticipated levels of pedestrian and cycle movements in this area, a lighting class derived
from the subsidiary road classes, which will encompass lighting for the segregated foot and cycle paths will
be more appropriate.

Table 6.6 provides details of comparable lighting classes, a comparable lighting class to ME4a from the
Subsidiary road classes is S2.

Table 6.6: Extract of comparable lighting class levels


Traffic Routes Subsidiary Roads
ME3 S1
ME4 S2
ME5 S3
ME6 S4

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.1

Table 6.7 provides details of lighting levels associated with each lighting class.

Table 6.7: Overview of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes


Lighting Class Average Illuminance Minimum Illuminance
S1 15.0 3.0
S2 10.0 2.0
S3 7.5 1.5
S4 5.0 1.0
S5 3.0 0.6

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.7

The lighting levels shown in Table 6.7 can be reduced further depending on the S/P* ratio of the specified
light source. Further guidance can be obtained from ILP Professional Lighting Guide 03 Lighting for
Subsidiary Roads.

* The S/P ratio of a lamp is essentially an indication of the sensitivity a given light source has on the human
eye. The higher the sensitivity of the light source to the human eye will equate to a higher S/P ratio and
therefore lower lighting level requirement.

6.2.2 Typical Lighting Column Mounting Heights

Typical column mounting heights for this class of road will be 8 metres, however due to the potential width
of the carriageway a maximum column height of 10 metres may need to be utilised. For lighting of
segregated footpaths a split height column could be used to limit the amount of street clutter.

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These typical column heights are indicative only and can be discussed further at the Design Code Stage.

6.3 Secondary Streets

6.3.1 Subsidiary Road

The secondary streets will provide similar vehicle access to that of the primary streets however it is
anticipated that the level and type of traffic will be lower. As such the lighting class associated with these
types of roads will need to be derived from the lighting classes associated with subsidiary roads. Table A.5
BS 5489-1:2013 specifies lighting classes based on a speed limit of 30 mph or less, traffic flow and
environmental zone, an extract of the table is shown in Table 6.8.

The lighting class for the secondary streets has been based on a maximum 20mph speed limit with a high
traffic flow relating to access to shops and public houses etc. The environmental zone E2 provides a
lighting class of S3.

Table 6.8: Extract of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes mainly typical speeds of 30mph or less
Traffic Flow Environmental Zone E2 Environmental Zone E3
High (Busy roads accessing shops, S3 S2
public houses etc.)
Average (Roads accessing housing S4 S3
estates)
Low (Quiet residential roads) S5 S4

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.5

Table 6.9 provides details of lighting levels associated with each lighting class.

Table 6.9: Overview of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes


Lighting Class Average Illuminance Minimum Illuminance
S1 15.0 3.0
S2 10.0 2.0
S3 7.5 1.5
S4 5.0 1.0
S5 3.0 0.6

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.7

The lighting levels shown in Table 6.9 can be reduced further depending on the S/P ratio (Section 6.2.1
provides a definition of S/P ratio) of the specified light source. Further guidance can be obtained from ILP
Professional Lighting Guide 03 Lighting for Subsidiary Roads.

6.3.2 Typical Column Mounting Heights

Typical column mounting heights for this class of road will be 8 metres, however due to the potential width
of the carriageway a maximum column height of 10 metres may be better suited. Utilising a higher column
height will provide an opportunity for increased energy efficiencies however there will need to be a balance
between this and the overall aesthetics of the scheme. For lighting of segregated footpaths a split height
column could be used to limit the amount of street clutter.

These typical column heights are indicative only and can be discussed further at the Design Code Stage.

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6.4 Tertiary Street and Shared Surface Pedestrian Priority Lanes

6.4.1 Subsidiary Roads

The tertiary streets and shared surface pedestrian priority lanes will be interconnecting roads providing
direct access to residential areas. Whilst some of these will be relatively quiet, due to the shared nature of
some of the roads a higher standard of lighting should be achieved.

The lighting class for these roads has been based on a maximum 20mph speed limit with a consideration
for the additional hazard of pedestrians and vehicles sharing the surface. The environmental zone E2
provides a lighting class of S4.

Table 6.10: Extract of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes mainly typical speeds of 30mph or less
Traffic Flow Environmental Zone E2 Environmental Zone E3
High (Busy roads accessing shops, S3 S2
public houses etc.)
Average (Roads accessing housing S4 S3
estates)
Low (Quiet residential roads) S5 S4

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.5

Table 6.11 provides details of lighting levels associated with each lighting class.

Table 6.11: Overview of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes


Lighting Class Average Illuminance Minimum Illuminance
S1 15.0 3.0
S2 10.0 2.0
S3 7.5 1.5
S4 5.0 1.0
S5 3.0 0.6

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.7

The lighting levels shown in Table 6.11 can be reduced further depending on the S/P ratio (Section 6.2.1
provides a definition of S/P ratio) of the specified light source. Further guidance can be obtained from ILP
Professional Lighting Guide 03 Lighting for Subsidiary Roads.

6.4.2 Typical Column Mounting Heights

Typical column mounting heights for this class of road will be in the region of 6 to 8 metres. The possibility
of mounting the luminaires onto buildings in the vicinity of the road can be discussed at the Design Code
Stage subject to further design considerations.

These typical column heights are indicative only and can be discussed further at the Design Code Stage.

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6.5 Cycle Highway with Parallel Pedestrian Paths and Shared Pedestrian and
Cycle Paths

6.5.1 Subsidiary Roads

The New Jubilee Cycle Way is intended to provide a main cycle highway for the development which
provides access to smaller shared pedestrian and cycle paths.

These pathways will be provided for cyclist and pedestrians only and as such the lighting class will be
ascertained from Table A.6 BS 5489-1:2013 which specifies lighting classes based on slow moving traffic,
cyclists and pedestrians, an extract of the table is shown in Table 6.12.

Table 6.12: Extract of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes - mainly slow moving vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians
Traffic Flow Environmental Zone E2 Environmental Zone E3
High (Busy roads accessing shops, S4 S4
public houses etc.)
Average (Roads accessing housing S5 S5
estates)
Low (Quiet residential roads) S6 S6

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.6

Table 6.13 provides details of lighting levels associated with each lighting class.

Table 6.13: Overview of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes


Lighting Class Average Illuminance (Lux) Minimum Illuminance
S1 15.0 3.0
S2 10.0 2.0
S3 7.5 1.5
S4 5.0 1.0
S5 3.0 0.6

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.7

The lighting levels shown in Table 6.13 can be reduced further depending on the S/P ratio (Section 6.2.1
provides a definition of S/P ratio) of the specified light source. Further guidance can be obtained from ILP
Professional Lighting Guide 03 Lighting for Subsidiary Roads.

6.5.2 Typical Column Mounting Heights

Typical column mounting heights for this class of road will be in the region of 4 to 6 metres. Depending on
the proposed widths of the cycle ways / paths a maximum column height of 8 metres may be more
appropriate to maximise energy efficiencies, however achieving energy efficiencies will need to be
balanced with the aesthetic approach for the area.

These typical column heights are indicative only and can be discussed further at the Design Code Stage.

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7 Lighting Classes Retail Areas

For an overall view of the layout for the Retail Areas, drawing 12-592_PL-07 has been included in
Appendix C. Extracts from the drawing are shown in Figures 7.1 and 7.2.

The external lighting for retail areas will be predominantly concerned with car park lighting and pedestrian
way finding. It is assumed that the parking for each retail unit will be in close proximity therefore this
section concentrates solely on car park lighting levels. Separated walking routes which are associated
with remote parking areas will need to be lit to the lighting classes shown in Table 6.12.

An assessment will need to be carried out to the level and type of usage for each parking area and an
appropriate level of lighting will need to be assigned from Table 7.1 below.

Table 7.1: Car Park Lighting Levels


Level of Usage Type of Usage Average Illuminance (Lux) Uniformity
Light Traffic Parking for shops, terraced 5 0.25
and apartment houses and
cycle paths
Medium Traffic Parking for department 10 0.25
stores, office buildings,
plants, sports and
multipurpose building
complexes
Heavy Traffic Parking for schools, 20 0.25
churches, major sports and
multipurpose sports and
building complexes

Source: BS 5489-1:2013

Typical column mounting heights for the car parks will be 8 metre, however depending on the layout of the
proposed car park, a maximum column height of 10 metres may be more appropriate.

Lighting provided for the car show room forecourts will need to consider a light source with a natural white
light appearance which will provide the customer with a truer impression of the colour of each car. A light
source with a minimum colour rendering index of a Ra65 or ideally Ra85 should be specified. Lighting
provided for security should also be considered with lighting provided to the perimeter and entrances a key
concern.

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Figure 7.1: Retail Area Car Showrooms Figure 7.2: Retail Area

Source: Drawing 12-592_PL04 - Pollard Thomas Edwards Source: Drawing 12-592_PL04 - Pollard Thomas Edwards
architects (PTEa) architects (PTEa)

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8 Lighting Classes Schools

For an overall view of the layout for the School, drawing 12-592_PL-07 has been included in Appendix C.
An Extract from the drawing is shown in Figures 8.1.

As with the retail areas, the external lighting for the school will be principally concerned with car park and
way finding. The lighting levels associated with the school car park should be designed in accordance with
Table 8.1. Walking routes associated with the school should be designed in accordance with Table 6.12.

The anticipated usage of the school after dark is assumed to be low, therefore dimming or switching off
lighting that is no longer required for safety and security should be considered.

Table 8.1: Car Park Lighting Levels


Level of Usage Type of Usage Average Illuminance (Lux) Uniformity
Light Traffic Parking for shops, terraced 5 0.25
and apartment houses and
cycle paths
Medium Traffic Parking for department 10 0.25
stores, office buildings,
plants, sports and
multipurpose building
complexes
Heavy Traffic Parking for schools, 20 0.25
churches, major sports and
multipurpose sports and
building complexes

Source: BS 5489-1:2013

The level of lighting and column heights will need to be established once the design of the car parks
associated with the school have been determined.

Figure 8.1: Extract of School Location

Source: Drawing 12-592_PL04 - Pollard Thomas Edwards architects (PTEa)

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9 Lighting Classes Sport Areas

For an overall view of the layout for the Sport Areas, drawing 12-592_PL07 has been included in Appendix
C. An extract from the drawing is shown in Figure 9.1.

The sports areas located east of the tree belt, as shown in Figure 9.1, are in closer proximity to the aircraft
landing lights and rural surroundings of the Wing Development. To limit the impact of the development
upon the surrounding areas and airport, it has been requested that lighting will not be provided to these
sport pitches and associated areas.

Figure 9.1: Sports Areas East of Tree Belt

Source: Drawing 12-592_PL07 - Pollard Thomas Edwards


architects (PTEa)

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10 Lighting Classes Amenity Areas

The Amenity Areas include the Market Square, Linear Park, Large Urban Square and The Circus. For an
overall view of the layout for the Public Shared Open Spaces, drawing 12-592_PL-07 has been included in
Appendix C. Extracts from the drawing are shown in Figures 10.1, 10.2 and 10.3.

10.1 Linear Park, Beta Square and The Circus

Figure 10.1: Extract showing The Circus Figure 10.2: Extract showing the Large Urban Square

Source: Drawing 12-592_PL07 - Pollard Thomas Edwards Source: Drawing 12-592_PL07 - Pollard Thomas Edwards
architects (PTEa) architects (PTEa)

Lighting for these areas will be predominantly provided for way finding with an appropriate lighting class
selected from Tables 10.1 and 10.2 below.

Table 10.1: Extract of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes - mainly slow moving vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians
Traffic Flow Environmental Zone E2 Environmental Zone E3
High (Busy roads accessing shops, S4 S4
public houses etc.)
Average (Roads accessing housing S5 S5
estates)
Low (Quiet residential roads) S6 S6

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.6

Table 6.8 provides details of lighting levels associated with each lighting class.

Table 10.2: Overview of Subsidiary Road Lighting Classes


Lighting Class Average Illuminance (Lux) Minimum Illuminance
S1 15.0 3.0
S2 10.0 2.0
S3 7.5 1.5
S4 5.0 1.0

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Lighting Class Average Illuminance (Lux) Minimum Illuminance


S5 3.0 0.6

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.7

The lighting levels shown in Table 6.5 can be reduced further depending on the S/P ratio (Section 6.2.1
provides a definition of S/P ratio) of the specified light source. Further guidance can be obtained from ILP
Professional Lighting Guide 03 Lighting for Subsidiary Roads.

Typical column mounting heights for these areas will be 4 metre, however depending on the layout and
width of the areas, a maximum column height of 6 metres may be more appropriate.

10.2 Market Square

Figure 10.3: Extract showing the Market Square

Source: Drawing 12-592_PL07 - Pollard Thomas Edwards architects (PTEa)

The market square has been considered as the main focal point of the development and as such should be
considered similar to that of a town centre area. Lighting classes for town centres are shown in Table
10.3.

Table 10.3: Lighting Classes for city and town centres


Type High Traffic Normal Traffic
Pedestrian only CE3 CE4
Mixed vehicle and pedestrian with CE2 CE3
separate footpaths
Mixed vehicle and pedestrian shared CE1 CE2
surface

Source: BS 5489-1:2013 Table A.8

Table 10.4 provides details of associated lighting levels.

Table 10.4: Extract of Conflict Area Lighting Levels


Conflict Area Lighting Class Average Illuminance Uniformity
CE1 30 0.4
CE2 20 0.4
CE3 15 0.4
CE4 10 0.4

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Source: BS EN 13201-2:2003 Table 2

To minimise street clutter in this area, wall mounted luminaires should be considered where appropriate.
Where wall mounted luminaires cannot be used, lighting columns should be considered.

For all of the Amenity Areas, additional architectural lighting can also be provided to enhance the night
time scene. Possible options could be to provide up lighting to prominent trees and bench under lighting.

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11 Summary

To summarise the lighting strategy detailed within this report, the key principles that will need to be carried
forward to the design coding stage are as follows:

Ensure that roads and public areas within the development are lit adequately to the correct technical
specification, depending on the nature, intended use and speed, to ensure users safety.
Aspire to meet appropriate standards in a creative way and to use light architecturally to emphasise
views, vistas and key spaces.
Minimise crime and the fear of crime.
Create an attractive street scene and public realm that reflects Marshalls vision and emphasis on
design quality.
Retain dark corridors where bats are using lines of trees as flight paths.
Have due regard to airport safety and associated design constraints.
Obtrusive light will need to be minimised to both existing and proposed homes and properties. The
obtrusive light limitations set out in table 3.2 Obtrusive Light Limitations will need to be followed.

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Appendices
Appendix A. Movement Network Drawing __________________________________________________________ 24
Appendix B. Non Residential Uses Drawing ________________________________________________________ 25
Appendix C. Public Shared Open Spaces __________________________________________________________ 26

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Appendix A. Movement Network Drawing

Drawing number 12-592_PL 06 Revision C provided courtesy of PTEa.

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Appendix B. Non Residential Uses Drawing

Drawing number 12-592_PL 04 Revision F provided courtesy of PTEa.

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Appendix C. Public Shared Open Spaces

Drawing number 12-592_PL 07 Revision C provided courtesy of PTEa.

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