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Disc Contents IPA, 2006 - 4th Annual Convention Proceedings, 1975

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PROCEEDINGS INDONESlAN PETROLEUM AsSOCIATlON 41
Fourth Annual Convention, June 1975
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THE HANDIL OIL FIELD IN EAST MALIMANTAN

Ph. MAGNIER * )
BEN SAMSU **)

I. INTRODUCTION The exit of these rivers towards the sea is


restricted by numerous sand bars which
The exploration for hydrocarbons was ini-
are formed by the sediments brought
tiated in East Kalimantan as early as 1895.
down b y t h e rivers themselves but moved
Although many geological and geophysical
backward (upstream) a t each e b b tide
teams worked in this area for more than
when the sea changes the flow direction in
7 0 years, t h e Handil oil field located un-
the river mouth. The only navigable passage
der t h e Mahakam delta escaped detection.
has been, and will have t o be, kept open b y
It was only in Sept. 1973 that a modern
nearly continous dredging.
quality seismic survey was run over the
delta area and discovered the anticline fea- The rivers have an average water depth of
ture of Handil. The first well was drilled 7-10 meters with a maximum of 15 me-
in March-April 1974: it indicated a con- ters. The outer part of the river mouth,
siderable thickness of hydrocarbon bearing however, shoals to as little as 1 or 2
sands that 9 wells to date have better meters of water which represents a very
defined. serious navigation hazard.
The report given here is the work of a The islands i ~ ?the Handil area ( P u l a La-
team of cxploratioilists all ot which in truth yangan, Jawa, Bukuan) (Fig. 2) are low
should be cited as co-authors of this pa- and swampy. Every tide they are covered
par: we thank all for their efforts and b y water leaving nearly n o dry place at
especially Messrs. Bzrthon. Elie, Gerard, high tide. The vegetation is mostly Nipa-
Craniez, Lavieuville, Ledeuil, Oesterle, Nipa palm trees up t o 12 meters high
Roux and Bourdaire. with limited areas of mangrove and taller
We also thank Pertamina for their permis- trees. This very particular type of ground
sion to present these data. Total Indonesie conditions made necessary t h e use of off-
and Japex Indonesie gave their support in shore techniques for drilling.
the preparation of this report.
3. SElSMIC STUDIES
2. PHYSIOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION
The early seismic shrveys undertaken in
The Hand1 area now located In the 1969-70 gave very poor results as fIuvlal
Soth Mdhakam river (Fig I ) an techniques were followed: unconsolidated
area where the normal external intertidal sediments are at a maximum in the rivers
meandering river system has been obli- and so most of the seismic energy was
terated b y the Of the main Maha-
absorbed precluding any slgnlficallt reflec-
kam river whose seaward exit is moreover
tions
deviated southwaids by the general North
to South marine offshore current The In 1973 a neui method was tried usiiig
Handil structure is exactly on t h e present drilling, explosives and general on-shore
indin channel of the Mahakam river, thus techniques with brldgings higher than the
explaining why it maintams a hnear flow
direction as compared t o the pronounced *) Total Indonene, Jakarta
meandering elsewhere in the delta **) Pertamina Unit Iv, Bdlikpapw
P
I TOTAL INDONESJE
- N

SIDE LOOKING RADAR IMAGERY OVER THE MAHAKAM DELTA


Fig. 1
43
44

high tides. The lines were located to avoid 4. SEDIMENTOLOCY IN THE HANDIL
the rivers as much as possible, and to AREA (Fig.7)
cross them perpendicularly. The example An overal view of the sedimentation in
line shown in Fig.5 indicates that the ri-
the Handil area since the Middle Miocene
ver crossing does not detract from the
time has been reconstructed. by means of
quality of the sections below 0.5 secs. paleo-environmental interpretation of t h e
A total of 178 k m of line was shot in 12 drilling samples and their correlation with
fold coverage with a short intertrace of field samples collected in the recent delta
60 m. The explosive shots were tnostly 5 (surface- studies). Most of the microfossils
kg loads set at 20 m depth. found have only a value for environment
After completion of the interpretation, an and are not usable for chronostratigraphy.
isobath map was prepared (Fi.g.3). The ve- From the base upwards the well sections
locity function is rather steady around indicate the following situations:
an average velocity of 2495 m/s down to a Lower to Middle Miocene pro-delta
2 sec. 2 w.t. This should he compared t o sequence, indicated by AmmOnid and
an average of 2280 m/s over the same dated by nannoplankton (&low 2600
reflection time in the outer trend of Re-
n1);
kapai/Tj. Bayor/Attaka where the. sedi-
ments are far less consolidated. progression of the delta is indicated
such that t h e Handil area became lo-
An isopach map (Fig. 4) of the section cated in t h e delta front zone of sedi-
between two markers located at the top ments, in the outer part of the delta
and at the base of the hydrocarbon bear- (2300 to 2600 in);
ing sands indicates a thinning of the sedi-
ments over the axis of the Handil anti- - further progression of t h e delta east-
cline. This is very likely indicative of very w a r d , l e d t o tidal deltaic plain
early structural growth, active at the time sediments being predominant (Middle
of reservoir deposition. This same thinning to Upper Miocene) from 1400 to 2300
may be traced along t h e structural axis m;
j o i n i n g H a n d i l - T a m b o r a - N ilam-Badak- continued progression of t h e . delta
Panyilatan. placed the Handil area in t h e . fluvial
The structural form of the Handil feature deltaic plan (late Miocene t o Pliocene)
is that of a regular anticline of 10,s km from 200 t o 1400 m;
length x 4 kni width. The closed area is a recent retreat of t h e delta is evi-
35 km2, the vertical closure from seismic denced by some marine indicators
is 250 nis 2 w.t. o r 310 meters, which being found in the upper 200 meters,
compares rather well with the vertical clo- including typical Mio Pliocene marine
sure from the well data which is 240 m microfauna (Pseudorotalia catilliformis).
at the top of the hydrocarbon zone and
350 m at the base of it. Most of t h e hydrocarbons have been
A seismic section through the Handil anti- found in the tidal deltaic plain sediments,
cline is shown on Fig.5. It indicates that now between 1400 and 2300 m.
the feature is present in the most recent
beds, although, as already stated, it was A generalized block diagram o f the delta
already growing a t the time of reservoir (Fig.8) shows the repartition of these dif-
deposition (isopach map Fig. 4). ferent facies and may help t o explain t h e
Regionally (Fig.6) the Handil feature different types of sand bodies encountered
forms the southern extension of the Ba- in the different environments.
dak/Panyilatan, Nilam, Tambora trend,
5. RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION
This N S axis runs parallel t o the Attaka/
Bekapai trend, and also parallel t o the The hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs have
Sanga-Sanga anticline. been the most carefully studied.
45

_ _
Figure 3
46

Figure
47

-1 Km

Fig. 5
48
TOTAL INDBNESIE
117'20 117O40
I 1

-0
4
C

C
-0
0,

t17920 117040

MRHAKAM DElTR - SlRUCTURRl MAP


Fig. 6
49

TOTAL INDONESIE

STRATIG R A P H I C I N T E R PR E TAT 10N

ssw NNE

No.2 ~ 0 . 1~ 0 . 6 No 3
W-IL FIELD LOCATION MAP J PJawd P Layanpan PSukuan PLayangan

MSL 1 Om

P I I O / P I ElSTOcENE
MIO/PL I O C E N E
4 INOElERMINATE
~

500m

lO00rn

1500m

h INOETE~MINA~E
MlDOlE MIOCENE

2000

2500m

3000m

SIAP OF MODERN ENVIRONMENTS(

Figure 7
I u I AL IIYUUNtblt

KAM DELTA
SEDIMENTARY UNITS

Vegetation areas

Sands

Limestone

_ _ Shale

Figure 8
51

The sedimentation is known from sand thickness and sediment transport derived
granulonietries of cutting samples, cores in from the high density dipmeter.
sand reservoirs, continous high density dip- T o date 5 8 different reservoirs have been
meter results and their cwrelation wlth
complled on 5 8 maps which have been
Gamma Ray and resistivity curves.
used for reserve calculations. A correlation
The reservoirs in the 1800-2200 m inter- plate (Fig. 12) indicates the very rapid
val are mostly formed of river transported changes in the reservoirs, most of them
sands. The thickness of these sand bodies being meandering sand channels which may
is of t h e same order of magnitude as the disappear laterally in a few hundred meters.
river depth, as may be seen o n the block Most of these channel deposited sand bodies,
diagram of typical river deposition (Fig. have been found to be 5 0 0 m t o 2 km wide,
9): this type of channel sand has coarse and of unlimited length in the river direction.
grained basal sediments decreasing in sedi- The maximum thickness of these sand bodies
mentary dip and in grain size towards the is most often 15--20 rn, n value of the same
t o p of the sand body. These characters magnitude as the river water depth: this
have been proven in micro-dipmeter, gra- is shown on the river sand deposition block
nulometry and shaliness studies. diagrdm. (Fig. 9)

6. RESERVOIR CORRELATION 7. orL AND GAS DISTRIBUTION AND


I t is not possible to correlate the reser- FILL
voirs themselves over any distance as they The first well drilled on the Handil fea-
are very variable and can diminish (from ture was located on the top of the anti-
2 0 to 0 m) in less than 500 meters (evi- cline. I t indicated 197 m of gas bearing
dence from directional wells in the cluster sands and 55 m of oil bearing sands. The
HA). Correlation must be carried out delineation wells indicated a down flank
using those shaly, limey or lignitic mar- increase in oil sand thickness of up t o
kers that may be found: these markers 120 meters, correlated with a decrease in
appear t o be very reliable and about 30 gas sands (mostly gas-caps). The cu-
such markers have been identified and mulative hydrocarbon bearing sand thick-
traced without difficulty through oat ness decreases from 2 5 0 m at the t o p of
the whole Handil area. Between these mar- the anticline t o zero a t the structural clo-
kers, the sand bodies can be intrapolated sure (well Handil '7). The Handil anticline
and then may be accurately correlated. is filled virtually t o spill point.
The reconstitution of the t o p and bottom The curves of oil and gas versus structural
reservoir isobaths has been made possible position indicate this rather clearly (Fig.
b y reference to the closest markers avai- 13).
lable: this method, formerly utilised by D.
Bush and other stratigraphers in the Gulf 8. QUALITY OF THE OIL FOLJND IN
coast province, has also provided t h e data HANDIL
for the identification of the nature of the
sand bodies. The (20-3) reservoir docu- Although slightly variable, t h e Handil oil
mented in figs. 1 0 & 11, clearly possesses has t h e following characteristics:
a flat top and an incutting "channel shaped"
Gravity : 0,846 to 0,872
bottom which, together with granulometry
31" t o 36" API
on core and cuttings, leads to its identifi-
Sulfur content : 0,06%
cation as a typical channel sand.
Pour point : - 1" C t o + 30 C
Each hydrocarbon bearing reservoir in the with an average 25' C
field, has now been separately mapped
based on its general character (channel,
offshore bar, stream-mouth b a r . . . . .etc) It is an aromatic/naphthenic type crude in
and indications for direction of increasing the light fractions. The paraffin content is
52
53

N
a

iiii
z!
0
a
Y

\ I

I \
I
I
54
55

H.2
TOTAL INDONESIE
H.5
HANDIL
H.l H.6 H 3 H.7

F i g 12
CORRELATION B E T W E E N HYDROCARBON B E A R I N G R E S E R V O I R S
56

HANOI1 FIELD
THICKNESS HYDROCARBON INTERVALS RELATED
TO STRUCTURAL POSITION

Figure 13
51

WATER

THICKNESS IN
METERS

H 7 /
I
Qc (0)
58

I CUMULATlVE TH ICKNESS(meten
59

In
0

0
60

HANDIL DEVELQPMEM
SCHEME
Wells already drilled
0 Wells on development program

0 I 2 krn
4 1 1

IFIG.16
61

important in the heavier fractions. These t o t h e S e n i p a h onshore' terminal


characteristics indicate that the Handil located 1 3 kms SW of Handil dua. This
crude I S a very valuable base for petro- terminal will be connected with off-
chemicals. The oil from the topmost levels shore loading facilities utilising an
is lighter and has the lowest pour point. S.B.M.
- Some 30 to 50 more wells will be
9. PRODUCTION SCHEME (map on Fig. 16) needed in the following years in order
t o produce the total amount of reco-
- The early stage of production (phase 1) verable oil now held in the 48 oil
will start in June 75 with a planned bearing -reservoirs. Total production rates
daily production of 25.000 b/d from a could slightly increase but it is more
cluster of 4 wells; H6, HA-1, HA-2, likely that the new reservoirs will be
HA-3. F o r floating storage the tanker tapped so as to replace t h e depletion
"Wapiti" will be used and anchored of the first reservoirs put into producti-
near the Bekapai field. on.
- The second phase of production will
start in October 1976 with a daily pro-
duction of 100 t o 120.000 b/d from 10. CONCLUSION
30 vertical wells drilled along the banks With a potential OF 120 t o 150.000 b/d
of the 2 main rivers and gathered at a the Handil field is seemingly one of the
primary separation unit within the biggest single offshore oil fields found in
field. A trunck line will move the oil Indonesia to date.