Gaber EL-Saady Ahmed1, EL-Noby Ahmed Ibrahim2, Hazem Hassan Ali3
1,2,3 Electrical Engineering Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt,
ABSTRACT
This paper presents the state space modelling of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) for small signal stability based Wind Energy
Conversion System (WECS). A detailed mathematical model of wind turbine, DFIG machine and power converters is presented in this
paper to derive the complete non linear dynamic equations of the studied system. The gains of PI controller in Rotor Side Converter
(RSC) and Grid Side Converter (GSC) are obtained by butterworth polynomial method to improve the dynamic performance of DFIG
and the power system stability. DFIG model connected to the infinite bus is studied under different operating conditions such as
changing generator parameters under constant wind speed. Small signal stability of this linearized system is carried out by eigen value
analysis. Finally, this paper presents an analysis of the dynamic behavior of DFIG under different conditions. The system under study
is executed by using MATLAB/Simulink package. The whole system of DFIG is verified for constant wind speed. The system is tested
using different values of generator parameters to determine the preferred ranges for the system stability. The results are performed to
prove the importance of the proposed controllers.
Keywords: DFIG, Eigen Value, Taylor Series, Wind Turbine Control, Stability.

© All Rights Reserved

23 tayangan

Gaber EL-Saady Ahmed1, EL-Noby Ahmed Ibrahim2, Hazem Hassan Ali3
1,2,3 Electrical Engineering Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt,
ABSTRACT
This paper presents the state space modelling of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) for small signal stability based Wind Energy
Conversion System (WECS). A detailed mathematical model of wind turbine, DFIG machine and power converters is presented in this
paper to derive the complete non linear dynamic equations of the studied system. The gains of PI controller in Rotor Side Converter
(RSC) and Grid Side Converter (GSC) are obtained by butterworth polynomial method to improve the dynamic performance of DFIG
and the power system stability. DFIG model connected to the infinite bus is studied under different operating conditions such as
changing generator parameters under constant wind speed. Small signal stability of this linearized system is carried out by eigen value
analysis. Finally, this paper presents an analysis of the dynamic behavior of DFIG under different conditions. The system under study
is executed by using MATLAB/Simulink package. The whole system of DFIG is verified for constant wind speed. The system is tested
using different values of generator parameters to determine the preferred ranges for the system stability. The results are performed to
prove the importance of the proposed controllers.
Keywords: DFIG, Eigen Value, Taylor Series, Wind Turbine Control, Stability.

© All Rights Reserved

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Volume 5, Issue 9, September 2017 ISSN 2321-5984

Energy Conversion System

Gaber EL-Saady Ahmed1, EL-Noby Ahmed Ibrahim2, Hazem Hassan Ali3

1,2,3

Electrical Engineering Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt,

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the state space modelling of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) for small signal stability based Wind Energy

Conversion System (WECS). A detailed mathematical model of wind turbine, DFIG machine and power converters is presented in this

paper to derive the complete non linear dynamic equations of the studied system. The gains of PI controller in Rotor Side Converter

(RSC) and Grid Side Converter (GSC) are obtained by butterworth polynomial method to improve the dynamic performance of DFIG

and the power system stability. DFIG model connected to the infinite bus is studied under different operating conditions such as

changing generator parameters under constant wind speed. Small signal stability of this linearized system is carried out by eigen value

analysis. Finally, this paper presents an analysis of the dynamic behavior of DFIG under different conditions. The system under study

is executed by using MATLAB/Simulink package. The whole system of DFIG is verified for constant wind speed. The system is tested

using different values of generator parameters to determine the preferred ranges for the system stability. The results are performed to

prove the importance of the proposed controllers.

Keywords: DFIG, Eigen Value, Taylor Series, Wind Turbine Control, Stability.

1. INTRODUCTION

Generation of electricity from renewable sources, and specially from the wind, is considered in present time as a competitive

and necessary alternative to fossil resources. Wind generator turbines can work as fixed speed or variable speed. Pitch-

adjusting variable-speed wind generator turbines like DFIG have become the dominating type of yearly installed wind

turbines in modern age. Many reasons for selecting DFIG, such as decreasing of the mechanical structure stresses and the

possibility to control four quadrant active and reactive power capabilities, have been chosen for variable speed operation of

wind turbines. The variable speed wind turbine can provide decoupled control of active and reactive power of the generator

and power quality improvement [1]. DFIG is commonly used in the wind power system for its advantages over other wind

turbine generators, such as squirrel cage induction generator and permanent magnet synchronous generator [2]. The

characteristics of DFIG have high efficiency, flexible control and low investment. The stator terminals of DFIG is directly

connected to the power grid while the rotor terminals is connected to the mains via a back-to-back converter, which only

takes about 20%30% of the DFIG rated capacity. The back-to-back converter consists of three part RSC, GSC and dc link

capacitor. The controllers of the power converter have significant effect on the stability of grid-connected DFIG [3]. A DFIG

system, including induction generator, two-mass drive train, power converters and feedback controllers is a multivariable

nonlinear and strongly coupled system. Such this nonlinear system may occur under certain conditions that leading to

oscillatory instability. Consequently, practical analysis of DFIG stability will have to include the non linear parts consisting

of the whole system. Eigen value analysis of the DFIG wind turbine system has been discussed in [4][5], where frequency

and damping ratio analysis are focused. For the control of a wind turbine driven by DFIG, different methods like Direct

Torque Control (DTC) and Variable Structure Control (VSC) have been suggested over the last decade [6]. However, one

common technique is to use vector control on the basis of d-q transformation with stator-flux orientation or stator-voltage

orientation (also referred to as grid-voltage or grid-flux orientation) [7]. Stator Voltage Orientation (SVO) is used here for

control of RSC and GSC. Typically, there is a way that can be used for vector control schemes, Proportional-Integral (PI

controllers) regulators. The difficulty then lies in the configuration and the determination of the coefficients of the regulators.

Here, in this paper butterworth polynomial method is used to get the gains of PI controllers for RSC and GSC. The DFIG is

modeled in d-q axis reference frame. The power converters and the controllers of RSC and GSC are also modeled. The

nonlinear system is linearized at various operating conditions according to changing generator parameters under constant

wind speed. Eigen value analysis is then applied for stability check. Matlab/Simulink is a powerful tool for time domain

simulations. In this paper, Matlab/Simulink has been used in designing and modeling of DFIG. Dynamic DFIG model is

expressed by a set of a non linear differential equations. In Matlab/Simulink, each differential equation can be represented by

an integral unit. Using matrix concepts, a set of non linear differential equations will be expressed as non linear state space

equations. Linearization method using Taylor series expansion will be used to convert the non linear equations into linear

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equation [8]. After that the stability of the whole system will be studied after getting the eigen values. Also, the system is

studied for different parameters of DFIG.

The DFIG system utilizes a wound rotor induction generator in which the stator terminals are directly connected to power

grid and the rotor terminals are fed through back-to-back bidirectional Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converters as shown

in Figure 1. The back-to-back PWM converters consist of RSC, GSC and a dc-link capacitor. For the wind turbine control

level, two stage control strategies, based on the electric power versus wind speed curve, are used for DFIG wind turbines:

power optimization strategy under rated wind speed (MPPT mode) and power limitation strategy above rated wind speed

(Pitch control mode). For the DFIG control level, SVO is used for both RSC and GSC to achieve decoupled control of active

and reactive power as illustrated in the next sections. The next sections will describe the mathematical models of DFIG as the

following.

2.1 Generator and RSC model

The electrical and mechanical dynamics of the DFIG is represented in state space model using the synchronously rotating

reference frame (d-q frame) as given in (1)-(5) [9]. Where , , and are the q and d-axis stator and rotor voltages,

respectively. , , and are the q and d-axis stator and rotor currents, respectively. is the angular velocity of the

synchronous rotating reference frame. is the rotor electrical angular speed. , is the mechanical torque generated by

generator, T is the electromagnetic torque generated by the machine, P is the number of the pole pair and J is the inertia of

generator. and are the stator and rotor resistances, respectively. Where and are stator and rotor self inductances,

respectively. is magnetizing inductance, with = + and = + ; and are the stator and rotor

leakage inductances, respectively. Where = 1 .

R L L R L 1 L

= + + + + + (1)

L L L L L L L L L

L R L L R 1 L

= + + + + + (2)

L L L L L L L L L

L R L R L 1

= + + + + (3)

L L L L L L L

L L R R L 1

= + + + (4)

L L L L L L L

P PT , 3P L 3P L

= T T , = + (5)

J J 2J 2J

The wind turbine operates, with different dynamics, from the cut-in wind speed (usually 4 m/s, for modern wind turbines) to

the cut-out wind speed (around 24 m/s), as shown in Figure 2. Three distinct wind speed points can be noticed in this power

curve [10]:

1) _ : The lowest wind speed at which wind turbine starts to generate power.

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2) Rated wind speed: Wind speed at which the wind turbine generates the rated power, which is usually the maximum

power wind turbine can produce.

3) _ :: Wind speed at which the turbine ceases power generation and is shut down (with automatic brakes

and/or blade pitching) to protect the turbine from mechanical damage.

The energy conversion in a wind turbine can be described by the nonlinear equations [11], [12]:

= 0.5 (6)

Where is the mechanical power (Watt), is the air density (kg/ ), = is area covered by turbine blades ( ), R is

rotor radius (m), is the velocity of available wind (m/sec) and is the coefficient of power. The power captured by the

wind turbine depends highly on for a given wind speed. The relationship of with and represents output

characteristics of the wind turbine as in (7):

116

( , ) = 0.5176 0.4 5 + 0.0068 (7)

Where is TSR , a variable expressing the linear speeds of blade tip to speed of wind and is the pitch angle, and can

be expressed as in (8) and (9), respectively.

= (8)

Where is rotational turbine speed (rad/sec).

1 1 0.035

= (9)

+ 0.08 +1

By using (7), the typical versus curve at different pitch angle is shown in Figure 3. As aforementioned, there is an

optimum value of that leads to maximum power coefficient , . The maximum theoretical value of Cp is approximately

0.59 [13].

0.5

Beta=0

0.4

Beta=5

0.3

Beta=10

Cp

Beta=15

0.2

Beta=20

0.1

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Lamda

So in the mode of MPPT which is between cut in wind speed and rated wind speed, If is maintained constantly at its

optimal value corresponding to , , this ensures that the energy extracted is in its maximum operating point.

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5

x 10

15

Vw= 12 m/sec

MPPT Curve

10

Vw= 8 m/sec

Pm [Watt]

Vw= 10 m/sec

Vw= 6 m/sec

5 Vw= 4 m/sec

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Wt [rad/sec]

Figure 4 Wind turbine mechanical power output and MPP versus turbine speed at different wind speed

Figure 4 shows turbine mechanical power as a function of turbine speed by substituting (7), (8) and (9) in (6) at various wind

speed and TSR . The power for a certain wind speed is maximum at a certain value of rotor speed called optimum turbine

speed , . This is the speed which corresponds to optimum tip speed ratio and maximum power coefficient , .

In order to have maximum possible power, the turbine should always operate at . This is possible by controlling the

rotational speed of the turbine so that it always rotates at the optimum speed of rotation. The maximum power points curve is

obtained as shown in Figure 4. The objective of the MPPT operation mode is to maximize power extraction at low to medium

wind speeds by following the maximum value of the wind power coefficient ( and ) as depicted in Figure 4.

2.3 Gearbox ratio calculation

Here, A gearbox is necessary to adapt the low speed of the turbine rotor to the high speed of the generator. The gearbox

conversion ratio ( ), also known as the gear ratio, is designed to match the high-speed generator with the low-speed

turbine blades. The gearbox ratio can be determined as follows:

1) Firstly, it is necessary to get the values of , and for gearbox ratio calculation. The values of , and

in this work are 0.48 and 8.1, respectively.

2) Then, by using (6) at , , = 12 / and the rated value of wind turbine generator power which in this work

is 1.5 MW. The blade length R=30.6567m is easily found.

3) Then, it is necessary to get the value of rated turbine speed which is calculated by using (5) at =

12 / and = . The value of in this work is 3.1706 / .

4) Finally, for a given rated speed of the generator and turbine, it is easily to calculate the gearbox ratio using (10) at

rated value of generator speed which is equal to 1750 rpm and = 30.277 rpm in this work. The value of

gearbox ratio in this work is 57.7996.

. . .

= . . .

= (10)

,

The equivalent circuit of GSC in the synchronous reference frame d-q axis is shown in Figure 5.

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The dynamic equations of GSC and filter are represented in state space model in d-q axis reference frame are given as in (11)

and (12):

1 1

= + + (11)

1 1

= + + (12)

Here subscript "g" means that the variables at the network GSC. Where and are resistance and inductance of the filter,

respectively. and are the GSC currents in d and q axis, respectively. and are the GSC voltages in d and q axis,

respectively.

2.5 Model of dc link capacitor

The equation which describes the energy balance of the dc link capacitor can be expressed in state space equation as in (13):

1 3

= = + (13)

2

Where is the capacitance of the dc link capacitor, is the voltage of the dc link capacitor , is the active power at GSC

and is the rotor power.

2.6 Model of RSC controller

In DFIG wind energy systems, the stator of the generator is directly connected to the grid, and its voltage and frequency can

be considered constant under the normal operating conditions. It is therefore, convenient to use stator voltage oriented control

(SVOC) for the DFIG [14]. The stator voltage oriented control is achieved by aligning the d-axis of the synchronous

reference frame with the stator voltage vector . The resultant d- and q-axis stator voltages are: = 0 and = . The PI

controllers are used for regulation in the rotor speed in outer control loop and the rotor current in inner control loop. Based on

SVO the stator flux in d and q axis can be described as = 0 and = , respectively. For outer control loop, According

to the electromagnetic torque generated by the machine which can be written in terms of flux linkages and currents is

given as in (14), it can be easily obtain as a function in so the result will be substituted in (5). Finally, , is

obtained as given in (16) and as shown in Figure 6. Where the term W . represents the output of PI controller of speed

regulator. Where the proportional gain is , and the integral gain is , . To get , it is important to get as a

function in as in (17) and the result will be substituted in (18). By putting = , = 0 in (18) it is easily to get ,

as given in (19).

= (14)

= (15)

,

, = , = , , , + (16)

= L (17)

= = (18)

1 2L

, = + , (19)

L 3

For inner control loop, accordingly, the rotor voltage equations can be expressed as in (20) and (21):

= + + (20)

= + + (21)

Where = ( ). Assuming that the output of rotor current PI controllers in d and q axis for current regulator are

. .

( + ) and ( + ) as in (22) and (23), respectively. Where the proportional gains of PI controllers are

, and , and the integral gains are , and , in d and q axis of current regulator, respectively. Where =

+ and = as shown in Figure 6.

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,

+ = , , + (22)

,

+ = , , + (23)

In DFIG wind energy systems, the GSC is controlled as shown in Figure 6 according to SVOC where the stator voltage

oriented control is achieved by aligning the d-axis of the synchronous reference frame with the stator voltage vector . The

resultant d- and q-axis stator voltages are: = 0 and = . The PI controllers are used for regulation in the dc link

voltage in outer control loop and the GSC current in inner control loop. For outer control loop, the dc link voltage is regulated

by using PI controller. Where the proportional gain and the integral gain of the dc voltage regulator are , and , ,

respectively. The output of PI controller ( . ) is used to get , . The active power exchanged between the grid and the

GSC is given as in (24):

3 3

= + = (24)

2 2

By neglecting the converter losses, the DC power has to be equal to the active power flowing between the grid and the GSC

as given in (25) and (26). Finally, , is obtained as given in (27). Also , is set to zero for GSC unity power factor.

3

= (25)

2

= (26)

Where is the current coming out from GSC towards dc link capacitor.

2 ,

, = , , + (27)

3

For inner control loop, accordingly, the GSC voltage equations can be expressed as in (28) and (29):

= + ( + ) (28)

= ( + ) (29)

Assuming that the output of PI controllers in d and q axis for GSC current regulator are given in (30) and (31). Where the

proportional gains of GSC PI controllers are , and , and the integral gains are , and , in d and q axis of

current regulator, respectively.

,

+ = , , + (30)

,

+ = , , + (31)

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Finally, the stator voltage vector angle is measured for GSC as shown in Figure 7 and the rotor position angle is

measured by an encoder mounted on the shaft of the generator for RSC. The slip angle for the reference frame

transformation can be obtained as the following ( = ) as shown in Figure 7.

The above model of DFIG is a nonlinear dynamic model because the coefficients of the equations are functions of the state

variables. So the whole model of DFIG needs to be linearized to get the stability of the system. From (1) (31), a set of state

equations are obtained to present the DFIG wind turbine system. The equations will be written in a matrix form as in (32).

= ( , ) (32)

where X and U are the vectors with respect to the state and the input variables. and U are defined as = [ , ,

, , r, , , ] and U=[ , , , , , ].

In this section the linearization of the whole model of DFIG model described by nonlinear differential equations is

performed. The procedure that will be used to linearize the equation system is based on Taylors series expansion [8]. The

first step is to calculate the equilibrium point. The equilibrium points are those points where all the derivatives are

simultaneously zero, and also the points which we are going to operate around with small variations. To find the equilibrium

point the equation below has to be solved.

= ( , )=0 (33)

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When the equilibrium points are calculated, the motion of the nonlinear system is in the neighborhood of the nominal system

trajectory, that is given in (34) and (35):

= + (34)

= + (35)

Where denotes small quantities. The previous discussion can be formalized using the Taylor series expansion, which

expresses the value of a function in terms of the value of that function at a particular point, the excursion away from that

point, and derivatives evaluated at that point. The Taylor series is given as in (36).

( ) ( )

( ) = ( )+ + + (36)

1! 2!

Neglecting the higher-order terms in (36), for small excursions of X from . The resulting approximation yields a straight-

line relationship between the change in ( ) and the excursions away from as given in (37).

( )

( ) ( ) (37)

1!

Where ( ) ( ) = ( ) .

3.1 Linearization of generator model

Then, the previous non linear state equations of fifth order differential equations that include mechanical and electrical

dynamics of generator model are linearized about an operating point, where the DFIG is connected to an infinite bus. so the

small-signal model of machine is represented as given in (38)-(42) :

=

+ +

+ +

+

+

(38)

= + + + (39)

= + + + (40)

= + + + + (41)

,

= + + (42)

Where , , , and are the initial values. The initial values are the steady state values at specified operating

point.

3.2 Linearization of wind turbine

It is important to obtain from (6) and (10). Therefore, it is required to linearize the equation of , as a function

in for constant wind in MPPT region where = 0 speed as given in (43).

( )

, ( )= ( )

(43)

,

Where T , = and = . The initial values are = 8.1 and = 0.48 .

The GSC and filter model are linearized as given in (44) and (45).

1

= + (44)

1

= + (45)

The dc link model is linearized as given in (46).

3

= + (46)

2

Where is initial value.

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The linearized equations (38)-(46) without controllers in matrix form as given in (47).

A A A A A A A A

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B11 B12 B13 B14

sd

A A A A A A A A

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 B21 B22 B23 B24

sq

A31 A32 A33 A34 A35 A36 A37 A38 rd B B B B rd

31 32 33 34

A A A A A A A A rq B B B B rq

= 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 + B41 B42 B43 B44 (47)

A A A A A A A A

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 r 51 52 53 54

A61 A62 A63 A64 A65 A66 A67 A68 B61 B62 B63 B64

A71 A72 A73 A74 A75 A76 A77 A78 B71 B72 B73 B74

A81 A82 A83 A84 A85 A86 A87 A88 B81 B82 B83 B84

Where the coefficients of the A matrix and B matrix can be found from the previous equations.

The equations of RSC controller from (16) to (23) are linearized as given in (48)-(50). For constant wind speed , will be

constant. Also, is constant so , will be constant.

, ,

= , + , + (48)

,

= , + , , + + ( ) (49)

= , , + ( ) (50)

The equations of GSC controller from (27) to (31) are linearized as given in (51)-(53). DFIG is connected to an infinite bus

and for constant wind speed where will be constant.

,

= 2 + , , + , (51)

,

= , , , (52)

= + , + , (53)

The overall linearized equations (38)-(53) with controllers in matrix form as given in (54).

A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A110 A111 A112 A113 A114

A21 A22 A23 A24 A25 A26 A27 A28 A29 A210 A211 A212 A213 A214

A31 A32 A33 A34 A35 A36 A37 A38 A39 A310 A311 A312 A313 A314

A41 A42 A43 A44 A45 A46 A47 A48 A49 A410 A411 A412 A413

A414

A A A A A A A A A A A A A513

A514

A51 A52 A53 A54 A55 A56 A57 A58 A59 A510 A511 A512 A613 A614

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 610 611 612

= A 71 A 72 A 73 A 74 A 75 A 76 A 77 A 78 A 79 A 710 A 711 A 712 A713 A714 (54)

A81 A82 A83 A84 A85 A86 A87 A88 A89 A810 A811 A812 A813 A814

, A91 A92 A93 A94 A95 A96 A97 A98 A99 A910 A911 A912 A913 A914 ,

A101 A102 A103 A104 A105 A106 A107 A108 A109 A1010 A1011 A1012 A1013 A1014

A111 A112 A113 A114 A115 A116 A117 A118 A119 A1110 A1111 A1112 A1113 A1114

A121 A122 A123 A124 A125 A126 A127 A128 A129 A1210 A1211 A1212 A1213 A1214

, ,

A131 A132 A133 A134 A135 A136 A137 A138 A139 A1310 A1311 A1312 A1313 A1314

A A1414

141 A142 A143 A144 A145 A146 A147 A148 A149 A1410 A1411 A1412 A1413

Where the coefficients of the A matrix for the whole system can be found from the previous equations.

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4. DESIGN OF PI CONTROLLER FOR RSC AND GSC

The output signal of a PI controller can be obtained by using (55):

= + (55)

Where e is the error signal. and are the proportional gain and integral gain, respectively. There are some methods that

can be used to determine the system parameters that can keep the whole system in the stable region. One of the methods is by

using Butterworth polynomial to optimize the closed loop eigen value locations [15]. The Butterworth method locates the

eigen values uniformly in the left-half s-plane on a circle with radius , with its center at the origin as shown in Figure 8.

The Butterworth polynomial for a transfer function with a second order denominator is given as in (56):

+ 2 + =0 (56)

Where = . The PI parameters are determined by comparing the coefficients in (56) with the denominators of the

corresponding transfer functions and then choosing appropriate . Where is the bandwidth of the controller, which

depends upon the design value. The values of the parameters of each PI controller used in controlling of DFIG are shown in

Table 1. Noting that the values of each PI controllers are obtained for generator parameters mentioned in Table 3.

314.1593 rad/sec

Speed regulator , 7.99

, 1.77

Current regulator in d-axis , 0.129

RSC , 29.348

Current regulator in q-axis , 0.129

, 29.348

DC voltage regulator , 39.986

, 888.264

Current regulator in d-axis , 0.887

GSC

, 197.39

Current regulator in q-axis , 0.887

, 197.39

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5. STATE SPACE REPRESENTATION AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF

THE OVERALL MODEL OF DFIG

The state space representation of the overall system and the small signal stability analysis are applied for DFIG connected to

the infinite bus where the infinite bus is considered as voltage source of constant voltage and constant frequency. The small

signal stability is the ability of the power system to remain in synchronism under small disturbances. Small signal stability

analysis for the power system determines the properties of operation of the system due to small disturbance in the system.

This is done by getting the eigen values of the system for a small change. In this paper each state of the system is perturbed

by a small increment near from operating point according to wind speed. Taking into consideration that d-q components for

the stator voltage and flux in SVO frame for DFIG are given : = , = 0 and = 0, = . The state variable

X can be defined for DFIG as: = [ , , , , r , , , , , , , , , , , ]

.The states of DFIG model in this paper are fourteen states. Equations (38)-(42) are used for describing the electrical and

mechanical dynamics of DFIG generator. Equation (43) is used for getting wind turbine mechanical torque. Equations (44)

and (45) are used for obtaining the GSC and filter model. Equation (46) is used to get the dc link model. Equations (48)-(50)

are used for RSC controller. Equations (51)-(53) are used for GSC controller.

STABILITY

The wind turbine and DFIG parameters used here are shown in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. In this paper the effect of

changing the generator parameters on stability is studied. Where the values of the generator parameters will be changed,

therefore the stability will be changed too. In this paper the generator parameters such as , , , and will be

changed independently under constant wind speed V _ = 12 m/sec. Where and are responsible for temperature and

power losses, Also, and are responsible for leakage flux and is responsible for saturation flux. The relation between

the increasing or decreasing of these parameters independently around the parameters mentioned in Table 3 and the stability

are studied. Finally, the preferred ranges of values of the generator parameters are studied for the stability of the system.

Parameter Symbol Value and Units

Air density 1.225 Kg/m

Rotor radius R 30.6567 m

Number of blades N 3

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Table 3: DFIG Parameters

Rated Mechanical Power 1.5 MW

Rated Stator Line-to-line Voltage 690 V (rms)

Rated Stator Frequency 50 Hz

Rated Rotor Speed 1750 rpm

Number of Pole Pairs 2

Rated Mechanical Torque 8.185 kN-m

Stator Winding Resistance, Rs 2.65 m

Rotor Winding Resistance, Rr 2.63 m

Stator Leakage Inductance, L 0.1687 mH

Rotor Leakage Inductance, L 0.1337 mH

Magnetizing Inductance, Lm 5.4749 mH

Shaft inertia 20 Kg. m

DC link voltage 1600 V

DC link capacitor 90 mF

Table 4 gives the eigen values of the fourteenth order model of the whole system using DFIG for different values of the stator

resistance , where a complex pair of eigen values can then be written as = . Where represents the real

component of the eigen value giving the damping of the oscillation and is the imaginary part giving the oscillation's

frequency. From Table 4 it is clear that the system for values of between 2.65 10 and 2.65 10 is stable due to

< 0 for locating the eigen values in the left half plane. For more values of greater than 2.65 10 the system will be

unstable. For smaller values of than 2.65 10 the system will be also stable. Also, the real frequency and the

damping ratio are obtained as shown in Table 4. Where = /(2 ) and = / + .

Table 5 shows different values of rotor resistance and corresponding eigen values of DFIG. When the value of rotor

resistance is changed to 4 and 2.63 10 , the proportional gain of , = , will be only changed to -3.8679 and

0.1318, respectively. From Table 5 it is clear that the system for values of between 4 and 2.63 10 is stable due to

< 0 for locating the eigen values in the left half plane. For more values of greater than 4 the system will be unstable.

For smaller values of than 2.63 10 the system will be also stable. Also, the real frequency and the damping ratio

are obtained as shown in Table 5.

Table 6 illustrates different values of magnetizing inductance and corresponding eigen values of DFIG. From Table 6 it is

clear that the system for values of between 2.04749 10 H and 5.4749 10 H is stable due to < 0 for locating

the eigen values in the left half plane. For more values of greater than 2.04749 10 H the system will be unstable. For

smaller values of than 5.4749 10 H the system will be also stable. Also, the real frequency and the damping ratio

are obtained as shown in Table 6.

Table 7 depicts different values of stator self inductance and corresponding eigen values of DFIG. From Table 7 it is clear

that the system for values of between 0.0223 H and 0.0055 H is stable due to < 0 for locating the eigen values in the

left half plane. For more values of greater than 0.0223 H the system will be unstable. For smaller values of than

0.0055 H the system will be also stable. Also, the real frequency and the damping ratio are obtained as shown in Table 7.

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6.5 Effect of varying rotor inductance on stability

Table 8 gives different values of rotor self inductance and corresponding eigen values of DFIG. When the value of rotor self

inductance is changed to 0.1392 H and 0.0055 H, the integral gain of , = , will be only changed to 1.3212 10

and 17.4719, respectively. From Table 8 it is clear the system for values of between 0.1392 H and 0.0055 H is stable due

to < 0 for locating the eigen values in the left half plane. For more values of greater than 0.1392 H the system will be

unstable. For smaller values of than 0.0055 H the system will be also stable. Also, the real frequency and the damping

ratio are obtained as shown in Table 8.

R = 2.65 10 R = 2.65 10 R = 2.65 10

-0.0148 285.14 45.38 0.0001 -0.3463 310.70 49.45 0.0011 -0.0401 313.80 49.94 0.0001

-0.0148 -285.14 -45.38 0.0001 -0.3463 -310.70 -49.45 0.0011 -0.0401 -313.80 -49.94 0.0001

-287.35 213.16 33.92 0.8032 -199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333 -199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333

-287.35 -213.16 -33.92 0.8032 -199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333

-199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333 -225.18 221.94 35.32 0.7122 -218.95 225.40 35.87 0.6968

-199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333 -225.18 -221.94 -35.32 0.7122 -218.95 -225.40 -35.87 0.6968

-241.38 184.40 29.34 0.7946 -223.94 222.26 35.37 0.7098 -222.55 221.97 35.32 0.7080

-241.38 -184.40 -29.34 0.7946 -223.94 -222.26 -35.37 0.7098 -222.55 -221.97 -35.32 0.7080

-22.24 21.97 3.49 0.7113 -22.24 21.97 3.49 0.7113 -22.24 21.97 3.49 0.7113

-22.24 -21.97 -3.49 0.7113 -22.24 -21.97 -3.49 0.7113 -22.24 -21.97 -3.49 0.7113

-1.72 0 0 1.0000 -0.2823 0 0 1.0000 -0.5165 0 0 1.0000

-0.12 0 0 1.0000 -0.7097 0 0 1.0000 -0.3829 0 0 1.0000

-222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071

-222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071

R = 4 R = 2.63 10 R = 2.63 10

-443.15 0 0 1.000 -0.3463 310.70 49.45 0.0011 -0.3451 310.70 49.45 0.0011

-1.673 311.71 49.61 0.0054 -0.3463 -310.70 -49.45 0.0011 -0.3451 -310.70 -49.45 0.0011

-1.673 -311.71 -49.61 0.0054 -199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333 -199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333

-199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333

-199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333 -225.18 221.94 35.32 0.7122 -225.09 221.76 35.29 0.7124

-226.37 220.32 35.06 0.7166 -225.18 -221.94 -35.32 0.7122 -225.09 -221.76 -35.29 0.7124

-226.37 -220.32 -35.06 0.7166 -223.94 222.26 35.37 0.7098 -224.03 222.58 35.42 0.7094

-22.24 21.97 3.4981 0.7113 -223.94 -222.26 -35.37 0.7098 -224.03 -222.58 -35.42 0.7094

-22.24 -21.97 -3.4981 0.7113 -22.24 21.97 3.49 0.7113 -22.24 21.979 3.498 0.7113

-0.247 14.68 2.3371 0.0168 -22.24 -21.97 -3.49 0.7113 -22.24 -21.979 -3.498 0.7113

-0.247 -14.68 -2.3371 0.0168 -0.2823 0 0 1.0000 -0.7091 0 0 1.0000

-0.2077 0 0 1.000 -0.7097 0 0 1.0000 -0.2824 0 0 1.0000

-222.14 222.14 35.355 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071

-222.14 -222.14 -35.355 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071

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Table 6: Eigen values of DFIG for different values of L

L = 2.04749 10 H L = 5.4749 10 H L = 5.4749 10 H

-0.0043 310.607 49.4347 0.0000 -0.3463 310.70 49.45 0.0011 -3.599 311.638 49.598 0.0116

-0.0043 -310.60 -49.434 0.0000 -0.3463 -310.70 -49.45 0.0011 -3.599 -311.63 -49.59 0.0116

-199.90 244.270 38.876 0.6333 -199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333 -199.90 244.270 38.8768 0.6333

-199.90 -244.27 -38.876 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.876 0.6333

-225.33 222.195 35.363 0.7120 -225.18 221.94 35.32 0.7122 -224.64 221.419 35.240 0.7122

-225.33 -222.19 -35.363 0.7120 -225.18 -221.94 -35.32 0.7122 -224.64 -221.41 -35.240 0.7122

-224.07 221.891 35.3151 0.7106 -223.94 222.26 35.37 0.7098 -221.97 223.896 35.6343 0.7041

-224.07 -221.89 -35.315 0.7106 -223.94 -222.26 -35.37 0.7098 -221.97 -223.89 -35.634 0.7041

-22.24 21.979 3.4981 0.7113 -22.24 21.97 3.49 0.7113 -22.24 21.9792 3.4981 0.7113

-22.24 -21.979 -3.4981 0.7113 -22.24 -21.97 -3.49 0.7113 -22.24 -21.979 -3.4981 0.7113

-0.7097 0 0 1.0000 -0.2823 0 0 1.0000 -0.7085 0 0 1.0000

-0.2822 0 0 1.0000 -0.7097 0 0 1.0000 -0.2828 0 0 1.0000

-222.14 222.14 35.3553 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071 -222.14 222.144 35.3553 0.7071

-222.14 -222.14 -35.355 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.355 0.7071

L = 0.0223 H L = 0.0056 H L = 0.0055 H

-0.0932 314.123 49.9944 0.0003 -0.3463 310.70 49.45 0.0011 -0.1464 307.138 48.882 0.0005

-0.0932 -314.12 -49.994 0.0003 -0.3463 -310.70 -49.45 0.0011 -0.1464 -307.13 -48.882 0.0005

-199.90 244.27 38.8768 0.6333 -199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333 -199.90 244.27 38.8768 0.6333

-199.90 -244.27 -38.876 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.876 0.6333

-22.24 21.979 3.4981 0.7113 -225.18 221.94 35.32 0.7122 -232.68 222.941 35.4822 0.7221

-22.24 -21.979 -3.4981 0.7113 -225.18 -221.94 -35.32 0.7122 -232.68 -222.94 -35.482 0.7221

-0.7090 0 0 1.000 -223.94 222.26 35.37 0.7098 -225.76 216.88 34.5189 0.7211

-0.2823 0 0 1.000 -223.94 -222.26 -35.37 0.7098 -225.76 -216.88 -34.518 0.7211

-218.52 225.749 35.9292 0.6955 -22.24 21.97 3.49 0.7113 -22.24 21.9792 3.4981 0.7113

-218.52 -225.74 -35.929 0.6955 -22.24 -21.97 -3.49 0.7113 -22.24 -21.97 -3.4981 0.7113

-222.16 222.136 35.3541 0.7071 -0.2823 0 0 1.0000 -0.7105 0 0 1.000

-222.16 -222.13 -35.354 0.7071 -0.7097 0 0 1.0000 -0.2821 0 0 1.000

-222.14 222.14 35.3553 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071 -222.14 222.144 35.3553 0.7071

-222.14 -222.14 -35.355 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.355 0.7071

L = 0.1392 H L = 0.0056 H L = 0.0055 H

-0.4472 314.127 49.9949 0.0014 -0.3463 310.70 49.45 0.0011 -0.2248 308.455 49.092 0.0007

-0.4472 -314.12 -49.994 0.0014 -0.3463 -310.70 -49.45 0.0011 -0.2248 -308.45 -49.092 0.0007

-199.90 244.27 38.8768 0.6333 -199.90 244.27 38.87 0.6333 -199.90 244.27 38.876 0.6333

-199.90 -244.27 -38.876 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.87 0.6333 -199.90 -244.27 -38.876 0.6333

-22.24 21.9792 3.4981 0.7113 -225.18 221.94 35.32 0.7122 -230.01 222.975 35.487 0.7180

-22.24 -21.979 -3.4981 0.7113 -225.18 -221.94 -35.32 0.7122 -230.01 -222.97 -35.487 0.7180

-0.709 0 0 1.000 -223.94 222.26 35.37 0.7098 -224.93 218.529 34.780 0.7172

-0.2824 0 0 1.0000 -223.94 -222.26 -35.37 0.7098 -224.93 -218.52 -34.78 0.7172

-218.51 225.7659 35.9318 0.6955 -22.24 21.97 3.49 0.7113 -22.24 21.9792 3.498 0.7113

-218.51 -225.765 -35.931 0.6955 -22.24 -21.97 -3.49 0.7113 -22.24 -21.979 -3.498 0.7113

-222.15 222.1403 35.3547 0.7071 -0.2823 0 0 1.0000 -0.71 0 0 1.0000

-222.15 -222.14 -35.354 0.7071 -0.7097 0 0 1.0000 -0.2822 0 0 1.0000

-222.14 222.144 35.3553 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.35 0.7071 -222.14 222.14 35.355 0.7071

-222.14 -222.14 -35.355 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.35 0.7071 -222.14 -222.14 -35.355 0.7071

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Table 9 shows the range of the generators parameters if the values of the parameters are increased than the maximum value

the system will be unstable and also it is preferred to not decrease the parameter values so much than the minimum value for

better results.

Generator Max Min

parameters

R ( ) 2.65 10 2.65 10

R ( ) 4 2.63 10

L ( ) 2.04749 10 5.4749 10

L ( ) 2.23 10 5.5 10

L ( ) 13.92 10 5.5 10

7. CONCLUSION

In this paper, an overall nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of DFIG wind turbine with time-varying parameters has been

established based on WECS principle. The Taylor series expansion is used for linearization the nonlinear equations of DFIG

wind turbine to facilitate its dynamic characteristics studying. A dynamic model of an infinite power system connected to a

DFIG wind turbine of fourteenth order has been introduced by using the eigen value analysis. The overall dynamic system of

the DFIG wind turbine with controllers is used for improving the power system stability. The equations for a small signal

stability analysis for the generator has been developed. The influence of generator parameters on the system dynamic stability

has been investigated for mentioned cases under constant wind speed. As the value of the generator parameters change, the

stability also will change. The preferred ranges of the generator parameters values for the system stability are concluded in

this work. For stator and rotor resistances value smaller than or equal to the maximum value recorded in Table 9 the system

will be stable and the system efficiency will increase. Also, for stator and rotor self inductances value smaller than or equal to

the maximum value recorded in Table 9 the system will be stable. The results show that the system with proposed controllers

is stable for values in preferred ranges.

References

[1] H. Camblonga, I. Martinez de Alegriab, M. Rodriguezc, and G. Abadc, Experimental evaluation of wind turbines

maximum power point tracking controllers, Energy Convers Manage. Vol.47, No 18-19, 2006, pp. 28462858.

[2] A. Grauers, Efficiency of three wind energy generator system, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 11, pp. 650657,

1996.

[3] R. Pena, J. C. Clear, and G. M. Asher, Doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters and its

application to variable speed wind energy generation, IEE Proc. Elec. Power Appl., vol. 143, pp. 231241, 1996.

[4] F.Mei and B. C. Pal, Modal analysis of grid-connected doubly fed induction generators, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers,

vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 728736, Sep. 2007.

[5] G. Tsourakis, B. M. Nomikos, and C. D. Vournas, Effect of wind parks with doubly fed asynchronous generators on

small-signal stability, Electr Power Syst. Res., vol. 79, pp. 190200, 2009.

[6] Tapia, G. Santamaria, G. Telleria, M. and Susperregui, A., "Methodology for smooth connection of doubly fed

induction generators to the grid", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2009, 24, 959-971.

[7] Petersson, A., Analysis, modeling and control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generators for wind turbines, PhD thesis,

Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden, 2005.

[8] G. Franklin J.D. Powell and A. Emami Naeini , Feedback control of dynamic systems; 5th Edition, Hardcover, 2005.

[9] Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff, Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, IEEE Press, Wiley-

Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2002.

[10] E. Hau, Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics, 2nd edition, Springer, 2005.

[11] Grisales, L. T., Lemus, C. G., and Sergio, S., Overall Description of Wind Power Systems, in ing. Cienc enero-junio.,

Vol. 10, pp. 99126,2014.

[12] Thongam, J. S. and Ouhrouche, M. , MPPT Control Methods in Wind Energy Conversion Systems, in Intech open,

Vol 15, pp. 339-360, June 2011.

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Volume 5, Issue 9, September 2017 ISSN 2321-5984

[13] Zhe, C., et al., "A Review of the State of the Art of Power Electronics for Wind Turbines," IEEE Transactions on Power

Electronics, Vol. 24, pp. 1859-1875, 2009.

[14] S. Mller, M. Deicke, and R. W. De Doncker, Doubly Fed Induction Generator Systems for Wind Turbines, IEEE

Industry Applications Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 3, 26-33, 2.

[15] Gan Dong, Sensorless and Efficiency Optimized Induction Machine Control with Associated Converter PWM

Modulation Schemes," Ph.D. dissertation, Tennessee Technological University, Dec. 2005.

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